Computers10 Ch5


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Computers10 Ch5

  1. 1. Chapter 5 B.M.H Input and Output
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Computer Screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonimpact printer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice output </li></ul><ul><li>Music output and other sounds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Computer system Input Processing Output Secondary Storage
  4. 4. Output: information for the user <ul><li>Computer output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>printer output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>various form of graphics output </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Computer Screen <ul><li>Monitor components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the housing for its electrical components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a stand that can be tilted or swiveled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a screen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screen output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known in the computer industry as soft copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intangible and temporary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Hard copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output by printer on paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible, permanent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Computer Screen <ul><li>Types of screen technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C athode R ay T ube (CRT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most common kind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L iquid C rystal D isplay (LCD) </li></ul></ul>Eletric beam Eletric gun Displayer Red,Green,Blue
  7. 7. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) <ul><li>Types according to color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most CRTs are color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are monochrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only one color, usually green or amber (yellowish-brown color) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive than those with color </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. CRT <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called raster scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A process of sweeping electron beams across the back of the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The backing of the screen display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a phosphorous coating that glows whenever it is hit by a beam of electron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The phosphorous does not glow for very long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The image must be refreshed often </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CRT <ul><li> Phosphorous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: (Symbol P) a chemical element found in several different forms, including as a poisonous, pale yellow substance that shines in the dark and starts to burn as soon as it is placed in air </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Electron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: a very small piece of MATTER (= a substance) with a negative electric CHARGE, found in all atoms </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. CRT <ul><li>Scan rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of times the electron beam refreshed the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80 to 100 times per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate to retain a clear screen image </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. CRT <ul><li>Has hundreds of horizontal lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scanned for left to right and from top to bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlaced fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The odd-numbered lines on one pass of the electron beam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And then the even-numbered lines on the next pass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- a lower refresh rate without producing flicker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Inexpensive monitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- with text and fixed graphics displays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninterlaced (NI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All lines are scanned on each pass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- With animated graphics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Computer Screen <ul><li>Is divided into dots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called addressable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they can be addressed individually by the graphics SW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each dot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as a pic ture el ement, or pixel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dot pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the amount of space between the dots </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ( )
  14. 14. Computer Screen <ul><li>The Resolution of the screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the power of a computer screen to give a clear image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the number of pixels on the screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more pixels, the higher the resolution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dot pitch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The smaller the dot pitch, the better the quality of the screen image </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Computer Screen <ul><li>Chips affixed to the motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert the electrical output signals of the control unit into the signals that control the monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To upgrade the graphics capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most used graphics card , or graphics adapter board, plugged into a expansion slot </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Graphic Standards <ul><li>The intention of standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To agree on resolutions, colors and so forth to make it easier for the manufacturers of PCs, monitors, graphics boards to ensure that their products work together </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Graphic Standards <ul><li>CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>320(horizontal)x200(vetrical) pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>640x350 pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VGA (Video Graphics Array) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>640x480 pixels </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Graphic Standards <ul><li>The standards in most common use today </li></ul><ul><li>SVGA (Super VGA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide different resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>800(h)x600(v), 1024x768, 1280x1024, 1600x1200 pixels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support a palette of 16million colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But simultaneous colors which can be displayed is limited by the amount of video memory installed in a system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XGA (eXtended Graphics Array) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-resolution graphics standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The same resolution but more simultaneous color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows to be noninterlaced </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Computer Screen <ul><li>Screen sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured diagonally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-or 17-inch screen : a typical office worker handling word processing and spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> 1 inch = 2.54 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19-inch screen : a user involved with high-powered graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bigger is usually better, more expensive </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) <ul><li>Flat-Panel Screens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used on laptop computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active-matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on TFT (thin-film transistor technology) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brighter image </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be viewed from wider angles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive-matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer transistor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cheaper, less power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy on the eyes; not flicker, brightly shine on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher price than CRT </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Printer <ul><li>A device that produces information on paper output </li></ul><ul><li>Two orientation settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Orientation : the direction in which an object faces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrait mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Default setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printed in a vertical alignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suited for graphics images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sideway or horizontally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for spreadsheets that have a lot of data across the sheet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Printer <ul><li>Two ways of printing an image on paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses some sort of physical contact with paper to produce a image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line printers : mainframe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dot-matrix printers : PC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonimpact printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Places an image on a page without physically touching the page </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laser printers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ink-jet printers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Printer <ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dpi : Dots Per Inch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>600 ~ 1200 dpi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ppm : Pages Per Minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 ~ 10ppm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Impact printer 24x24, 10x10 Dot matrix
  25. 28. Laser printers <ul><li>Use a light beam to help transfer images to paper </li></ul><ul><li>High-quality results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, print 600 or 1200 dpi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print a page at a time at impressive speeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing speeds of personal laser printers : around 8 to 10 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network printer : 35 and 50 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banks and insurance use 1000ppm </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Data from computer->positive charged drum is neutralized ->Toner sticked during passing by Toner -> Toner transferred to the paper ->heat and pressure fuse the Toner to the paper -> clean drum
  27. 31. Ink-jet printers <ul><li>Spray in from multiple jet nozzles </li></ul><ul><li>Print in both black and white and several different colors of ink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low quality , not speedy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a fairly high quality of paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost : little more than a hundred dollars </li></ul></ul>
  28. 33. Ink-jet printers
  29. 34. Voice Output <ul><li>Speech synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of enabling machines to talk to people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished through voice synthesizers (voice-output devices or audio-response units) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two approaches to getting a computer to talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis by analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The computer analyzes stored tapes of spoken words </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis by rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The computer applies linguistic rules to create artificial speech </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) airline, bus terminals, banks, </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. Music Output and Other Sounds <ul><li>Speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound output devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A certain kind of software for good-quality software Including multiple sight and sound effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated collection of computer-based media including text, graphics, sound, animation, photo images and video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain sophisticated audio chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the listening experience by varying the frequencies and timing of the sound waves </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Sound card
  32. 37. Music Output and Other Sounds <ul><li>MIDI ( M usical I nstrument D igital I nterface) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of rules designed for connecting devices that produce and process digital music signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices that conform to the MIDI standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can communicate with each other and with a computer containing a MIDI interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two musical devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can communicate via MIDI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The information exchanged between two MIDI devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is musical in nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by many makers of PC sound cards </li></ul></ul>