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Juvenile Drug
Use
By: Marianna Foreman, Ashleigh McNeil, Stephanie Lopes,
and Jessica Lopes
the lru:g D'êmger Zone: Most Illicit Drug Use Starts in the Teenage Years
11.2%
0.3%
ti26,or·
Older
Age<iroup
Soure&:SAM.HSA,CenterforBehavioralHealthStatlstt<sandQuality,
National Survey on 0mg Useand li!ealtli, 2011 and 20n.
.urverm.e oruG use
Did you know that teens starting from the age of 12 have already started
using drugs?
According to an article by Partnership for Drug Free Teens most teens use drugs
for these reasons: Depression, stress, bullying, peer pressure, escape and self
medication, boredom, and rebellion.
Depression: Children whose parents used drugs when they were little suffer from
emotional distress because of the past. Depressed teens are more likely to engage in
other risky behaviors. "They are more likely than non - depressed teens to report
daily cigarette use (5% vs 30% and heavy alcohol use (5 % vs 20%." )
Stress: Becky Beacom, a health education manager for PAMP surveyed 124 teens
asking what was most stressful for them. According to this survey teens have
multiple areas of expectations. School, sports, family, and social life. With all these
expectations, it's a lot of weight on their shoulders. The survey showed that 55% of
teens were stressed out because of school, 15% because of family, 9% because of
social life, and 4% because of sports. 45% of the teens surveyed have used drugs
because of stress.
Bullying : An article by Rick Nauert, who is a doctor shows how many teens use
drugs because of being bullied. Dr. Nauert examined thirty six teens in Ohio who
were being bullied. The thirty six teens who were being examined all had done drugs
due to bullying. According to Dr. Nauert "these teens have turned to drugs not
only to get away from the bullying, but to remove the pain." A survey taken by
CASA shows that teens use drugs because drugs help the pain go away.
Peer Pressure: The Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base tells that about
30% of teens have been offered drugs in middle school and high school. The
Kaiser Foundation shows that 50% of teens feel that they have been pressured to
do drugs. An article by Rose Alexander says that teens feel they need acceptance,
they feel the need to "fit in" and to be accepted by classmates and friends.With
teens feeling pressured by their friends drugs play a huge role in teen choices.
Teenagers see a lot of drug use around them. They see a lot of people smoking,
drinking alcohol, and more.
Escape and Self Medication: Sometimes teens are not happy. They feel mad, sad
and depressed. Teens are given a chance to take something to make them feel
better, many can't resist.
Boredom: Sometimes teens don't have anything to do. They are bored and often
alone at home by themselves. Teens who can't stand being alone have trouble
keeping themselves occupied, or want something to do fun and exciting are prime
candidates for drug use."
Rebellion: Different rebellious teens choose different substances to use based on
their personalities. Alcohol :is the drug of choice for the angry teenager because it
frees him to behave aggressively. Meth also encourages aggressive, violent
behavior and can be more dangerous and potent than alcohol. LSD and
hallucinogens are escape drugs mostly used by young people who feel
misunderstood. Smoking cigarettes could also be a form of rebellion to flaunt their
independence and to make their parents upset.
unoersTano1nG 1ssuecs>
rrrvouvæo m THe ProeLem.
According to Office of Juveniles Justice and Delinquency Prevention there
is a strong connection between juveniles involved in drugs and school performance.
Juveniles don't graduate and won't work at a good job that they wanted before.
Teens with the age of thirteen and fourteen years old have been reported that they
do poor on school work, with that 2.9% of the teens doing poor on school work
are doing drugs. Teens fourteen and fifteen who do drugs is 8.0%, teens that are
sixteen and seventeen is 11.2%. This shows that juveniles are doing drugs, and that
they affect their schoolwork, as well as it becomes an issue for the:ir teachers. An
article by PAMF tells that with students doing drugs it takes their attention off of
school.
Another issue that is involved in this problem is loss of friends. Loss of
friends gets involved because teens who do drugs invite their friends to do drugs
with them. An article by Sara Bellum explains that 46,000 teens do drugs and 10%
of that are teens in Ohio. According to National Institute on Drug Abuse the way
drugs make juveniles feel is a problem. When teens take drugs they get addicted.
Juveniles may have a health problem due to this and also may have mental problems
if teens do too much of drugs. Some examples that health issues involved with
drugs is having cancer, stroke, lung disease, and hiv/aids mental disorders, these
health problems come as a result when teens take drugs.
PUBLIC POLIC!::I
Teens doing drugs is a very big problem not only in the U.S, but in the state
of Ohio and the city of Cincinnati. According to a survey taken by the state of Ohio
1,691 people have died due to drugs almost half of that number were teens who
died. According to studies taken in 2010 they show that 38,329 people died because
of drugs and drug overdose. It's hard for people to deal with the amount of people
dying because of drugs. From this study taken it tells that the rate of people dying
from drugs has been gomg up since the early 1990s. The rate of the amount of
teens doing drugs is going up constantly due to the amount of teens that aren't in
school. A study taken by the Ohio Department of Health and Human Sources in
2014 shows that 20% of the high schoolers don't attend school, and almost half of
the 20% students do drugs. Public policies have been made for drugs being used
for teens in Ohio. Survey taken by Ohio shows that 17% of high schoolers in Ohio
use drugs. In 2011 Ohio found that 36% of private schools are drug infected and
over the past year it has went up to 54%. The overall amount of high schoolers and
private in schools was 60%.
The state and the city of Cincinnati have many laws on teens having
possession of drugs and doing drugs. The law of the police shows and tells the
purpose of the police officers in Ohio. The purpose for the police is for them to
make sure our community is safe and to help teens who are proposed to drugs.
Setting uniform guidelines for handling instances. The purpose of the public policy
is to protest the city's interests as well as constitutional rights of individual
employees·, while showing and providing teens of the community is to give a drug
free community. The law of teen drug test tells us that random drug tests are
provided by the state to prevent deaths and lawsuits against the state and city. The
law shows and gives teens who are abusing drugs or using drugs that they can get
help. In 2012 the National Highway Traffic Administration found that one in eight
weekend night driver teens in Ohio use drugs while driving. Ohio has made a law
saying if any teens are caught driving while doing drugs they get arrested.
WH!:::jSHOULD THe
GovernmenT se
1nv0Lveo?
The government should be involved in juvenile drug use because it will help
cause less teens from having mental, physical or disorder problems. This will also
help prevent teens from getting suspended at school or from having academic
problems such as low grades, not paying attention in class, or even picking up a
fight. The government should worry about this because jf teens don't pay more
attention in class they won't be able to get a good job or get the amount of money
they will need. In other words , ,they won't be able to go to college. The government
should be concerned because they will need more educated people to keep the
economy going.
According to the Office of Adolescent Health about 19% of males and 4% of
females in Ohio have sniffed tobacco outside of cigarettes. Also in Ohio 47% of the
teen females and 39% of the males have used marijuana one or more times. The
government should be involved because as teens are being sent to jail or having their
name in the juvenile system, it's in increasing the percentage of teens cons urning
drugs. If teens get sent to jail because of using drugs it will cost more money for the
government to pay more.
According to this article for the government and taxpayers at the Dayton Daily
news made on December 12, 2014 by a staff writer, Denise G Callahan, that in Ohio
the government spends $202,502 dollars on one juvenile for one whole year. She
says that Ohio came in 10th place for the highest daily rate of $554 dollars spent on
one juvenile in jail. The amount of money they spend everyday on juveniles is $115
to $120 in other states. If the percentage of the teens getting sent to jail increases it
will be hard for the government to afford this spending. They need to be involved to
cut costs and help with this problem.
Alternative I: Recreation
Center
One alternative that we can have is creating a recreation center for teens who
are on the streets. Having an recreation center would allow teens to have something
to do in there spare time. A recreation center would benefit both the teens and their
parents. Their parents would know where they are and wouldn't have to worry
about the:ir child being :in the streets and do:ing drugs. A study taken by NIDA :in
2011 shows that 46,000 teens in the United States are doing drugs, and 10% of that
are teens :in Ohio.
There are many advantages to creating a recreation center for teenagers. A
recreation center has activities that young children could participate :in such as
sports, video games, tutor:ingprograms, exercise equipment etc; You are around
positive leaders. There would be a support group (addressing peer pressure) and it
would be worth going in a recreation center but it would take several months to
complete. If you attend a recreation center it would help out the way you express
and feel. Another advantage is that many of these programs are available for free for
eligible participants. Having a recreation center means that teens could qualify for a
grant.
With building a recreation center there is also some disadvantages. A
disadvantage is that is it very costly. With having a recreation center there are
problems that others may disagree with. According to survey taken by Ohio parents
say that having a recreation would help teens, but when the recreation center closes
where would the teens go. 10% of the recreation centers here in Ohio close at 9pm.
According to an article by Healthwise shows that parents worry that once the
recreation center closes that the:ir child goes back to the streets. With parents being
upset about teens being in the streets after recreation centers close this causes
problems with the teens.
The elderly would most likely support creating a recreation center because
they were teens once also and sorne elderly people may have went through the same
thing teens are going through now. Sorne teens would not agree with creating more
recreation centers because they would be like "I'm too old to be going to a
recreation center or that's for lames".
Alternative II: Rehab
Another alternative is rehab. NSDUH research suggests that over 3 million
people over the age of 12 used illegal drugs for the first time in 2010. Rehab
programs help treat more than just an addiction. They treat any additional needs the
patient may have. The rehab center is made to address effects of drug use.
With havin drug rehab there are problems that occur. According to an article
by Time Magazine parents are worried that teens will relapse back on drugs. 20% of
teens who were in drug rehab have relapsed and got kicked out. That's a problem
according to parents and Time Magazine, because if the teens are dedicated to
changing then they should be given a second chance. With this not being supported
by the government, the mayor should get involved.
Alternative III: After School
Program
Our last alternativefor juveniledrug abuse is a after school drug program.
My group that is do:ing juveniledrug abuse are proposing the policy of do:ing a after
school program. Some advantages of this proposed policy is we could prepare a
powerpoint for the teens to teach the teens to not do drugs anymore. Another
advantage is to tellwhat each drug does to the body and help them have a better
outlook on drugs. A disadvantage of this policy is jf we have the after school
program probably teens may not be able to come to the after school program. Also
it may be for sports, clubs, etc;. The people who would support this after school
program would be the teacher's and the principleto help set up a powerpoint, also
because it would be at school.
Section 3
A recreation center would help keep children out of the streets and out of
trouble. "An associate professor of social work at Ohio State, Dawn Anderson
-Butcher said the more kids participate in these clubs the better self concept they
have. The
Ohio State University states that even small improvement in self concept goes a
long way toward keeping children out of trouble.
An advantage of this is that in a recreation center they have activities that
young children could partic:ipate in. You are around people who are good people
and not in bad crowds. There are people who help you out and it would be worth
going in a recreation center but it would take several months to complete. Another
advantage is that many of these programs are available for free for eligible
participants.
Recreation center addresses the problem by the teens first involved with the
drugs then would attend to a recreation center to get help and they would get
distracted that way. The agency that could be contacted with to build up the
recreation center would be mayor,chief of police, city council.
With having a recreation center there are problems that others may disagree
with. According to survey taken by Ohio parents say that having a recreation would
help teens, but when the recreation center closes where would the teens go. 10% of
the recreation centers here in Ohio close at 9pm. According to an article by
Healthwise shows that parents worry that once the recreation center closes that their
child goes back to the streets. With parents being upset about teens being in the
streets after recreation centers close this causes problems with the teens.
The Ohio Constitution says in Article II Section 22 that in order to provide
funds for programs, schools, etc. that it must be based on law. According to the
state of Ohio's budget process in 2014, about 30% of the federal funds were spent
on Human Services. Human Services includes spending money on health and
addiction services, which is related to the problem of juvenile drug abuse. Also, the
Department of Youth Services is given an amount money from the General Revenue
Fund to support Services. All of these groups and programs could support the
creation of our recreation center.
Action Process
There are many people and groups who are against teen drug use and they try
to find ways to help prevent teens from doing. PEERx :is an organization that helps
find ways to prevent teens from doing drugs. With this organization they provide
and show the teens that there :is positive. 30,000 teens were doing drugs and when
they found PEERx they realized that there is better things to do than drugs, by
wearing a shirt with a positive message on it and predicting their future with a group
of other teens.
There are many other groups and organizations out there and Partnership for
Drug Free Kids is another. There mission :is to educate parents, help families,
inspiring teens, and buíldíng a healthy community. These are all positive ways to
support teen drug abuse. When teens realize that there :is something better than
doing drugs.
The government officials that we will have to talk to in order to build a
recreation center is the mayor, and the city council. These government officials will
have to be involved because we will have to approved by them to create the
recreation center. They will also help us with funding. The mayor will have to get
involved in this because the mayor must approve first of all orders passed by the
city council. The supports that will help us build a recreation center are agencies like
The Youth Service Agency.
An action process for getting our policy enacted is getting the recreation
center together and to know where to put it at. Giving it a positive feel to welcome
the teens that need the help. Also to let the teens know that positive people are there
to help them out and to support them. That teens could feel comfortable and to
express their feels. To fully help them out.
People who might go against creating a recreation center and might not care
about tryíng to keep the teens off the streets might be the:ir friends. Their friends
might want them to stay on the streets and to continue doing drugs with them
because they don't want them to be the only ones doing it.
We chose the recreation center because we don't want our peers to be doing
things that could affect them and others around them. The two things that really got
to us the most when we were doing section 1 was depression and stress. We found
out that depression and stress really plays a big part in the use of drugs. As a teen
we really do go through a lot and our generation is way different than the older
generation. Young adults in the modern world have a lot of things on their hands
like homework, projects, chores, arguments, family relationships, drama, other
relationships and more.
Its very stressful because I remember one day last year I was really stressed
out. When I got home I was talking to my mom and she asked me if I was stressed
out and I said yes how could you tell. She said she noticed some gray hairs in my
head and said sometimes if and when gray hairs comes sometimes it means you're
stressed out a lot. Even scientist and hair specialist proved it. At the end of the day
we don't want anyone doing things that affects them and others around them. We
know how our peers are feeling and all we are saying is that we all can get through
it but just not in a way that is harmful to your body.
. TASK TWO .EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE POUCIES
You must identifyseveral alternativepoliciesfor dealingwith the problemyou have chosen.
These policies may include an existing policy or policies being proposed by individuals or
groups in the community. You should also include yourown original ideasfor policies to
addressthe problem.
Foreach policy presented,you should
1 Statethe policy or suggestedpolicy.
2 Identifythe individual or group that is proposingthe policy
(thiscould be your own class or group).
3 Identifythe advantages of this proposedpolicy.
4 Identifythe disadvantages of this proposedpolicy.
5 Identifyother individuals or groupsin the communitywho are likely to support thispolicy.
6 Identifyother individuals or groups in the communitywho are likely to oppose this policy.
Usethe bottom of this pageto write your answersfor each policyyou identify.
© 2009 Center for Civic Education
79
. TASK TWO EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE POUCIES
You must identify several alternative policies for dealing with the problem you have chosen.
These policies may include an existing policy or policies being proposed by individuals or
groups in the community. You should a/so inc/ude your own original ideas for policies to
address the problem.
For each policy presented, you should
1 State the policy or suggested policy.
2 Identify the individual or group that is proposing the policy
(this could be your own class or group).
3 Identify the advantages of this proposed policy.
4 Identify the disadvantages of this proposed po/icy.
5 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to support this policy.
6 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to oppose this policy.
Use the bottom of this page to write your answers for each policy you identify.
Use additional pages if necessary.
J~ o.v,n3 aíl dru~ ro. ab ?t!JJo"aJn :Jus*' I Dr
}LehS. Dur JWVP f.t. 'PY-!Jf'lJS.},nJ lh Y~ Pl)JÎe>·.
%ld::v:an ;.4CJ es Dt ha~~f;, ·t tr dn1t:f 't:e >itJ f;, ror
© 2009 Center for Civic Education
79
. TASK TWO EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE POUCIES
You must identify several alternative policies for dealing with the problem you have chosen.
These policies may include an existing po/icy or policies being proposed by individuals or
groups in the community. You should also include your own origina/ ideas for policies to
address the problem.
For each policy presented, you should
~ate the policyor suggestedpolicy.
2 Identify the individual or group that is proposing the policy
(this could be your own class or group)'.
v{ Identify the advantages of this proposed po/icy.
· 4 Identify the disadvantages of this proposed policy.
5 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to support this policy.
6 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to oppose this policy.
Use the bottom of this page to write your answers for each policy you identify.
ß __,,  .1'
@ 2009 Center for Civic Education
This report reflects significant trends, data, and major issues relating to drugs in the State of Ohio.
Ohio At-a-Glance:
• In2007-2008, Ohio was one of the top ten states for rates in several drug-use categories, including: past-year non-
medical use of pain relievers among young adults age 18 to 25, and illicit drug dependence among young adults
age 18 to 25.
Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007-2008.
• The number ofmeth lab seizure incidents in the state of Ohio increased 83%, from 167 incidents in 2007 to 305
incidents in 2009, according to data from the El Paso Intelligence Center's National Seizure System
Source: EPIC-NSS.
• Approximately 8 percent of Ohio residents reported past-month use of illicit drugs; the national average
was 8 percent.
• Drug-induced deaths in Ohio exceed the national rate.
Drug Use in Ohio: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provides national and state-level data on
the use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs (including non-medical use of prescription drugs), and mental health in the United
States. In the most recent Survey, 7.61 percent of Ohio residents reported using illicit drugs in the past month. The
national average was 8.02 percent. Additionally, 3.3 percent of Ohio residents reported using an illicit drug other than
marijuana in the past month (the national average was 3.58 percent).
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2007-2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k8state/Cover. pdf
Drug-Induced Deaths: As a direct consequence of drug use, 1,691 persons died in Ohio in 2007. This is compared to
the number of persons in Ohio who died from motor vehicle accidents (1,399) and firearms (1,105) in the same year. Ohio
drug-induced deaths (14.7 per 100,000 population) exceeded the national rate (12.7 per 100,000).
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Vital Statistics Reports Volume 58, Number 19 for 2007:
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr5 8/nvsr5 8 19.pdf
Marijuana
Ohio Primary Drug Abuse Treatment Episodes in 2010by Type of Drug
' I ~~lfflill~lfflill~fflill~Ohio Primary Treatment Admissions
The graph at right depicts substance abuse primary
treatment admissions in Ohio in201O. The data show
marijuana is the most commonly cited drug among
primary drug treatment admissions in Ohio, followed by
heroin.
Source: Treatment Episode Data Set, Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services Administration: http://oas.samhsa.gov/dasis.htm
Other opiates
Heroin
StlmUlants
Tranqullzers
PCP
Sedatives
lnhalanls ·'----+--+---1--+----l'--~--+---+----+ IHalluclnogens ,-· ___J
11000 zooo 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 71000 8,000 9,000 10.000
Number of Primary Drug Abuse Treatment.Episodes
1
ONDCP seeks to foster healthy individuals and safe communities by effectively leading the Nation's effort to reduce drug use and its consequences.
ffice
dolescent
Substanceabuse data for Ohio
Tobacco-related behaviors among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011SAl
Never tried cigarette smoking (even one or two puffs)
Total
Male
Female
Smoked cigarettes on at least one day (during the 30
days before the survey)
Total
Male
Female
Tried to quit smoking cigarettes (among students who
currently smoked cigarettes, during the 12 months
before the survey)
Total
Male
Female
Usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in
a store or gas station (during the 30 days before the
survey)
Total
Male
Female
Used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least one day
(during the 30 days before the survey)
Total
Male
Female
55%
54%
57%
18%
20%
16%
50%
47%
54%
14%
17%
10%
8%
13%
2%
Usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in a store or gasstation is among the students who were aged<18 yearsandwho currently smoked cigarettes.
Office of Adolescent Health AdolescentHealth Facts
Ohio (Substance abuse data continued)
Alcohol-related behaviors among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011SAl
Drank alcohol for the first time before age 13 years (other
than a few sips)
Total
Male
Female
Had at least one drink of alcohol on at least one day
(during the 30 days before the survey)
Total
Male
Female
Had five or more drinks of alcohol in a row within a couple
of hours on at least one day (during the 30 days before the
survey)
Total
Male
Female
Usually obtained the alcohol they drank by someone
giving it to them (among students who currently drank
alcohol, during the 30 days before the survey)
Total
Male
Female
Drove when drinking alcohol one or more times (a car or
other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey)
Total
Male
Female
Rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol one or
more times (in a car or other vehicle during the 30 days
before the survey)
Total
Male
Female
Office of Adolescent Health AdolescentHealth Facts
20%
23%
17%
39%
39%
38%
22%
24%
20%
40%
35%
46%
8%
9%
7%
24%
23%
25%
2
(
I
Ohio {Substance abuse data continued)
Marijuana use among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011 SAl
Have ever used marijuana one or more times (during
their life)
Total
Male
Female
Inhalant use among high school students (grades 9-12), 20115A1
40%
42%
37%
Have ever sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol
spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high
one or more times (during their life)
Total
Male
Female
Cocaine use among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011 SAl
11%
10%
12%
Used any form of cocaine one or more times (for example
powder, crack, or freebase, during the 30 days before the
survey)
Total
Male
Female
Nonmedical use of pain relievers, ages 12-17, 2009-2010sA2
3%
4%
2%
Used pain relievers for non medical reasons (during the
12 months before the survey)
Needing but not receiving treatment for substance use, ages 12-17, 2009-20105A2
Needed but did not receive treatment for alcohol use
(during the 12 months before the survey)
Needed but did not receive treatment for illicit drug use
(during the 12 months before the survey)
Office of Adolescent Health Adolescent Health Facts
6%
4%
3
Ohio (Substance abuse data continued) 4
Data notes and sources
All percentages have been rounded to the nearest whole number.
N/A: data do not exist on this measure for this state.
SA1 High school data are from: Centersfor DiseaseControl and Prevention. (2012). 1991-2011 HighSchoolYouth RiskBehaviorSurveydata. RetrievedOctober
19, 2012,from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline
5A2
Pain reliever and receipt of treatment data are from: SubstanceAbuseand Mental Health ServicesAdministration. (2012).State Estimates of Substance Use
and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, NSDUHSeriesH-43, HHS Publication No. (SMA)12-4703.TableC.8,
C.21,C.22.Rockville,MD. Retrieved October 19, 2012,from http://www.sarnhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/N5DUHsae2010/NSDUHsaeAppC2010.htm
Office of Adolescent Health Adolescent Health Facts
EasyBib Bibliographies
1. 15.110.15.110 ALCOHOL AND DRUG TESTING OF DEPARTMENT
PERSONNEL (n.d.): n. pag. Web
2. Source:. OHIO DRUG CONTROL UPDATE (n.d.): n. pag. Web.
3. "Top 8 Reasons Why Teens Try Alcohol and Drugs - Partnership for
Drug-Free Kids." Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar.
2016.
4. •110 Reasons Teens Abuse Alcohol or Druqs." Drug and Addictíon
Treatment Centers Promises. N.p., 24 Oct. 2013. Web. 11 Mar. 2016.
5. "Consequences of Youth Substance Abuse." Consequences of Youth
Substance Abuse. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2016.
6. "Survey: 17% of High Schoolers Drink, Smoke, Use Drugs during School
Day." Schools of Thought RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2016
7. "High School and Youth Trends." DrugFacts:. N.p., n.d. Web.11 Mar. 2016.
8. "Consequences of Youth Substance Abuse." Consequences of Youth
Substance Abuse. N.p., n.d. Web.11 Mar. 2016.
9. ~·Teen Alcohol and Drug Abuse-Topiç Overview." WebMD. WebMD, n.d.
Web. 11 Mar. 2016.
10. "Teen Alcohol and Drug Abuse State of Ohio, Ohio." Teen Alcohol and
Drug Abuse State of Ohio, Ohio. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.
11.

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  • 1. Juvenile Drug Use By: Marianna Foreman, Ashleigh McNeil, Stephanie Lopes, and Jessica Lopes the lru:g D'êmger Zone: Most Illicit Drug Use Starts in the Teenage Years 11.2% 0.3% ti26,or· Older Age<iroup Soure&:SAM.HSA,CenterforBehavioralHealthStatlstt<sandQuality, National Survey on 0mg Useand li!ealtli, 2011 and 20n.
  • 2. .urverm.e oruG use Did you know that teens starting from the age of 12 have already started using drugs? According to an article by Partnership for Drug Free Teens most teens use drugs for these reasons: Depression, stress, bullying, peer pressure, escape and self medication, boredom, and rebellion. Depression: Children whose parents used drugs when they were little suffer from emotional distress because of the past. Depressed teens are more likely to engage in other risky behaviors. "They are more likely than non - depressed teens to report daily cigarette use (5% vs 30% and heavy alcohol use (5 % vs 20%." ) Stress: Becky Beacom, a health education manager for PAMP surveyed 124 teens asking what was most stressful for them. According to this survey teens have multiple areas of expectations. School, sports, family, and social life. With all these expectations, it's a lot of weight on their shoulders. The survey showed that 55% of teens were stressed out because of school, 15% because of family, 9% because of social life, and 4% because of sports. 45% of the teens surveyed have used drugs because of stress. Bullying : An article by Rick Nauert, who is a doctor shows how many teens use drugs because of being bullied. Dr. Nauert examined thirty six teens in Ohio who were being bullied. The thirty six teens who were being examined all had done drugs due to bullying. According to Dr. Nauert "these teens have turned to drugs not only to get away from the bullying, but to remove the pain." A survey taken by CASA shows that teens use drugs because drugs help the pain go away. Peer Pressure: The Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base tells that about 30% of teens have been offered drugs in middle school and high school. The Kaiser Foundation shows that 50% of teens feel that they have been pressured to do drugs. An article by Rose Alexander says that teens feel they need acceptance,
  • 3. they feel the need to "fit in" and to be accepted by classmates and friends.With teens feeling pressured by their friends drugs play a huge role in teen choices. Teenagers see a lot of drug use around them. They see a lot of people smoking, drinking alcohol, and more. Escape and Self Medication: Sometimes teens are not happy. They feel mad, sad and depressed. Teens are given a chance to take something to make them feel better, many can't resist. Boredom: Sometimes teens don't have anything to do. They are bored and often alone at home by themselves. Teens who can't stand being alone have trouble keeping themselves occupied, or want something to do fun and exciting are prime candidates for drug use." Rebellion: Different rebellious teens choose different substances to use based on their personalities. Alcohol :is the drug of choice for the angry teenager because it frees him to behave aggressively. Meth also encourages aggressive, violent behavior and can be more dangerous and potent than alcohol. LSD and hallucinogens are escape drugs mostly used by young people who feel misunderstood. Smoking cigarettes could also be a form of rebellion to flaunt their independence and to make their parents upset.
  • 4. unoersTano1nG 1ssuecs> rrrvouvæo m THe ProeLem. According to Office of Juveniles Justice and Delinquency Prevention there is a strong connection between juveniles involved in drugs and school performance. Juveniles don't graduate and won't work at a good job that they wanted before. Teens with the age of thirteen and fourteen years old have been reported that they do poor on school work, with that 2.9% of the teens doing poor on school work are doing drugs. Teens fourteen and fifteen who do drugs is 8.0%, teens that are sixteen and seventeen is 11.2%. This shows that juveniles are doing drugs, and that they affect their schoolwork, as well as it becomes an issue for the:ir teachers. An article by PAMF tells that with students doing drugs it takes their attention off of school. Another issue that is involved in this problem is loss of friends. Loss of friends gets involved because teens who do drugs invite their friends to do drugs with them. An article by Sara Bellum explains that 46,000 teens do drugs and 10% of that are teens in Ohio. According to National Institute on Drug Abuse the way drugs make juveniles feel is a problem. When teens take drugs they get addicted. Juveniles may have a health problem due to this and also may have mental problems if teens do too much of drugs. Some examples that health issues involved with drugs is having cancer, stroke, lung disease, and hiv/aids mental disorders, these health problems come as a result when teens take drugs.
  • 5. PUBLIC POLIC!::I Teens doing drugs is a very big problem not only in the U.S, but in the state of Ohio and the city of Cincinnati. According to a survey taken by the state of Ohio 1,691 people have died due to drugs almost half of that number were teens who died. According to studies taken in 2010 they show that 38,329 people died because of drugs and drug overdose. It's hard for people to deal with the amount of people dying because of drugs. From this study taken it tells that the rate of people dying from drugs has been gomg up since the early 1990s. The rate of the amount of teens doing drugs is going up constantly due to the amount of teens that aren't in school. A study taken by the Ohio Department of Health and Human Sources in 2014 shows that 20% of the high schoolers don't attend school, and almost half of the 20% students do drugs. Public policies have been made for drugs being used for teens in Ohio. Survey taken by Ohio shows that 17% of high schoolers in Ohio use drugs. In 2011 Ohio found that 36% of private schools are drug infected and over the past year it has went up to 54%. The overall amount of high schoolers and private in schools was 60%. The state and the city of Cincinnati have many laws on teens having possession of drugs and doing drugs. The law of the police shows and tells the purpose of the police officers in Ohio. The purpose for the police is for them to make sure our community is safe and to help teens who are proposed to drugs. Setting uniform guidelines for handling instances. The purpose of the public policy is to protest the city's interests as well as constitutional rights of individual employees·, while showing and providing teens of the community is to give a drug free community. The law of teen drug test tells us that random drug tests are provided by the state to prevent deaths and lawsuits against the state and city. The law shows and gives teens who are abusing drugs or using drugs that they can get help. In 2012 the National Highway Traffic Administration found that one in eight weekend night driver teens in Ohio use drugs while driving. Ohio has made a law saying if any teens are caught driving while doing drugs they get arrested.
  • 6. WH!:::jSHOULD THe GovernmenT se 1nv0Lveo? The government should be involved in juvenile drug use because it will help cause less teens from having mental, physical or disorder problems. This will also help prevent teens from getting suspended at school or from having academic problems such as low grades, not paying attention in class, or even picking up a fight. The government should worry about this because jf teens don't pay more attention in class they won't be able to get a good job or get the amount of money they will need. In other words , ,they won't be able to go to college. The government should be concerned because they will need more educated people to keep the economy going. According to the Office of Adolescent Health about 19% of males and 4% of females in Ohio have sniffed tobacco outside of cigarettes. Also in Ohio 47% of the teen females and 39% of the males have used marijuana one or more times. The government should be involved because as teens are being sent to jail or having their name in the juvenile system, it's in increasing the percentage of teens cons urning drugs. If teens get sent to jail because of using drugs it will cost more money for the government to pay more. According to this article for the government and taxpayers at the Dayton Daily news made on December 12, 2014 by a staff writer, Denise G Callahan, that in Ohio the government spends $202,502 dollars on one juvenile for one whole year. She says that Ohio came in 10th place for the highest daily rate of $554 dollars spent on one juvenile in jail. The amount of money they spend everyday on juveniles is $115 to $120 in other states. If the percentage of the teens getting sent to jail increases it will be hard for the government to afford this spending. They need to be involved to cut costs and help with this problem.
  • 7. Alternative I: Recreation Center One alternative that we can have is creating a recreation center for teens who are on the streets. Having an recreation center would allow teens to have something to do in there spare time. A recreation center would benefit both the teens and their parents. Their parents would know where they are and wouldn't have to worry about the:ir child being :in the streets and do:ing drugs. A study taken by NIDA :in 2011 shows that 46,000 teens in the United States are doing drugs, and 10% of that are teens :in Ohio. There are many advantages to creating a recreation center for teenagers. A recreation center has activities that young children could participate :in such as sports, video games, tutor:ingprograms, exercise equipment etc; You are around positive leaders. There would be a support group (addressing peer pressure) and it would be worth going in a recreation center but it would take several months to complete. If you attend a recreation center it would help out the way you express and feel. Another advantage is that many of these programs are available for free for eligible participants. Having a recreation center means that teens could qualify for a grant. With building a recreation center there is also some disadvantages. A disadvantage is that is it very costly. With having a recreation center there are problems that others may disagree with. According to survey taken by Ohio parents say that having a recreation would help teens, but when the recreation center closes where would the teens go. 10% of the recreation centers here in Ohio close at 9pm. According to an article by Healthwise shows that parents worry that once the recreation center closes that the:ir child goes back to the streets. With parents being upset about teens being in the streets after recreation centers close this causes problems with the teens.
  • 8. The elderly would most likely support creating a recreation center because they were teens once also and sorne elderly people may have went through the same thing teens are going through now. Sorne teens would not agree with creating more recreation centers because they would be like "I'm too old to be going to a recreation center or that's for lames".
  • 9. Alternative II: Rehab Another alternative is rehab. NSDUH research suggests that over 3 million people over the age of 12 used illegal drugs for the first time in 2010. Rehab programs help treat more than just an addiction. They treat any additional needs the patient may have. The rehab center is made to address effects of drug use. With havin drug rehab there are problems that occur. According to an article by Time Magazine parents are worried that teens will relapse back on drugs. 20% of teens who were in drug rehab have relapsed and got kicked out. That's a problem according to parents and Time Magazine, because if the teens are dedicated to changing then they should be given a second chance. With this not being supported by the government, the mayor should get involved.
  • 10. Alternative III: After School Program Our last alternativefor juveniledrug abuse is a after school drug program. My group that is do:ing juveniledrug abuse are proposing the policy of do:ing a after school program. Some advantages of this proposed policy is we could prepare a powerpoint for the teens to teach the teens to not do drugs anymore. Another advantage is to tellwhat each drug does to the body and help them have a better outlook on drugs. A disadvantage of this policy is jf we have the after school program probably teens may not be able to come to the after school program. Also it may be for sports, clubs, etc;. The people who would support this after school program would be the teacher's and the principleto help set up a powerpoint, also because it would be at school.
  • 11. Section 3 A recreation center would help keep children out of the streets and out of trouble. "An associate professor of social work at Ohio State, Dawn Anderson -Butcher said the more kids participate in these clubs the better self concept they have. The Ohio State University states that even small improvement in self concept goes a long way toward keeping children out of trouble. An advantage of this is that in a recreation center they have activities that young children could partic:ipate in. You are around people who are good people and not in bad crowds. There are people who help you out and it would be worth going in a recreation center but it would take several months to complete. Another advantage is that many of these programs are available for free for eligible participants. Recreation center addresses the problem by the teens first involved with the drugs then would attend to a recreation center to get help and they would get distracted that way. The agency that could be contacted with to build up the recreation center would be mayor,chief of police, city council. With having a recreation center there are problems that others may disagree with. According to survey taken by Ohio parents say that having a recreation would help teens, but when the recreation center closes where would the teens go. 10% of the recreation centers here in Ohio close at 9pm. According to an article by Healthwise shows that parents worry that once the recreation center closes that their child goes back to the streets. With parents being upset about teens being in the streets after recreation centers close this causes problems with the teens. The Ohio Constitution says in Article II Section 22 that in order to provide funds for programs, schools, etc. that it must be based on law. According to the state of Ohio's budget process in 2014, about 30% of the federal funds were spent
  • 12. on Human Services. Human Services includes spending money on health and addiction services, which is related to the problem of juvenile drug abuse. Also, the Department of Youth Services is given an amount money from the General Revenue Fund to support Services. All of these groups and programs could support the creation of our recreation center.
  • 13. Action Process There are many people and groups who are against teen drug use and they try to find ways to help prevent teens from doing. PEERx :is an organization that helps find ways to prevent teens from doing drugs. With this organization they provide and show the teens that there :is positive. 30,000 teens were doing drugs and when they found PEERx they realized that there is better things to do than drugs, by wearing a shirt with a positive message on it and predicting their future with a group of other teens. There are many other groups and organizations out there and Partnership for Drug Free Kids is another. There mission :is to educate parents, help families, inspiring teens, and buíldíng a healthy community. These are all positive ways to support teen drug abuse. When teens realize that there :is something better than doing drugs. The government officials that we will have to talk to in order to build a recreation center is the mayor, and the city council. These government officials will have to be involved because we will have to approved by them to create the recreation center. They will also help us with funding. The mayor will have to get involved in this because the mayor must approve first of all orders passed by the city council. The supports that will help us build a recreation center are agencies like The Youth Service Agency. An action process for getting our policy enacted is getting the recreation center together and to know where to put it at. Giving it a positive feel to welcome the teens that need the help. Also to let the teens know that positive people are there to help them out and to support them. That teens could feel comfortable and to express their feels. To fully help them out.
  • 14. People who might go against creating a recreation center and might not care about tryíng to keep the teens off the streets might be the:ir friends. Their friends might want them to stay on the streets and to continue doing drugs with them because they don't want them to be the only ones doing it. We chose the recreation center because we don't want our peers to be doing things that could affect them and others around them. The two things that really got to us the most when we were doing section 1 was depression and stress. We found out that depression and stress really plays a big part in the use of drugs. As a teen we really do go through a lot and our generation is way different than the older generation. Young adults in the modern world have a lot of things on their hands like homework, projects, chores, arguments, family relationships, drama, other relationships and more. Its very stressful because I remember one day last year I was really stressed out. When I got home I was talking to my mom and she asked me if I was stressed out and I said yes how could you tell. She said she noticed some gray hairs in my head and said sometimes if and when gray hairs comes sometimes it means you're stressed out a lot. Even scientist and hair specialist proved it. At the end of the day we don't want anyone doing things that affects them and others around them. We know how our peers are feeling and all we are saying is that we all can get through it but just not in a way that is harmful to your body.
  • 15. . TASK TWO .EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE POUCIES You must identifyseveral alternativepoliciesfor dealingwith the problemyou have chosen. These policies may include an existing policy or policies being proposed by individuals or groups in the community. You should also include yourown original ideasfor policies to addressthe problem. Foreach policy presented,you should 1 Statethe policy or suggestedpolicy. 2 Identifythe individual or group that is proposingthe policy (thiscould be your own class or group). 3 Identifythe advantages of this proposedpolicy. 4 Identifythe disadvantages of this proposedpolicy. 5 Identifyother individuals or groupsin the communitywho are likely to support thispolicy. 6 Identifyother individuals or groups in the communitywho are likely to oppose this policy. Usethe bottom of this pageto write your answersfor each policyyou identify. © 2009 Center for Civic Education 79
  • 16. . TASK TWO EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE POUCIES You must identify several alternative policies for dealing with the problem you have chosen. These policies may include an existing policy or policies being proposed by individuals or groups in the community. You should a/so inc/ude your own original ideas for policies to address the problem. For each policy presented, you should 1 State the policy or suggested policy. 2 Identify the individual or group that is proposing the policy (this could be your own class or group). 3 Identify the advantages of this proposed policy. 4 Identify the disadvantages of this proposed po/icy. 5 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to support this policy. 6 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to oppose this policy. Use the bottom of this page to write your answers for each policy you identify. Use additional pages if necessary. J~ o.v,n3 aíl dru~ ro. ab ?t!JJo"aJn :Jus*' I Dr }LehS. Dur JWVP f.t. 'PY-!Jf'lJS.},nJ lh Y~ Pl)JÎe>·. %ld::v:an ;.4CJ es Dt ha~~f;, ·t tr dn1t:f 't:e >itJ f;, ror © 2009 Center for Civic Education 79
  • 17. . TASK TWO EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE POUCIES You must identify several alternative policies for dealing with the problem you have chosen. These policies may include an existing po/icy or policies being proposed by individuals or groups in the community. You should also include your own origina/ ideas for policies to address the problem. For each policy presented, you should ~ate the policyor suggestedpolicy. 2 Identify the individual or group that is proposing the policy (this could be your own class or group)'. v{ Identify the advantages of this proposed po/icy. · 4 Identify the disadvantages of this proposed policy. 5 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to support this policy. 6 Identify other individuals or groups in the community who are likely to oppose this policy. Use the bottom of this page to write your answers for each policy you identify. ß __,, .1' @ 2009 Center for Civic Education
  • 18. This report reflects significant trends, data, and major issues relating to drugs in the State of Ohio. Ohio At-a-Glance: • In2007-2008, Ohio was one of the top ten states for rates in several drug-use categories, including: past-year non- medical use of pain relievers among young adults age 18 to 25, and illicit drug dependence among young adults age 18 to 25. Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007-2008. • The number ofmeth lab seizure incidents in the state of Ohio increased 83%, from 167 incidents in 2007 to 305 incidents in 2009, according to data from the El Paso Intelligence Center's National Seizure System Source: EPIC-NSS. • Approximately 8 percent of Ohio residents reported past-month use of illicit drugs; the national average was 8 percent. • Drug-induced deaths in Ohio exceed the national rate. Drug Use in Ohio: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provides national and state-level data on the use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs (including non-medical use of prescription drugs), and mental health in the United States. In the most recent Survey, 7.61 percent of Ohio residents reported using illicit drugs in the past month. The national average was 8.02 percent. Additionally, 3.3 percent of Ohio residents reported using an illicit drug other than marijuana in the past month (the national average was 3.58 percent). Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2007-2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k8state/Cover. pdf Drug-Induced Deaths: As a direct consequence of drug use, 1,691 persons died in Ohio in 2007. This is compared to the number of persons in Ohio who died from motor vehicle accidents (1,399) and firearms (1,105) in the same year. Ohio drug-induced deaths (14.7 per 100,000 population) exceeded the national rate (12.7 per 100,000). Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Vital Statistics Reports Volume 58, Number 19 for 2007: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr5 8/nvsr5 8 19.pdf Marijuana Ohio Primary Drug Abuse Treatment Episodes in 2010by Type of Drug ' I ~~lfflill~lfflill~fflill~Ohio Primary Treatment Admissions The graph at right depicts substance abuse primary treatment admissions in Ohio in201O. The data show marijuana is the most commonly cited drug among primary drug treatment admissions in Ohio, followed by heroin. Source: Treatment Episode Data Set, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: http://oas.samhsa.gov/dasis.htm Other opiates Heroin StlmUlants Tranqullzers PCP Sedatives lnhalanls ·'----+--+---1--+----l'--~--+---+----+ IHalluclnogens ,-· ___J 11000 zooo 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 71000 8,000 9,000 10.000 Number of Primary Drug Abuse Treatment.Episodes 1 ONDCP seeks to foster healthy individuals and safe communities by effectively leading the Nation's effort to reduce drug use and its consequences.
  • 19. ffice dolescent Substanceabuse data for Ohio Tobacco-related behaviors among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011SAl Never tried cigarette smoking (even one or two puffs) Total Male Female Smoked cigarettes on at least one day (during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Tried to quit smoking cigarettes (among students who currently smoked cigarettes, during the 12 months before the survey) Total Male Female Usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in a store or gas station (during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least one day (during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female 55% 54% 57% 18% 20% 16% 50% 47% 54% 14% 17% 10% 8% 13% 2% Usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in a store or gasstation is among the students who were aged<18 yearsandwho currently smoked cigarettes. Office of Adolescent Health AdolescentHealth Facts
  • 20. Ohio (Substance abuse data continued) Alcohol-related behaviors among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011SAl Drank alcohol for the first time before age 13 years (other than a few sips) Total Male Female Had at least one drink of alcohol on at least one day (during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Had five or more drinks of alcohol in a row within a couple of hours on at least one day (during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Usually obtained the alcohol they drank by someone giving it to them (among students who currently drank alcohol, during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Drove when drinking alcohol one or more times (a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol one or more times (in a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Office of Adolescent Health AdolescentHealth Facts 20% 23% 17% 39% 39% 38% 22% 24% 20% 40% 35% 46% 8% 9% 7% 24% 23% 25% 2 ( I
  • 21. Ohio {Substance abuse data continued) Marijuana use among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011 SAl Have ever used marijuana one or more times (during their life) Total Male Female Inhalant use among high school students (grades 9-12), 20115A1 40% 42% 37% Have ever sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high one or more times (during their life) Total Male Female Cocaine use among high school students (grades 9-12), 2011 SAl 11% 10% 12% Used any form of cocaine one or more times (for example powder, crack, or freebase, during the 30 days before the survey) Total Male Female Nonmedical use of pain relievers, ages 12-17, 2009-2010sA2 3% 4% 2% Used pain relievers for non medical reasons (during the 12 months before the survey) Needing but not receiving treatment for substance use, ages 12-17, 2009-20105A2 Needed but did not receive treatment for alcohol use (during the 12 months before the survey) Needed but did not receive treatment for illicit drug use (during the 12 months before the survey) Office of Adolescent Health Adolescent Health Facts 6% 4% 3
  • 22. Ohio (Substance abuse data continued) 4 Data notes and sources All percentages have been rounded to the nearest whole number. N/A: data do not exist on this measure for this state. SA1 High school data are from: Centersfor DiseaseControl and Prevention. (2012). 1991-2011 HighSchoolYouth RiskBehaviorSurveydata. RetrievedOctober 19, 2012,from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline 5A2 Pain reliever and receipt of treatment data are from: SubstanceAbuseand Mental Health ServicesAdministration. (2012).State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, NSDUHSeriesH-43, HHS Publication No. (SMA)12-4703.TableC.8, C.21,C.22.Rockville,MD. Retrieved October 19, 2012,from http://www.sarnhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/N5DUHsae2010/NSDUHsaeAppC2010.htm Office of Adolescent Health Adolescent Health Facts
  • 23. EasyBib Bibliographies 1. 15.110.15.110 ALCOHOL AND DRUG TESTING OF DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL (n.d.): n. pag. Web 2. Source:. OHIO DRUG CONTROL UPDATE (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 3. "Top 8 Reasons Why Teens Try Alcohol and Drugs - Partnership for Drug-Free Kids." Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2016. 4. •110 Reasons Teens Abuse Alcohol or Druqs." Drug and Addictíon Treatment Centers Promises. N.p., 24 Oct. 2013. Web. 11 Mar. 2016. 5. "Consequences of Youth Substance Abuse." Consequences of Youth Substance Abuse. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2016. 6. "Survey: 17% of High Schoolers Drink, Smoke, Use Drugs during School Day." Schools of Thought RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2016 7. "High School and Youth Trends." DrugFacts:. N.p., n.d. Web.11 Mar. 2016. 8. "Consequences of Youth Substance Abuse." Consequences of Youth Substance Abuse. N.p., n.d. Web.11 Mar. 2016. 9. ~·Teen Alcohol and Drug Abuse-Topiç Overview." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2016. 10. "Teen Alcohol and Drug Abuse State of Ohio, Ohio." Teen Alcohol and Drug Abuse State of Ohio, Ohio. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2016. 11.