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Winton Woods MS-Graffiti

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Winton Woods MS-Graffiti

  1. 1. Table of Contents 3 Introduction 4 Definition Page Problem 2-3 Problem 4 Problem With Graffiti 5 Problem Identification and Analysis Form 6 Problem Notes , 7 Understanding of Issues 8-11 SurveyMonkey Graffiti 12-13 Paragraph Notes 14-16 Panel 1 Notes 17....Why Should The Government Be Involved? 18-22 ....Graffiti Guide No. 9 (Highlighted Source) 23 ....Why Gang Graffiti Is Dangerous 24-27 ....Graffiti: Free speech or vandalism? (Highlighted Source) Alternatives 2-4 Alternatives 5 Tagging 6 The Public Policy on Graffiti 7-8 The Existing Policy in Ohio 9-10 Photos Policy 2-3 Proposed Policy 4 Graffiti Permission/Consent Form 5-6 Charts and Examples 7-8 Photos
  2. 2. Plan of Action 2-3 Plan of Action 4-5 Task Four - Developing an Action Plan 6 Crime Prevention: Graffiti is Everyone's Problem (Highlighted Source) 7-8 Photos 9 Action ( Reflection 2 Reflection 3 Summary 4-11 ....lnformation from Print or Electronic Sources Forms , (
  3. 3. DEFINITION Page For Panel 1 Graffiti: writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface, often in a public place. ln most places, it is considered defacement or vandalism, which is punishable by crime. Art: the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power. Vandalism: action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. Illicit: forbidden by law, rules, or custom. Illegal. Taggers: a person who writes graffiti using their nickname or identifying mark. Imprisonment: the state of being imprisoned; captivity Controversial issue: a dispute, especially a public one, between sides holding opposing views
  4. 4. DEFINITION Page For Panel 1 Graffiti: writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface, often in a public place. ln most places, it is considered defacement or vandalism, which is punishable by crime. Art: the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power. Vandalism: action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. Illicit: forbidden by law, rules, or custom. Illegal. Taggers: a person who writes graffiti using their nickname or identifying mark. Imprisonment: the state of being imprisoned; captivity Controversial issue: a dispute, especially a public one, between sides holding opposing views
  5. 5. Problem Graffiti is not an isolated problem. lt is often related to other crime and disorder problems, including: • public disorder, such as littering, public urinationand loitering; • shoplifting of materials needed for graffiti, such as paint and markers • gangs and gang violence, as gang graffiti conveys threats and identifies turf boundaries; and • property destruction, such as broken windows or slashed bus or train seats. There are different types of graffiti. The major types include: • gang graffiti, often used by gangs to mark turf or convey threats of violence, and sometimes copycat graffiti, which mimics gang graffiti; • tagger graffiti, ranging from high-volume simple hits to complex street art; • conventional graffiti, often isolated or spontaneous acts of "youthful exuberance," but sometimes malicious or vindictive; and • ideological graffiti, such as political or hate graffiti, which conveys political messages or racial, religious or ethnic slurs. ln areas where graffiti is prevalent, gang and tagger graffiti are the most common types found. While other forms of graffiti may be troublesome, they typically arenot as widespread. The proportion of graffiti attributable to differing motives varies widely from one jurisdiction to another.
  6. 6. Grafft Graffiti co.n be good o.nd bo.d for mo.ny reo.sons. Graffiti is o. wo.y of or+ for some peopie. depending on the circumstances. If you consider tho.t Graffiti is used to express people's emotions o.nd is o.so used for communication. Graffiti is ort when it is to.ken seriously. If there is o. huge muro. on o. wo. somewhere with deto.i o.nd colour. then it co.n be considered o.rt rather tho.n destruction. But some people think graffiti is not o. reo. crime. Graffiti is distracting o.nd obnoxious when peope Just write their no.me or o.n obscene word on o. building. lt doesn't contribute to the community in o.ny beneficio.I wo.y. Graffiti is addressed in the current Columbus Code in the Genero.I Offenses Code, which sto.tes that "gro.ffltism" 5 o. crimino. offense, o.nd tho.t the gro.ff1t'1st must be caught in the o.ct. Any person convicted of gro.ff1tism must make restitution for the do.mo.ge co.used to property in addition to o.ny other punishment imposed. lt is o.so req,uired tho.t businesses who sell spray po.int or wide-t'1pped markers must display o. sign sto.ting "Graffiti Application is o. Crime Punishable by A $1.000 Fne o.nd/or 6 Months Imprisonment." Code Enforcement regulo.tes graffiti on privo.te property under the Graphics Code cs o.n uno.uthoriz.ed sign graphic. The code req,uires o.n insto.llo.tion permit for o.ny sign over 10 sq,uo.re feet in o.reo.. If o. property owner ho.s graffiti larger tho.n 10 sq,uo.re feet. they ore req,uired to ho.ve it removed. However. the City currently cannot req,uire o. property owner to remove smaller graffiti. ln 2001. the City of Columbus initiated the Graffiti Blasters program. mo.no.ged by Keep Columbus Beautiful, to remove graffiti on public property within two working do.ys of it being reported, und within 2Y hours if it is hateful. sexual, o.nd/or vOlent. Complaints co.n be reported through the City of Columbus website, by co.liing the Mayor's Action Center, or by co.liing the Refuse Division Customer Service Center. The I
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  8. 8. PROBLEM iDENTfFICATION AND ANALYSIS FORM Names of group members _&~_2~1__(, £j~~~----- Date ~ Thep;;lem Er~~¡~~;¡;-'A-W•~11J) _ 1 Is this a problem that you ·±~le in your community think is important? Why? -~ l S ~ :-tYQr_¿_'.__,i__~-- ¡;,i__ O vu: ::.,e, __c_ûM_~ l i. ..--~__.o_od_ flºVk 5u· Cl# 1 · ce-J 0£- 1.+. 2 What level of government or governmental agency is responsible for dealing with the problem? ~_o.e;?, - V S'·tpk ------·----· _ 3 What policy, if any, does government now have to deal with this problem? º~'º J ~~09. ô ~ ~~ls -t~ e'{ l íàf ôfl 0£- Jtr)ecr ---'4.ü___..f,_p("í V ~ *º g__lli~.A.&ClL. CV15d(l,!'Je j:¿0Qi:. If a policy does exist, answer the following questions: • What are its advantages and disadvantages? _fàà__::.__~rovu- s·ffi 'eae ts . ~- v{'~__c_e_d_, /í>f: s-perittc --------- • How might it be improved? ·-el;: co 01&-_be,__~ct- :>f u,S ,v « tJt enhru.J- _'o~ -------------- • Does this policy need to be replaced? Why? . ~- 00 'o__e.__£xtJ, .. lov±__it dot?.£1' 1± ou_d___:bLk__ ~· • What disagreements, if any, exist in your community about this policy? -~-~l:c__wY'l> _M~o~£c:h ~~.-- Jis:~cae ~- ~---h w YJlJ D9 _ ~------- ------ 4 Where can you get more information about this problem and the positions taken by different individuals and groups? 1 - C~ ~-·fut ~02~-£~~~ wVo rua_ __ -~L~.~- ..-v¡J__s_i)tf,, ?d_L~ ºº-~~~------- 5 Are there other problems in your community that you think m'Lt be useful for your class to study? What are they? .i___~[~1 le;~JV _ædS -------------- (O 2009 Center for Civic Eaucntion r ' .-.' ~·: ,.:
  9. 9. 5/112015 Law-iter - ORC - 2909.07 Crlmnel mischief. (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a misdemeanor of the third degree. Except as otherwise provided in this division, if the violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section creates a risk of physical harm to any person, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the property involved in the vtolatlorr" of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is an aircraft, an aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, spare part, fuel, lubricant, hydraulic fluid, any other equipment, implement, or material used or intended to be used in the operation of an aircraft, or any cargo carried or intended to be carried in an aircraft , criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is one of the following: (a) If the violation creates a risk of physical harm to any person, except as otherwise provided in division (C)(2)(b) of this section, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. (b) If the violation creates a substantial risk of physical harm to any person or if the property involved in a violation of this section is an occupied aircraft, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. (3) Except as otherwise provided in this division, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A) (6) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. Except as otherwise provided in this division, if the value of the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section or the loss to the victim resulting from the violation is one thousand dollars or more and less than ten thousand dollars, or if the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section is used or intended to be used in the operation; of an aircraft and the violation creates a risk of physical harm to any person, criminal mischief' committed in violation of division (A)(6) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section or the loss to the victim resulting from the violation is ten thousand dollars or more, or if the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section is used or intended to be used in the operation of an aircraft and the violation creates a substantial risk of physical harm to any person or the aircraft in question is an occupied aircraft, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(6) of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. Effective Date: 07-01-1996; 09-23-2004 http://codes.ohlo.g olorc/2909. 07 2/2
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  13. 13. 4/23/2015 SurveyMonkey Analyze - Graffiti U pgrudo 13030·10 My Surveys Examples Survey Services Plans & Pricing Upgrado to get 1noa11lngfulresults:View all your responsesand get powerful analysis.View Pricing·• Graffiti Summary Design Survey Collect Rosponses Analyze Results '·• .•:i.Ji: ill ::N Export All Sharo All No rules applied o l,L Question l!!! Summaries F~uk,s allc,wvau to FILTER, COMPAREancl SHOW results to ire trends and patterns. t.oarn more » PAGE 1 Q1 Oustotnizc Export IH :1,'',,,, (1) mOriginal View (I-Jo rules applied) Is graffiti vandalism or art? Answered: 21 Skippod: O Vandalism Art No shared data ~lllaring allows you to share your survey resulis with others. You can share all elata,a saved view, or a single question summary. Learn more 1:, lt depends Sharo Alf 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 00% 90% 100% Answer Choices r,csponses Vandalism 4.76% 'l , Art ( v- lt depends ~if us~~ºS;-;i" ~~ .,-~" V.?í'Jë)°iSl'h- e c.oc~.-,on s V'.:le~ 28.57% 6 66.67% 14 21 02 Export Explain your answer to question #1. Answorod: 21 Skipped: O PROFEATURE Cl Usetext analysis to search and categorize responses;see frequently-usedwords and phrases.To use Text Analysis, upgrade to a Güll) or !ºLATINUMplan. U pgrad o learn moro» Cükqu1i!·,, ~i:i.., Sl1owi11g 21 responses https:/!www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/8nw2dxQz6ADqVIPUPcs90zmLGq8jxymBxtiHAfxcjWM_3D
  14. 14. 4/23/2015 ~'-- ~t,- '1. ~ SurveyMonkey Analyze· Graffiti "-) Well if your doing graffiti on paper it's art but if you do graffiti 011 buildings. walls and trains then it's vandalism. 4/22'2015 8:48 PM View responoenl's answers because O or the time its art anrJEe~ ti1rfj they use it as marking gang signs 4/22/2015~ AM View responder . idk 4!221201510:4•1 AM View responuent's answers '1,ôù(' d'( "5 vJ er 'to lt de ponds because it could tie used for sornet11ing creative or inspuatlonal but it could also be sonmething ~ badandrude. "'Th' · c,vº'5-10A ~ . 4/?.2/201510:30/1,i Viewr<,,;pon<lclll'sanswers &Ivo J. º..ºif)+'. '~ l,S O(Jr ':,-J-1ce. -..t ,o:. r It's a form or art vleather anyone likes it I mean it can be vandalism but I feel like it's art because that's how some people express Illere feelings í?vn- oof'I Sl-')'°M'U, 'ou-"' +,e, ~·-" t. ¡,,,or¡¡, 4/22/201510:32 f,lv1 V1nw rnspornlenl's answers v/,· l,.. ~+. '1 I think it is creative and I would call it art t I in sorne cases it could be vandalism depending on where you do U1e graffiti. lt depends orl1'iv_l·1:Lmœ:l1lll:aJitn:: 4/22/2015 1():~~1 AM View respondents answers Q3 Customize Export Do you think graffiti should be illegal? Answered: 21 Skipped: O Yes No 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 60°/..i 60% 70% 80% 90% 1()0% Answer Choices Responses Yes 33,33% No 66.67% 14 rouu n e . 21 ,, .,,, .. ,,, ". Developers • l-acobook • Twitter • Linkedln • Our lllog • Google+ • YouTube M11nagenwnl r earn • Board of D,reclors • i'artrwrs • Newsroom • Office Locations Jobs • Sitornap • Help F, ·, Terms or Use • Privacy Policy • Anli-Spam Policy • Security Statement • Email Opt-ln l. .l!"ISJU '.!:·;11 'I' <('AHifl) Türkçe Espariol • f"ortuguës • Deutsch • l>Jer1erlanrls • Français • l"ycc,~~ • Italiano • Dansk • Svenska • 11 {,:,,!: Norsk • Suomi ------ ··------------~----·-·--···-- .. . -······-·······-···---- --------···----~·-- Copyrigt,t li:) I !)!J!J-2015 SurvcyMonkey https ://www.s urveym onkey .com/anal yze/8nw2dxQz6AD qVI PU Pes90zm LGq8jxym Bxti HAfxcjWM _30
  15. 15. 4/23/2015 SurveyMonkey Analyze - Graffiti Bettor Q- J'lou o Ou- ?v,Iiºj 5o 'ÇÇJ, Worse f'ê¥-t ~ct ·, ssve ?e.-r-ec or v,) I> í3e,,?Noutrai 0% 1QD/o 20% :10% 50% 60% 70% 80%40% Answer Choices Responses Bottor 14.29% Worse 57.14% No ut ral 20.57% Total Q5 How do you define graffiti? Answered: 21 Skippod: O PRO FEATURE Use text analysis to search and categorize responses; see frequently-used words aud phrases. To use Text Analysis, upqrade to a GOLD or PLATINUM plan. Upgrado : l.earu more » ,JS ... Showing 21 responses Bubble letters one the side of a abandoned buildinq 4/22/201 ti 8:48 Pi1,,1 Vrow respondent's answers Art 4/221201510:58 AM vtew respondent's answers ~) S~l"~e,. ~vandalism 4/22/2015 10:44 AM View respondent's answers Graffiti is something u person does when they want to express thcreselfto U10 public; 4/22/2015 10:38 AM Vi.ow respondent's answers The way someone felt and tilat was liiere way of expressing 4!22/2015 10:32 AM View rcsponrtent's answers Graffiti is an artistic form of writing words or letters. 4/22/2015 10:31 AM Wew respondent's answers Graffiti is íl lype of art. 4/22/2015 10:29AM Vi~w respondent's answers QG ! customtae ! Export Have you ever drawn graffiti? (This quiz is anonymous and you won't be penalized if you have) Answered: 21 Skipped: O bttps ://www .surveyrn onkey.corn/anal yze/8nw2dxQz6ADqVI PU Pes 90zrn LGq8jxym Bxti HAfxcjWM _3D 90% 100% 3 12 6 21 Export éJ!lßl i)
  16. 16. Total 21 4/23/2015 SurveyMonkey Analyze - Graffiti Yos 0.- ,dê LtOù f!.,"ef óOn e, 5r~.Ç~~-n~ No I don't romornbor 30% 40% 50% GO% 70% 80% 90% 100% Answer Choices Responses Yos 9.52% ,A,5~ J,,>():Jen>os.2 71.43% 15'v- No I don't remember 19.05% Q7 Custom Izo Export The Ohio public policy on graffiti is that if you are caught doing graffiti, you will receive a $400"$1,000fine and up to 6 months imprisonment. What are your thoughts on this policy? Answered: 21 Skippod: O lt Is sufflciont -... lt ls too strlct- wo... Othor (please specify) 0°/-:i 10% 20% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Answer Choices Responses ,... ,. lt Is sufficient - no changos nood to bo mado. 9.52% lt isn't sufficlont - wo noocl to add additional chargos or raiso tho oxisting onøs. 4.76% v lt Is too strict - wo neod to roduco the fine and tho Jall timo. 61.90% 13 Othor (please specify) t Rosponsøs Lots à,stJ5rae, vvi-Wl Ovr ~cic.Af. 23.81% 5 Tolal 21 https :I/www .surveym onkey .com/anal yze/8nw2dxQz6ADqVI PU Pcs90zm lBq8jxym Bxti HAfxcjWM _30
  17. 17. Grafft Graffiti co.n be good o.nd bo.d for mo.ny reo.sons. Graffiti is o. wo.y of or+ for some peopie. depending on the circumstances. If you consider tho.t Graffiti is used to express people's emotions o.nd is o.so used for communication. Graffiti is ort when it is to.ken seriously. If there is o. huge muro. on o. wo. somewhere with deto.i o.nd colour. then it co.n be considered o.rt rather tho.n destruction. But some people think graffiti is not o. reo. crime. Graffiti is distracting o.nd obnoxious when peope Just write their no.me or o.n obscene word on o. building. lt doesn't contribute to the community in o.ny beneficio.I wo.y. Graffiti is addressed in the current Columbus Code in the Genero.I Offenses Code, which sto.tes that "gro.ffltism" 5 o. crimino. offense, o.nd tho.t the gro.ff1t'1st must be caught in the o.ct. Any person convicted of gro.ff1tism must make restitution for the do.mo.ge co.used to property in addition to o.ny other punishment imposed. lt is o.so req,uired tho.t businesses who sell spray po.int or wide-t'1pped markers must display o. sign sto.ting "Graffiti Application is o. Crime Punishable by A $1.000 Fne o.nd/or 6 Months Imprisonment." Code Enforcement regulo.tes graffiti on privo.te property under the Graphics Code cs o.n uno.uthoriz.ed sign graphic. The code req,uires o.n insto.llo.tion permit for o.ny sign over 10 sq,uo.re feet in o.reo.. If o. property owner ho.s graffiti larger tho.n 10 sq,uo.re feet. they ore req,uired to ho.ve it removed. However. the City currently cannot req,uire o. property owner to remove smaller graffiti. ln 2001. the City of Columbus initiated the Graffiti Blasters program. mo.no.ged by Keep Columbus Beautiful, to remove graffiti on public property within two working do.ys of it being reported, und within 2Y hours if it is hateful. sexual, o.nd/or vOlent. Complaints co.n be reported through the City of Columbus website, by co.liing the Mayor's Action Center, or by co.liing the Refuse Division Customer Service Center. The I
  18. 18. Graffiti Blasters teo.m is trained in graffiti removal, while Keep Columbus Beautiful supplies community groups with po.int o.nd paint supplies for the purpose of covermg graffiti. Neighborhood Price is another city program that deo.ls with graffiti removal. The purpose of the Neighborhood Pride Program is for teams from City departments to work with residents. neighborhood leaders.o.nd loco. businesses to... 3
  19. 19. ·1,~Ö- (),., .,--..;)' '7 ~'VtJV States and explains the problem and its causes and presents evidence that there is a problem. {Elijah) Defaces property public and private,Mostly deals with gangs, Graffiti in public view is more important, form of vandalism, it is emerging, Attracts more http://facweb.knowlton.ohio-state.edu/jevanscowley/cr phttp://www.popcenter.org/problems/graffiti/852/repor t/graffiti.pdf http ://www.graffitihurts.org/getfacts/cost.js p Demonstrates an understanding of issues involved in the problem. {Marvin) People do Graffiti for many reasons. when people get bored they don't think of anything good to do. Most Graffitists are from 1 O years old to 40 years old. Most taggers are amazing artists and want to express their work with others so they put it on public places. The problem with that is when others see taggers art work on walls they get inspired of making their own in public places. Some people think its a game because when they see someone painting on walls they wait till they leave and paint another picture over it so they could show their art work instead. There are so many graffitists that cleaning it up alone will not stop graffiti, we have to educate the community.ln schools, 52% of public high schools and 47% of middle schools reported incidents of vandalism during the 1996-1997 school years.A 2006 survey of the 88 cities, Caltrans and Metro in Los Angeles County on graffiti removal found the cost was about $28 million. About 80% of graffiti is "tagger" graffiti. Another 5°/o are "pieces," or large visuals. Nationally, gang graffiti makes up about 10% of graffiti. Resource: -http://www.graffitihurts.org/prevention/prevention.jsp - http://evograffiti.weebly.com/whY--do-people-do-graffiti.html
  20. 20. -http://www.graffitihurts.org/getfacts/cost.jsp. Demonstrates an understanding of existing proposed public policies. {Elijah) "Graffiti Application is a Crime Punishable by A $1,000 Fine and/or 6 Months Imprisonment." http://facweb.knowlton.ohio-state.edu/jevanscowley/cr p852/repo rt/graffiti. pdf Explains disagreements about the problem that may exist in the community. {Ryan) People in the community don't always agree with art being out on the sides of buildings or trains. They feel art is supposed to be in the comfort of the artists home or in an art gallery. Because of this there are arguments about where and how much graffiti there can be. "Graffitis not art because it is vandalism and it damages other peoples properties." was said on a t1ttp://www.de bate ..orgf_oQinions/i§_:9 raffiti-a rt Explains why government should be involved in the solution. {Cari) -Common people cannot make laws -Common people aren't authorized to discipline vandals properly -Without legislature, no laws can be made addressing the problem -Without police forces and judicial branch, the laws can't be enforced properly -Government needs to be involved to make peace -Neutral opinion
  21. 21. Sources: • http://youthvoices.net/discussionlgraffiti-art-or-crime-1 • http://www.d~bate.org/debates/Graffiti-Art-or-Not/1 I • b_ttp://www.ask.com/art-literature/pros-cQil~-graffiti-60 9a997381 a5e3f4 • http://www.ehow.com/info 8710692 pro-graffiti-art-lo s-angeles. html -Can keep the peace more easily than a normal person -Taken more seriously than regular people -More bullet points then sentences •
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  23. 23. f~I I Search Entire Site I BJ Home J About Us J POP Guides J Translations J Library J P.OP Projects J LearningCenter I POP Conference IRSS Facebook Linkedln Table of Contents Graffiti Guide No.9 (2002) by Deborah Lamm Weisel The Problem of Graffiti This guide addresses effectlveresponses to the problemof graffiti - the wide range of markings, etchings and paintings that deface public or private property.t ln recent decades, graffiti has become an extenslve problem, spreadingfrom the largest cities to other locales. Despite the common association of graffitiwith gangs, graffiti is widely found in jurisdictions of all sizes, and graffiti offenders are by no means limited to gangs. t Although graffiti is also found within public or private property (such as in schools), this guide prirrarily addresses graffiti in places open to public view. Because of its rising prevalencein many areas - and the high costs typically associated with cleanup and prevention- graffiti is often viewed as a persistent, if not an intractable, problem. Few graffiti offendersare apprehended,and some change their methods and locations in response to possible apprehension and cleanups. As with most forms of vandalism, graffiti is not routinely reported to police. Many people think that graffiti is not a police or "real crime" problem, or that the police can do little about it. Because graffiti is not routinely reportedto police or other agencies, its true scope is unknown. But graffiti has become a major concern, and the mass media, including moviesand websites glamorizing or promoting graffiti as an acceptable form of urban street art, ha¬ contributed to its spread. Although graffiti is a common problem, its intensity varies substantially from place to place. While a single incident of graffiti does not seem serious, graffiti has a serious cumulative effect; its initial appearancein a location appears to attract more graffiti. Local graffiti patterns appear to emerge overtime, thus graffititakes distinctive forms, is found in different locations, and may be associated with varying motives of graffiti offenders.These varying attributes offer important clues to the control and preventionof graffiti. For many people, graffiti's presence suggests the qovernment'sfailure to protect citizens and control lawbreakers. There are huge public costs associated with graffiti: an estimated $12 billion a year is spent cleaning up graffiti in the United States. Graffiti cor+ributes to lost revenueassociated with reduced ridership on transit systems, reduced retail sales and declines in propertyvalue. lt~ Jition, graffiti generates the perception of blight and heightens fear of gang activity. Related Problems Graffiti is not an isolated problem. lt is often related to other crime and disorder problems, including: ß
  24. 24. • public disorder, such as littering, public urination and loitering; • shoplifting of materials needed for graffiti, such as paint and markers+ • gangs and gang violence, as gang graffiti conveys threats and identifies turf boundaries; and • property destruction, such as broken windows or slashed bus or train seats. Factors Contributing to Graffiti o Understanding the factors that contribute to your problemwill help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good eñectiveness measures, recognize key intenentlon points, and select appropriate responses. Types of Graffiti There are differenttypes of graffiti. The major types include: • gang graffiti, often used by gangs to mark turf or convey threats of violence, and sometimes copycat graffiti, which mimics gang graffiti; • tagger graffiti, ranging from hiqh-volumesimple hits to complex street art; • conventional graffiti, often isolated or spontaneous acts of "youthful exuberance," but sometimes malicious or vindictiÆ;and • ideological graffiti, such as political or hate graffiti, which conveys political messages or racial, religious or ethnic slurs. ln areas where graffiti is prevalent,gang and tagger graffiti are the most common types found. While other forms of graffiti may be troublesome, they typically are not as widespread. The proportionof graffiti attributable to differingrnotlvesvaries widely from one jurisdiction to another.t The major types of graffiti are discussed later. ! t A count in a San Diego area with a lot of graffiti show ed that about 50 percent was gang graffiti; 40 percent, tagger graffiti; and 10 percent, nongroup graffiti (San Diego Police Departmen! 2000 ). hnearby Chula Vista, calif ., only 19 percent of graffiti was gang-related (Olula Vista Police Department 1999). Although the counting methods likely differ, these proportions suggest how the breakdown of types of graffiti varies from1 one jurisdiction to another. 1 Common Targets and Locations of Graffiti Graffiti typically is placed on public property, or privateproperty adjacent to public space. lt is commonly found in transportation systems - on inner and outer sides of trains, subways and buses, and in transit stations and shelters. lt is also commonly found on vehicles: walls facing streets; street, freeway and traffic signs; statues and monuments; and bridges. ln addition, it appears on Ændingmachines, park benches, utility poles, utility boxes, billboards, trees, streets, sidewalks, parking garages, schools, business and residence walls, garages, fences, and sheds. ln short, graffiti appears almost any place open to public view. ln some locations, graffiti tends to recur. ln fact, areas where graffiti has been painted over- especially with contrasting colors - may be a magnet to be revandalized.t Some offenders are highly tenacious - conducting a psychological battle with authorities or owners for their claim overan area or specific location. Such tenacity appears to be related to an escalating defiance of authority. t fvbst sources suggest that paintover colors should closely match, rather than contrast with, the base. Contrasting paint-overs are presumed to attract or challenge graffiti offenders to repaint their graffiti; the painted-over area provides a canvass to frame the new graffiti. Graffiti locations are often characterized by the absence of anyone with direct responsibility for the area. This includes public areas, schools, vacant buildings,2 and buildings with absentee landlords. Offendersalso target locations with poor lighting and little oversiqht by police or security personnel. Some targets and locations appear particularly wlnerable to graffiti: ( ' • easy-to-reach targets, such as signs; • particularly hard-to-reachlocations, such as freeway oÆrpasses; • highly visible locations, such as building walls; • locations where a wall or fence is the primary security, and where there are few windows, employees or passersby; ·~~
  25. 25. t The description of types of graffiti and rrntives of graffiti offenders draws from broader typologies and motives associated with vandalism. See, for example, Coffield (1991) and Cohen (1973). • locations where oversight is cyclical during the day or week, or where people are intimidated by graffitioffenders; • mobile targets, such as trains or buses, which generatewide exposure for the graffiti; and • places where gang members congregate - taverns, bowling alleys, conveniencestore parking lots, and residential developments with many children or youth. lt .íition. two types of surfaces attract graffiti: • Light-colored surfaces. Dark surfaces do not generally attract as much graffiti, but can be marredwith lightcolored paint. • Large and plain surfaces. Surfaces without windows or doors may be appealingfor large-scale projects. Smooth surfaces especially attract offenderswho use felt-tip markers. Motives of Offenders While making graffiti does not offer material rewardto offenders,contrary to public opinion, it does havemeaning. Ratherthan being a senseless destruction of property, graffiti fulfills certain psychological needs, including providingexcitement and action, a sense of control and an element of risk. The differenttypes of graffiti are associated with differentmotives, although these drives may overlap.t Distinguishing between types of graffiti and associated motives is a critical step for developingan effectiveresponse. Historically, much conventional graffiti has represented a youthful "rite of passage" - part of a phase of experimental behavior.Such graffiti is usually spontaneous and not malicious in nature; indeed, spontaneous graffiti has often been characterized as play, adventureor exuberance. Spontaneous graffiti may reflect local traditions and appear on "fair targets" such as abandonedbuildings or schools. Communities have often tolerated such graffiti. îr" -notives for some types of conventional graffiti may include anger and hostility toward society, and the vandalism thus fulfills SG. ~ personal psychological need.3 The graffiti may arise from boredom, despair, resentment, failure, and/or frustration, in which case it may be vindictiveor malicious. A related type of graffiti is ideological. Ideological graffiti expresses hostility or a grievance- often quite explicitly. Such graffiti is usually easily identified by its content, reflecting a political, religious, ethnic, or other bias. Offenders may strategically target certain locations to further the message. ln contrast to conventionaland ideological graffiti, the primary motive for gang graffiti is tactical; the graffiti serves as a public form of communication - to mark turf, convey threats or boast of achievernents.ë Some tagger graffiti may im,olvecreative expression, providinga source of great pride in the creation of complex works of art. Most taggers seek notoriety and recognition of their graffiti- they attach status to havingtheir work seen. Thus, prolongedvisibility due to the sheer velurne, scale and complexity of the graffiti,t and placement of the graffiti in hard-to-reachplacesl" or in transit systems, enhance the vandal's satisfaction. 5 Because recognition is important, the tagger tends to express the same motif- the graffiti's style and content are replicated o.er and overagain, becoming the tagger's unique signature. t This includes complex, artistic graffiti know n as masterpieces. tt Taggers in California used climbing equipment to tag freeway overpasses, know ing their tags would be highly visible for extended periods, until the road was shutdown for paint-overs (Beatty 1990). Hardto-reach places also provide an element of danger of apprehension or physical risk, contributing to the vandal's reputation. Participation in graffiti is often inadvertently encouraged through police contacts, media attention and public recognition of it through advertising or art displays - all can serveto enhance the offender'sreputation or notoriety.ê Types of Graffiti and Associated Motives
  26. 26. Type of Features Motives Graffiti Gang t Gang name or symbol, including hand signs Gang member name(s) or nickname(s), Mark turf Threaten violence or sometimes a roll-call.listing of members Numberstt Distinctive, stylized Boast of achievements Honor alphabetsttt Keyvisible locations Enemy names and symbols, or allies' names the slain Insult/taunt other ( gangs Common High-volume, accessible locations High-visibility, hard-to-reach locations l'v1aybe Notoriety or prestige Defiance Taggertttt stylized buts imple name or nickname tag or syrnbolsttttt Tenacious (keep of authority retagging) Artistic Tagger Colorful and complex pictures known as masterpieces or pieces Artistic Prestige or recognition Conventional Sporadic episodes or isolated incidents Play Rite of passage Graffiti: Excitement Impulsive Spontaneous Conventional Sporadic, isolated or systematic incidents Anger Boredom Resentment Graffiti: Failure Despair Malicious or vlndlctlve Ideological Offensive content or symbols Racial, ethnic or religious slurs Specific targets, such as Anger Hate Political Hóstility synagogues Highly legible Slogans Defiance t Copycatgraffiti looks like gang graffiti, and may be thew ork of gang wanna-besor youthsseeking excitement. ( <, tt Offenderscomronly use numbers as codein gang graffiti.A nuni:Jer may representthe correspondingposition ln the alphabet (e.g., 13 = M, for / the fv'exican Ml.fia), or representa penal or police radio code. ttt Stylized alphabets include bubble letters, blockletters, backw ards letters, and Old English script. tttt Tagbangers,a derivativeof tagging crews and gangs, are characterizedby corrpetitionwith other crews. Thus crossedout tags are featuresof their graffiti. ttttt The single-line writing of a name is usually know n as a tag, while slightly rrore corrplextags, including those with two colorsor bubble letters, are know n as throw-ups. Characteristics and Patterns of Graffiti Offenders Graffiti offenders are typically young and male. ln one study, most offenders were ages 15 to 23; many of the offenders were students. Offenders may typically be male, inner-city blacks and Latinos, but female, as well as white and Asian, participation is growing.7 The profile clearly does not apply in some places where the population is predominantly white. Tagging is not restricted by class lines. ln Sydney, Australia, graffiti offenders, while mostly boys, include girls; offenders are typically ages 13 to 17.8 ln San Diego, all the taggers identified within a two-mile area were male, and 72 percent were 16 or younger.9 Graffiti offenders typically operate in groups, with perhaps 15 to 20 percent operating alone.10 ln addition to the varying rnotlves for differing types of graffiti, peer pres/ boredom, lack of supervision, lack of activities, low academic achievement, and youth unemployment contribute to participation in graffiti. Graffiti offenders often use spray paint, although they may also produce graffiti with large markers or by etching, the latter
  27. 27. t Other tools for graffiti include shoe polish, rocks, razors, glass cutters, and glass etching fluid. Glass etching fluids include acids, such as Bch Bath and Arrrour Bch, developed as hobby products for decorating glass. Vandals squirt or rub the acids onto glass. especially on glass surfaces." Spray paint is widely available, easily concealed, easily and quickly used on a variety of surfaces, available in different colors with different nozzles to change line widths - these factors make spray paint suitable for a range of offenders.tt tt Vandals may adapt or rrodify tools and practices to cleaning rS thods. h New York Qty, when transit system personnel used paint solvents to rerrove graffiti, offenders adapted by spraying a surface with epoxy, writing their graffiti and then coating the surface with shellac, which proved very difficult to remove. The making of graffiti is characterized by anonymity - hence relativesafety from detection and apprehension. Most offenderswork quickly, when few people are around. Graffiti predominantly occurs late on weekend nights, though there is little systematic evdence about this. ln British transit studies, graffiti incidents typically occurred in off-peakor non-rushhours.11ln Bridgeport, Conn., graffiti incidents were concentrated from 5 p.m. to 4 a.m. Thursdays through Sundays.12A San Diego study showed that routes leading away from schools were hit more frequently, suggesting a concentration in after-school hours Monday through Friday. Offenders tagged school walls daily.13 There is widespread concern that participation in graffiti may be an initial or gateway offensefrom which offendersmay graduateto more sophisticated or harmful crimes. Graffiti is sometimes associated with truancy, and can inwlve drug and/or alcohol use. Graffiti offenderswho operate as members of gangs or crews may also engage in fighting.
  28. 28. Why Gang Graffiti Is Dangerous The purpose of gang graffiti is to glorify the gang. Gang graffiti is meant to create a sense of intimidation and may increase the sense of fear within a neighborhood. Gang members use graffiti to mark their territory or turf, declare their allegiance to the gang, advertise a gang's status or power, and to challenge rivals. Graffiti is used to communicate messages between gangs using codes with common meaning. Of greater concern is the inherent violence associated with gang graffiti. When a neighborhood is marked with graffiti indicating territorial dominance, the entire area and its inhabitants become targets for violence. Anyone in the street or in their home is fair game for drive-by attacks by rival gang members. A rival gang identifies everyone in a neighborhoodas a potential threat. Consequently, innocent residents are often subjected to gang violence by the mere presence of graffiti in their neighborhood. Click here for information on removing graffiti.
  29. 29. 5/112015 BBC NEWS I Europe I Graffiti: Freespeechor 'ßl'ldalism? [an error occurred while processing this directive] Home l'kwr, Sport Radio TV Weather Languages mmœ NEWS Africa Americas Asia-Pacific Europe Middle East South Asia UK Business Health Science& Environment Technology Entertainment Also in the news Video and Audio Programmes Have Your Say In Pictures Country Profiles Special Reports RELATED BBC SITES SPORT WEATHER ON THIS DAY EDITORS' BLOG Languages IJWaích] One··Minut:eWorld News I Search I Low qraphics I Accessibility help News services • Your news when you want ... .'. it ~ .,,., ml E-mail this to a friend La.st _Updated: Friday, .. 28 ..Aprll. 20_06,..09_:_09..GMT..1O: 09. U.K . Graffiti: Free speech or vandalism? ~ Printable version In New York this week, seven young artists - backed by fashion designer Marc Ecko- filed a law suit against New York City over its strict anti-graffiti law. The law, which took effect this year, bans people under 21 from possessing spray paint or broad-tipped markers. Designer·Marc Ecko is backing a graffiti case against New York City SEE ALSO: Calcutta's colourless campaign l6 Apr 06 I South Asia Graffiti ads spark debate in US 29 Dec 05 I Americas RELATED INTERNET LINKS: NY Council rec:laimyourcity. net Nofitti The BBC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites The artists say the law violates their constitutional right to free TOP EUROPE STORIES speech, Credit Suisse offices are raided But Gabriel Taussig, a lawyer for New York City, said it strikes a "constitutional balance between the First Amendment rights [to free speech] and the need to control the long-standing plague of graffiti". In Berlin, an international conference is under way to discuss ways of dealing with the city's graffiti. Organiser Karl Henning, of the Christian Democrat Party (CDU), and his organisation Nofitti want all forms of graffiti banned and are aiming for the Scandinavian zero tolerance model. So, is graffiti a democratic means of expression or is it plain vandalism? New York City councillor Peter Vallone - who sponsored New York City's new law - and Felix, a member of the Berlin-based reclaimyourcity.net - which documents "artistic intervention in modern cities" - argue for and against graffiti. We also want to know what you think, so please use the link at the end of the page to send us your views. Is graffiti art or is it a crime? It's a simple question with a simple answer. Graffiti done with permission is art is in the eye of the beholder. My office has even funded many beautiful graffiti-like murals. However, it becomes a crime when you put that "art" on someone else's property. I have a message for the graffiti vandals out there - your http://nevvs.bbc.co.ul42/hi/europe/4946378.stm French row over Bastille parade EU gives backing to BA alliance fil~J I News feeds 114 )-4
  30. 30. 5/112015 BBC NEWS I Europe I Graffiti: Free speech or 1Æl11dallsm? freedom of expression ends where my property begins! If illegal graffiti were truly an art form, these thugs would have their tags all over their own homes and vehicles, which is not the case. As City Public Safety Chair and a former prosecutor, I can tell Subway trains are a favourite canvas for New York's graffiti writers you that art is not what motivates the vast majority of taggers. At its best graffiti is just a way for immature vandals to seek notoriety and at its worst it is messages between rival gangs and drug dealers. Graffiti is a gateway crime that both leads children and adolescents astray and sends a message that a graffiti-covered neighbourhood is ripe for criminal activity. Costly clean-up Over the past few years in New York City the writing has literally been on the wall. After removing graffiti left over from the crime-ridden 70s and 80s, graffiti is again on the rise. Last year graffiti arrests went up by more than 89%. Through April 2006 the City has received over 13,000 requests to clean graffiti. In the United States it costs approximately $15 to $18bn annually to remove it. As a result of irresponsible Graffiti from the 80s was removed as corporations like Ecko Inc and New York cleaned up Its image Atari targeting our children with graffiti-based marketing themes, more and more of the people being arrested are younger teenagers and adolescents. To combat this, my new law takes away their graffiti tools and makes it illegal for anyone under 21 to simply possess spray paint, large broad tip markers and other tools of the trade. Spray-painting punks Stopping the spread of graffiti is everyone's responsibility. Building owners who find graffiti on their property must now clean that graffiti themselves or contact the city to have it removed free of charge. If they take no action my new law will hold them fiscally responsible Of course there is no substitute for stronger law enforcement In New York City, I have recently passed a number of innovative graffiti bills that will help fight the scourge that is destroying our neighbourhoods. ! 214 http://neNS.bbc.co.ul42lhl/europe/4946378.stm
  31. 31. 5/112015 BBC N EWS I Europe I Graffiti: Free speech or vandalism? and stiffer penalties. Graffiti is a quality of life crime that plagues every major city in the world. It's time that we stand up to these spray-painting punks and take our cities back. í'ELIX1 RE(1JU1'0,YOURCITY.NET Graffiti, big and colourful letters and pictures, and street art, also known as post-graffiti which includes stencils, stickers, posters and other media - are the vibrant expressions of modern cities. Architecture and the streets are h d b · I · t t 'Riot cops' ÇJraffíti in Berlin: a critique s ape y commercia m eres s,0n society'? not by the residents of the city. It is impossible to avoid, the public have no access to these spaces, that is, unless we claim them for our own. Nowadays, urban public spaces are reserved for those who have enough money. Advertising dominates the urban landscape, and we are constantly bombarded with slogans from multinationals everywhere we go. Graffiti and street art are the only ways that people can interact with public spaces actively. These art forms can, for example, express emotions, give critique on current politics or society, or offer venues for public art. Therefore, they create a space for communication and discourse, where private experiences can be made visible, and where critical, personal or artistic messages can be passed onto others outside the artists' immediate circles. Graffiti on the Berlín Wall was once widely seen as a symbol of freedomGraffiti makes the streets colourful, brings life into the greyness of everyday life and sterile architecture, showing signs of life of the people living behind the facades. Graffiti is a democratic means of expression. Historically in Berlin graffiti was, above all, a symbol of freedom in the West. Freedom of speech and movement made it possible for graffiti all over the Western side of the Berlin Wall to starkly emphasise the tighter restrictions of society in the East. The city recognised the symbolism of the graffiti and in this sense, welcomed it. Punishments If current opponents of graffiti, like "Noffiti", only associate damage to property with this art form, they misunderstand the meaning and importance of these urban signs. http://new.:;.bbc.co.ul42/hi/europe/4946378.stm 314 ~
  32. 32. 5/1/2015 BBC NEWS I Europe I Graffiti: Free speech or vandalism? While complaining about malicious damage, they clean the spray-painted, pasted walls, just to see them sprayed over again almost immediately. It would be a much more effective use of public resources to invest the money used for cleaning in workshops and painting lessons, in order to raise the quality of the graffiti. ( One writer's humorous addition to Berlin's graffiti By imposing unjustifiable punishments and police action, they are trying to take action against a mostly harmless group of people, perhaps only to distract the public from the failure of politics in much more important questions. A city with graffiti and street art is a much more vibrant one, and therefore, it should not be criminalised but rather given as much space as possible. Can graffiti be a good thing? Is it creative or destructive? What are your experiences? Click here to send us your comments m E-mall this to a friend iÉli Printable version PRODUCTS AND SERVICES E-mail news Mobiles Alerts News feeds Podcasts MMIX Back to top A A Help I Privacy and cookies policy I News sources I About the BBC I Contact us I http://nf:'MIS.bbc.co.ul42/hi/europe/494637B.stm ~""'.- 4/4
  33. 33. Alternative Policies Our group came up with three alternative policies to use in place of the current one. The current policy in Ohio is that offenders will be given a $400-$1,000 fine, and/or up to six months of imprisonment. We decided that this policy either didn't work, there was little education about the policy, or the policy was not enforces well enough. There is plenty of graffiti all over the communities in this state, yet there doesn't seem to be any action taken about it. Our first alternative started at simply "Stop kids at a young age". When told to elaborate on this, we came up with the idea of creating or finding a program not unlike D.A.R.E, but with the central focus being graffiti. Implementing a program like this would teach kids at an early age the importance of staying away from graffiti. The lessons would hopefully decrease the amount of graffiti offenders by a lot. However, we found some disadvantages as well. Teaching kids about graffiti could be perceived as advertising the glamour of the crime if done improperly. Also, as with the D.A.R.E program, its usage may have little effect, if any at all. Starting a program such as this would cost quite a bit, with costs of hiring people to run the program and to buy the needed supplies. If it had no effect, then that money would be essentially wasted.
  34. 34. Our second alternative was simply, "Double the fine". This is as it ( sounds: we would double the fine from $400-$1,000 to $800-$2,000. The amount would have to depend on the amount and severity of the offenses. The raised amount, if the public was informed on its appearance, should make taggers shy away from graffiti. Also, the money raised by the fines could be used to remove other graffiti, or it could be given to the nearby school districts as funding. However, as with everything, there are disadvantages. The raised rate could have no effect at all on the amount of graffiti in the area. People who disagree could complain or protest, which would cause unrest in the area. Also, the crime rate could go up from rebellion. The third alternative was to add more street lights. ln multiple studies, areas with increased light tend to have less graffiti. Taggers are more likely to get caught, because in places with more light, it is easier to see someone doing something suspicious. lt will reduce crime rates, since crimes tied to graffiti should decrease with it. With these crime decreases come less high school dropouts. However, there are still disadvantages. Street lights cost a lot of money - $5-8 ,000 total for installation, to be exact. The installation of these lights may raise taxes, which wouldn't fare well with the taxpaying citizens.
  35. 35. We chose to do a fourth alternative - changing the consequences slightly to include a jail time, monetary fine, and community service time. The amount of punishment would depend on how much damage the perpetrator did. People in the area would have a better idea of how severe the situation is, and to stay away from graffiti. They will learn it is a crime with consequences. Also, taggers who have done very mild graffiti will still be punished, but not too severely. On the other hand, some people may not agree with the newer, possibly stricter change. Also, this consequence may not be a concern to some taggers and they will continue with the crimes. All four of our alternatives have advantages and disadvantages, some proportioned more than others. I n the next section, we will reveal which one we chose. But, first, for some evidence in the following pages.
  36. 36. Whª t?Tagger crews primarily do graffiti. They usualI y consist ofno more then three • ind ividials, who are more interested in street art than violent criminal activities. Taggers are the predominant so urce of g raflïti within S al t Lake County. Th ey typica Ily will not cross out the graffiti o fother taggi ngcrews or street gang s. "Battles" or wars, waged between grotps of taggers, can create thrusands of dollars wo rth of damage in a single night as tagging crews crmpctc to put up the most graffiti. Wh V? Graffiti is the tagger's voice. They do graffiti for fun, to gain sarus with other tagging crews, amr because th cy become addicted to the adrenaline rus, they get when they tag. Taggers gain statu; with in tluir crews for putting up grafiti that stays upfor a I ong time, for tagging in areas that are diû'icult tog ct to (on buildings abow the second story, o n highway overpasses, and on bisy streets, for example), and for graffiti that is particularly artistic or ebne in a recognizable style by a particular person. In ord cr to gain rccogni tion, íhey will often "sign" their graffiti with a mrnikcr, ornick name. Tagging can bevel)' dangerous when taggers attempt to do second-story tagging orwh en th~1 tag a vall that a street gang claim; as their own. Wh O? Tagger graffiti appears even in the most affluent neighborhood, and business districts. Community members arc cítcn confused when they æe tagging in thcirnci ghborhoo ds, fcaring thats treet gan gs are present. Taggers, ho wevcr, are notme mbcrs of tradition al street gangs. They arc usually Jess violent, although íhey may carry weapons. They often come from affluent, two-parent homes, and may be intelligent and successful in school. In most cases, local graffiti is created by local kids, 9'.) if there is tagger graffiti inyourncighborhood, it is likely that yo u haw taggers that live in your rcig hborhood. What can I do? First, never cm front someone who is defog graffiti, even ifyou think they're just tagg ers. I fyou can, obtain information on tle culprits unobtrusive ly mu pass it on to the law enforcement agency in yo ur arca. Clothing and card escriptions, license plate n umbers, and any other info rmation that would be helpful in identifying a suspect woud be appreciatcd. Al ways paint over graffiti as soon as possible. Stud ies do ne in Ca lifornia ind i cate that this is the one best W<lY to prevent repeat graffiti. Encourage y our neigh bors and businesses in your ncighborhocd to do the same. Im mediate removal takes away a tagger 's ability to showoff his work to others. You might also wait to consider planting ivy or thorn bushes near a wall thathas been a constant problem. Ifyou're building a new fence, con sider the materials bcirg used Som e fencing materi als may discourage graffiti, while others may send an invitation. Iden ti fying a tagger: There are signs parents cru, look for which might indicate that their chi!d is atag ger. The urge to tag is very streng, so tle tag name will offen be written on everything the child owns. Their tag may be written somewhere i n their ro om. Sketch books containing practice graffiti art often indicates tagging behavior. Parents sometimes find a cd lcction of'v ariois types of aero sol spray pairt cans, surgicru gloves, I oose spray can tips, large markers, stickers, and ph otograph sand videos ofgraffiti. Youth who are irvolv cd intag ging may haw pai nt or marker dye 011 their hands, under their fingem ails, or 011 their clothes. Other items a tagger miglt have irclu de large e oats with hoods, mil itary jack ets, luck packs for carrying pairt ca ns, baggy pants with large pockets, and clothing with paint manufacture rs names on them. SALT LAKE AREA GANG (385) 468-9770 PROJECT Prepam tio111111d P rin ting of this do cuntcn tfi111111œd by the U.S. Bureau of Justice A ssisumcc and the Walz Commies ion 011 Crinunul 1111d [uueuile Justice, Grunt Number 2003-DB-BX-0049
  37. 37. b
  38. 38. 5/112015 Law-iler - ORC - 2909.07 Criminal mschlef, 2909.07 Criminal mischief. (A) No person shall: (1) Without privilege to do so, knowingly move, deface, damage, destroy, or otherwise improperly tamper with the property of another; (2) With purpose to interfere with the use or enjoyment of property of another, employ a tear gas device, stink bomb, smoke generator, or other device releasing a substance that is harmful or offensive to persons exposed or that tends to cause public alarm; (3) Without privilege to do so, knowingly move, deface, damage, destroy, or otherwise improperly tamper with a bench mark, triangulation station, boundary marker, or other survey station, monument, or marker; (4) Without privilege to do so, knowingly move, deface, damage, destroy, or otherwise improperly tamper with any safety device, the property of another, or the property of the offender when required or placed for the safety of others, so as to destroy or diminish its effectiveness or availability for its intended purpose; (5) With purpose to interfere with the use or enjoyment of the property of another, set a fire on the land of another or place personal property that has been set on fire on the land of another, which fire or personal property is outside and apart from any building, other structure, or personal property that is on that land; 6) Without privilege to do so, and with intent to impair the functioning of any computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, or computer program, knowingly do any of the following: (a) In any manner or by any means, including, but not limited to, computer hacking, alter, damage, destroy, or modify a computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, or computer program or data contained in a computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, or computer program; (b) Introduce a computer contaminant into a computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, or computer program. (B) As used in this section, "safety device" means any fire extinguisher, fire hose, or fire axe, or any fire escape, emergency exit, or emergency escape equipment, or any life line, life-saving ring, life preserver, or life boat or raft, or any alarm, light, flare, signal, sign, or notice intended to warn of danger or emergency, or intended for other safety purposes, or any guard railing or safety barricade, or any traffic sign or signal, or any railroad grade crossing sign, signal, or gate, or any first aid or survival equipment, or any other device, apparatus, or equipment intended for protecting or preserving the safety of persons or property. (C) 1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of criminal mischief, and shall be punished as provided in division (C)(2) or (3) of this section. (2) Except as otherwise provided in this division, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A) http:l/codes.ohlo.govorc/2909.07 1/2
  39. 39. 5/112015 Law-iter - ORC - 2909.07 Crlmnel mischief. (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a misdemeanor of the third degree. Except as otherwise provided in this division, if the violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section creates a risk of physical harm to any person, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the property involved in the vtolatlorr" of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is an aircraft, an aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, spare part, fuel, lubricant, hydraulic fluid, any other equipment, implement, or material used or intended to be used in the operation of an aircraft, or any cargo carried or intended to be carried in an aircraft , criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is one of the following: (a) If the violation creates a risk of physical harm to any person, except as otherwise provided in division (C)(2)(b) of this section, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. (b) If the violation creates a substantial risk of physical harm to any person or if the property involved in a violation of this section is an occupied aircraft, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. (3) Except as otherwise provided in this division, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A) (6) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. Except as otherwise provided in this division, if the value of the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section or the loss to the victim resulting from the violation is one thousand dollars or more and less than ten thousand dollars, or if the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section is used or intended to be used in the operation; of an aircraft and the violation creates a risk of physical harm to any person, criminal mischief' committed in violation of division (A)(6) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section or the loss to the victim resulting from the violation is ten thousand dollars or more, or if the computer, computer system, computer network, computer software, computer program, or data involved in the violation of division (A)(6) of this section is used or intended to be used in the operation of an aircraft and the violation creates a substantial risk of physical harm to any person or the aircraft in question is an occupied aircraft, criminal mischief committed in violation of division (A)(6) of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. Effective Date: 07-01-1996; 09-23-2004 http://codes.ohlo.g olorc/2909. 07 2/2
  40. 40. Proposed Policy The policy our group chose was "Jail time, monetary fine, and community service". We chose this policy because it had the least troubling disadvantages, and everyone in our group could agree on it. We chose to format it as such: "For one or more counts of graffiti, offenders must serve x amount of jail time, pay a fine of $y, and contribute z hours of community service." The values will be decided in court by determining the severity and amount of offenses. For example, someone who has just scrawled a small, random drawing on a wall and gotten caught will still be punished, regardless of how small. However, they won't be charged a huge fine - only one that is appropriate for the size of the offense. Perhaps we would charge them $1-200. If the graffiti was really small, there would be no jail time. Also, we could give them 5 or 10 hours of community service. The tediousness of working for the community with the added fine should tell the tagger to stay awayfrom graffiti in the future. On the other hand, if someone were to create a large defacement on the side of a building that offended the property owner greatly, we would take the tagger to court and give them more punishments. They could be given a large fine in order to cover up the graffiti, in the range of $800-$1,000. The perpetrator would be assigned, perhaps, up to six of
  41. 41. eight months in jail, if the defacement were that bad. Once they got out of I jail, they would be ordered to sacrifice up to 50 hours of their time doing community service. The policy is flexible and includes all taggers, no matter the graffiti in question. lt can punish small crimes as well as big ones. As an added benefit, it's constitutional as well. The Sixth Amendment of the US Constitution states that everyone has the right to a fair and speedy trial. With this policy, every offender is being given just that. Besides, something similar to it already exists, so this is essentially an extended edition of a policy that has already been declared constitutional. We admit that there are some disadvantages - the amount of punishment may be hard to fairly determine. If this comes up in the future, we will have to devise a specific set of requirements for the consequences. Otherwise, though, this was the most foolproof policy we came up with. I
  42. 42. Graffiti Permission I Consent Form Owner/ Agent name _ Address ----------------- Phone ( )- __ Backup phone ( ) - __ Description of Property: Brick Siding (specifically)__ Painted Stone Other (specifically)__ Type of Building: Single Family__ Multi__ Commercials__ Color of Building _ I, declare that I am the owner or the agent of the property at the following address: and give permission to to put up graffiti on this property. I, understand the following standards I must meet in order to keep my graffiti up on property. If I do NOT follow the specific instructions of the owner then I will have my graffiti removed and serve my penalty. I take full responsibility for my graffiti and consent to _ orders. Owner Signature _ Graffitist Signature _
  43. 43. l Cl Nlumb,órof G:mo Mon1bc>r1; per 1,000 Pooplli • 6+ • <H, E ;>-4 L?r5t- r,'ví) 1. Cni J;sh ~"' à. SoMew h ?t o'o..rete. Col""l~t--e~ v<l0ttl-5S~t..¡ · Lqrjl- .ç.~ne, ~úh,;ps 4 (Vb0 .-ris '" .~pi L <Y 3'o hovíS Of S<Z.íVlc..e... DeC,t(" 1- s ~e-. No ,((~)c+Çv Mtss;,j<!,, JvS..- SOMt,O()e., ,e,<15 AlS ras pee-+ Fvl. Mo der~.¿ .ç:"¢, perh~ps ~ Mo () thS t () Jd ; , ;;>n.d 5 ~ ;}-.o n o vrs o.f service.
  44. 44. GRAFFITI IS ~OT ART. GRAFFITI IS A CRIME. ( 0 .~ 25% -- i~c. .... ~ ~,, 20% Cl u g .l: ! ,e m :Q ~ 15% e: .5 ;g ·- l'i! Cl e t: ·- '€ ~ ~ 10% o ß!c.·- e iii c. :¡s 5% People living in deprived areas are much more likely to dislike their neighbourhood because of young people 'hanging around' or 30% ~~~~~~~~v_a_n_d_a_li_s_m~th_a_n~th_o_s_e~li_v_in~g~ln~o_th_e_r_a_r_e_a_s~~~~~~~ lnYoung people hanging about I nothing for young people to do ------- El Vandalism and raffiti 0% - Most deprived fifth 2nd 3rd Deprivation of local area 4th Least deprived fifth Source: Scottish Household Survey; the data ls the average for the years 2006to 2008; updated Jul 2010 (
  45. 45. Plan of Action We devised an action plan to help us carry out our policy in an organized fashion. It's a five step plan, but it should get us through just fine. First, we will take the policy to the Greenhills mayor. Our school resides in Greenhills, so we feel it is necessary to get his approval first. We will have to show and explain the policy to him. After we do this, we will let him refine the policy to meet the needs of the community. While we know a lot about the situation, he knows more, so it's important that we let him guide the policy towards implementation. If he approves the policy and it gets put into place, then step two is to act upon the policy. With the new policy in place, we will wait for results. During the time we observe the policy, we will look to see if there are any positive outcomes in implementing this policy. If there are, and graffiti rates decrease, this takes us to step three. The group will take the policy to the governments of fellow communities Forest Park and Springfield Township. After gaining their approval, we will put the policy in place there - step four - and look for results. If, after all this time, the policy works in those three communities, then we'll be at step five. Step five is to either continue spreading the
  46. 46. policy to more small towns nearby, or if we feel we have collected enough ( evidence to do so, the state government. We recognize that some groups of people will oppose our policy. For example, in a recent survey we gave to students in our class, 27% of them claimed graffiti was art, while 68.180/o were on the fence. If this policy gets put into place, these students will most likely be unhappy. Let's not forget the taggers in the community themselves, also. They won't be happy about the policy either. We can win their support by convincing them that most graffiti is ugly and all of it is expensive and damaging by showing them prime examples and having lots of supporting evidence. We will be courteous and listen to their side as well, but we'll have to be firm in delivery as well. Our action plan has been revised a few times, so we're sure it will work for the time being. Now, it is time to carry it out. ( (
  47. 47. TASK FOUR_DEVELOPING AN ACTION PLAN ~- / You wi11 need to develop an action plan to get your policyadopted by the appropriate governmental body or agency. This plan should include the steps you will need to take to get your proposed policy enacted and implemented by the government, ;e; 5i>tt~ ¡ 8~JJV 5JI ;C,r'I. SH"a, Aivre. 2, Influential ind~vkduals and groups who might be willing to support our proposed policy are so ~ vrn¥ 3,j:*' ' 3, To win their support we can [<>lhc,, ~q.m 'ùió "">ve, fuUÆ) ba)~ us& r&,,oe.._ 1 ~L p~i ctq .>ßà ,/'.': r,ove. upùri e·+. 4.In~=r might oppose om proposed policy am ~ l'J(I(, :t: o<l- ?';ff D[ QY 'Ie§:) ·, n1."t> d· wr:± bæ 33
  48. 48. TASK FOUR (CONTINUED) 11 6. Influential government officials or agencies that might be willing to support our proposed policy are º"''º 60/UCIMU-t' -Tu't>~,ç., Rº"'""" ;>r:ettß "t 1,'Ù s:k ·" OV'io - )1>s:: ·,.;í·:: eDÎcc,eJ vvd cy ~e,fbs o oe 7. We can gain their support by ( oinv'iv'(lf§ :'.beM ovr ro'111,t CJJ..s aa~ ·b back: i ±i¿p..L-. 1.M!.- C øD £¡X: ;} <'-l<2dl~ _. I. , ' ~ .. .. ~ ~Ht ·~ :.J 34 8.
  49. 49. (i) ~ ~tuta.wrr..,.. aura Crime Prevention: Graffiti is Everybody's Problem Graffiti costs American communtttes more than S8 billion per year. lt hurts property vafues, drives away business, and sends the message that nobody cares about the community. Grafftti is everybody's problem. Here's what you can do to help. Report lt • Report graffiti immediately. The sooner it is reported. the sooner it can be removed. • If you see graffiti in progress, report it-don't try to intervene. Some places have graffiti hotlines or tiplines, which usually offer anonymity to people rep<>rtingcrimes. • Enœurage everyone in the community to report graffiti as soon as it happens. • Contad the property O."lf'lerwhose building has been vandalized by graffiti. Stress the importance of quick cleanup. Form a neighborhood group to help property owners dean up graffiti quickly. • Take a photo of the graffiti. lt may prCJIÏde information that will lead to identification of the vandal Remove lt Pamphlets !i.-.r+ñi iS ~&o~'S l'RS.rtt/ ,~ E~t!;~Y! ~ ~ . 1... ~~:::...~:_¿.;;-r .. _.< • -~. °t"'<.'--.1'. i • yr " y.~ ·.-7'~ •·1.!.~~~:i''' . :·.;¡_. ¡ f,'( » ~ /tj ~- ·~,~À:-~ ·! ..s, • Removing graffiti promptly (within the first 24 hours if possible) is the best way to prevent it. Prompt persistent removal usually results in a nearly zero rate of rerurrenœ. Before any graffiti removal begins. however.find out whether the police want to photograph it as evidence_ • Paint a mural overthe graffiti if the site is suitable. Involve the community in painting a mural to celebrate the history of the community or its diversity. (Ask local paint companies to donate the supplies.) Vandals seldom put graffiti on murals. • When painting over graffiti. save some of the paint for touchups in the event of future vandalism. • Some muniåpal governments have guidelines for removing graffiti. Checkwith your local government. • Look in the Yellow Pages (under "Graffiti Removar} or on the Web fur companies that specialize in deaning up graffiti. • Checkyour local laws. Jn some jurisdictions. property owners are given a œrtain time period in which they must remove graffiti. after which a violation can be issued. Prevent lt Download the printab!e pamphlet • Rapid removal is one of the best ways to prevent future graffiti. Removing graffiti tells the vandals that people care about the community and that their work has little chance of being seen. • Plain smooth surfaces invite graffiti. For walls.. choose patterned and rough concrete surfaces or tiled or mosaic surfaces: for fences. use chain. lattice. or wooden picket fences. • Choose paints and coatings to deter graffiti. Dark colors make graffiti harder to see. Antigraffiti coatings are available as well. A sacrificial coating is one that can be easily removed if graffiti artists strike. A protective coating can be easily deaned. • Plant trees, shrubs. or dimbing vines to restrict acS sssto tempting walls.. Plants with thorns or strong scents are good deterrents. • Use good lighting to deter vandals from popular graffiti sites. • Encourage community groupsto adopt a wall or area to keep it dean. well maintained. and graffiti free. • Encourage local merchants who sell paint and painting supplies to beS meresponsible retailers. Responsible retailers observe existing laws against selling spray paint and broad-tipped markersto customers under the age of 18 and do not display these items where they might be vulnerable to shoplifting. They post warning signs about the penalties for graffiti vandalism. • Coordinate a graffiti awareness campaign in your community. Educate potential graffiti artists about the legal consequencesof graffiti vandalism: the vandal's driver's license may be suspended. and fines--or even jail time-may be the result of future offenses.. Victims of graffiti may sue the perpetrator's parents, and the parents may be fined or ordered to provide restitution. • Encourage anyone you think might be tempted to do graffiti to check out art schools instead or to get involved by doing posters, murals, and other art projects at their schools. • Involve the media. Distribute information about the harm graffiti vandalism can do to a community. But caution them not to display the work. Graffiti vandals want their work to be seen and publíåzing graffiti only enœurages them. . • C-Ontact Keep America Beautiful (www.kab.org} to see what you can do to ~ your community beautiful and aime free.
  50. 50. Action The following is the email we wrote and sent to the mayor of Greenhills, our community. "Hi, Mr. Moore - I'm an eighth-grade student in the Humanities group at Winton Woods Middle School. We're working on a project called Project Citizen in which we identify a problem in our communities and create a public policy to try and cut down on the issue. My group chose to study how graffiti affects this community. I'm not sure if this is a concern of yours at this time, but we think we have a policy that might work better for the community. The most official way I can explain it at this time is, "For one or more counts of graffiti, you must serve x amount of jail time, pay a fine of y, and contribute z hours of community service." An offender who is caught vandalizing someone else's property will have their defacement inspected and the x, y, and z values will be filled in depending on the severity. We don't have a set system yet for determining proper punishment, but if you're interested, perhaps you can help us devise one. We really believe that graffiti is an issue in this community, and we want to keep Greenhills beautiful for generations to come. This policy is flexible enough to be refined to meet the needs of the community, as well. Please contact me if this is a possibility. We are willing to do a phone interview if you would like to do that instead. My email is cari.sullivan24@gmail.com. Regards, Carolina Sullivan" qi I
  51. 51. Reflection Project Citizen has taught us that no matter how small you are, you can always make a difference. Our group nearly fell apart at the beginning of the project. No one wanted to do work and it was a catastrophe. But, as the project went on we all got to know each other more and started working as a team. Now we all work together and have fun doing so. We've learned so much about public policies. Public policies are when the government allows certain laws to be enacted to better our community. We have worked really hard all year, looking and doing research about problems in our community, state, country, and world. We decided to start out small with graffiti in our community. We are against certain graffiti being put up on public buildings or on the streets because some has adult content and little kids shouldn't be exposed to that. We have come up with many different ideas about how to handle this situation. The one we all agreed on is allowing specific graffiti to be put up but only with permission from the owner of the land the graffitist wants to put their graffiti up on. With this policy we hope that our community can become beautiful with graffiti for all ages to observe. With this, there might not be that muchdebt from havingto remove unnecessary graffiti. The permission/consent form that we created allows many graffitists to get permission and sign a contract saying that if they do not follow the specific instructions left for them, then they will serve jail time, pay a fine, or do community service. With this, the cost of owners and agencies won't have to go up as rapidly as it is now and the graffitists will have to pay. We want people to understand the great responsibility that comes with graffiti. Our group is pleased with our work and we strongly think that this will make our community a more safer and cleaner place for people of all ages to enjoy free of worry form disrespectful graffiti.
  52. 52. .• 1 '. ~·. ,J,,_ 3
  53. 53. 72'-:.------ fNFORfVtATfON FROM P'R~NTOR ELECTRONIC SOURCES FORM Narnets) of research team member(s) £ThG" .,(::¥~ I ~t')¥',l,n, ~ Cbc j°':) Date .3-cl'S -$ The probJem being researched -1c,G~C'$'1----c~'-"=--· _,._t -'i-1'----';'-,,,.--,-----,-------,---.--,...--- Name of library, office, agency, or website visited L .p;..J ~tf CJh~') Lws~ Source of information ª Name of publication/website e0D(U} s oh,o 5QV /occ. I~q óq.e'1 b Author (if noted) ------------------------ e Date of publication/website 2 Record information from the publication or website that helps you answer as many of the following questions as you can. d a How ~erious is this problem in our community? : -- • - S ~~v,=~£~ OO~:kt1 A:. lew, b How widespread is the problem in our state or n,a~ion?~ (1 ~·~ ~ Ù- '-- ~- ' 6~ ,, rr-; r-e.::i.~.,.,..c(..".(' /'A', I ' ~'.::(;).~,. ~ I ~ ' >.. • - •<.t::W e Which of the following do you think is true? • There isn't a law or policy for dealing with the problem. ., The law for dealing with the problem is not adequate. & The law for dealing with the problem is adequate, but it is not being well enforced. OYes........_°'1Jo O Yes ~lJo ~Yes 01Jo ~~~~~--==:!io.L~-=--=-~--i_:::~~~L--~,IA.k'.-·/ ..:f,'tn '--"'-.-¥--"'8'..¡.+-"-~-'-''---=-~~~---"-'--",-;-'L-.:--'----;~14--1~..q-.~=-=-.!>."-,,r.±+<1~~·· )1 C,..{,..LL.- ~------1------1~~!.!..:....L.,--~~~'..f.-M,L· I I © 2009Center for Civir:Education
  54. 54. (CONTINUED) INFORMATION FROM PRINT OR ELECTRONIC SOURCES FORM • _ What positions are they taking? -, ~ Ç) J ~~r.~~~~ dvantages and disadvantages of their positi ':::> g © 2009Centerfor Civic Education ( 73 ., ----------->
  55. 55. 72 ¡NFORMATf:ON FROM PR~NTOR ELECTRONtC SOURCES FORM ,.··:¡¡ . , .i . ·JJ .·.¡ l!ame(s) of research team mernber(s) _N__O._,_:l_V"-'; fl.__,1'-r~,~'--"f..,_i,._. ,_o_~--1/'-'(_.' _l)_.1_· ;-il-'(:....'_·:,_; ,'--,.-~-=::~_::-'-'~iC Date ,--~/ '2-?/ I'] _ . . ' The problem being researched --=[;=-'-'-"::....(::....(_, _J _. ------,----------- 1Jame of library, office, agency, or website visited fr.,( b.f, /. (' Source of information a Name of publication/website _G!t:!~:...:.r_t.~/_f._,, lc._:_1---Lb__:_::..J:....:r'-t-/-...,.$,__ _ b Author (if noted) e Date of publication/website _ZP~__.1.f.___ _ 2 Record information from the publication or website that helps you answer as many of the following questions as you can. a How serious is this problem in our community? ']~ l J.1 •(/' Á e/;- ,;,; W,' ( F_vf .;re,;• '<;>' l.,.,( í>'n.•l,(t'pv b How widespread is the problem in our state or nation? t,3?y·t:.(f,/; ,5 f/1()) in (>VJ-t Vlt•U , t'"'r~/'/,;i 1'( tovªy ,1.~j1" /"t_ (ff.·1 J /I ,·5 tit':·?~·./ ù:, t. /.r- <"J;~ v e: /t., "1. (YJr.:SS. e Which of the following do you think is true? e There isn't a law or policy for dealing with the problem. " The law for dealing with the problem is not adequate. • The law for dealing with the problem is adequate, but it is not being well enforced. O Yes ~o !,] Yes o / ~Yes O No d What levels of government or governmental agencies, if any, are responsible for dealing with the problem? What are they doing about the problem? ¡J _.,j, ,'.j_/,/., C J)tr¿,::;,..,.,.,,ç;·, Jf'.~·· ·1 • l·v,~)P·r•,P1!"' ,',n t),1-- c.. e What disagreements about this policy or ways of dealing with it exist in our community? l! 1 ('L. . .; J/l ~ ./ VJ /.re hr ¿nv ~ ti/lJ i-~ ~/ )-d . lt/-e e_, .¡vi c.. e, oh~ 90 t......e,.-e ~ b-e.//-(.lr #y 9 tP i,,,,.? ,;1 Øfl WY'# · eC-' /e Cl-t'uy¡ 1'#!.11" n ...,y~' aV'". t1 (Cl 2009 Center for Civic Eduça!ion
  56. 56. (CONTINUED) INFORMATION FROM PRINT OR ELECTRONIC SOURCES FORM t Who are the major individuals,groups, or organizationsexpressing opinions on the problem? f/1/1. orc¡anl?e-/ Cf-cur up or'<'.IVP 0,-?,:/ t,,t/t/rh C,t/1f& ,Jlv/r·c,C. r~ ¡¡:-·e,,,,~¿l. ...,,,-~ ;:..;; ;;;,,ry lt.,.s <fenb.s_ ' f 7 • Why are they interested in the problem? ~ co v..5-C /I ev, a Ir a. cre,~h,;,--, cz: le,,(Y le por/ Ct e-ro/ • What positions are they taking? ~ -r;;l, k,,.t, CJ t0- • What are the advantages and disadvantages of their positions? :tNv }ryet pli j ,k/a e e ø YVJ t-: ø-;,iz PtLh - 'Oh e s-, ;~· g © 2009 Center for Civic Education 73 . ---··----··->
  57. 57. 72 ··~ . . ~_-:'f.i tNFORMATfON FROM PRtNT OR ELECTRONIC SOURCES FORM hlame(s)of research team member(s) Cx·, , 'E.ij h, M uvi(), (bei SDüV Date 3 ~~ / tS The problem being researched l".l:0 "i:·--i :zi,JS ~fl Oh; D Name of library, office, agency, or website visited LA ,,j r-it.r Q'~11 L21,1 ,s "' '?vies Source of information a Name of publication/website (Odts. Ohio. 5ov/ore,(2-fo9.oJ b Author (if noted) -------------------------- e Date of publication/website ---------------------- 2 Record information from the publication or website that helps you answer as many of the following questions as you can. a How serious is this problem in our community? Se.ci º'fS tJov~h -::Y'.ü: 1-t i"''~i:;ts e;} aw, 2l~ouJb {jCZët i:::í ·1 S' o lî k A ~ A 3 • b How widespread is the problem in our state or nation? Vt.Cv¡ WL ¥,10 DW{ 1 O t tl/ ae.rtoce J ·,o fºP cu rure. e Which of the following do you think is true? " There isn't a law or policy for dealing with the problem. " The law for dealing with the problem is not adequate. • The law for dealing with the problem is adequate, but it is not being well enforced. ~Yes O No O Yes O No O Yes O No d What levels of government or governmental agencies, if any, are responsible for dealing with the problem? What are they doing about the problem? SJ--e §.D vl[ a C0 ef-ts w¿ ce S:if"º s,b( e Çt,r -MB k;"" }'iîlk ~;: ~s:Ô::1:.ir :tf~'t!~~±Meclr / rood: 5fsle'15 I l~---------------~-----------------~ e What disagreements about this policy or ways of dealing with it exist in our community? 5Drnt- ~e.o,p'a.. 'odlevt ï::r. is cŒa1',ve e.'xpc~s·cia0 ~~ ~..: '"'i ~veC~ b)cro, ,A,'- s~Hv, a.. peop' g, 'ae.,,vi.. 1 + Ü /9<'-J~,SM, C: t"'6"' ,tCM 5 DMI feclp ,, t'tte ù vV'l;ei;lle ~O) o í°'ó:, ,?S w ,,I) · ei 2009 Center for Civic Education
  58. 58. (CONTINUED) INFORMATION FROM PRINT OR ELECTRONIC SOURCES FORM • What positions are they taking? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of their positions? l.f J s • How are they trying to influence government to adopt their position on the problem? 'P¿t,tio/n, eJ-eci;, fl" o .-v..lf pec~u ds11t dC.±IDOS c5¡ÄX::: h -:bosL-: © 2009 Center for Civic Education ( j ..' ( 73 -·-·---- ..... ""
  59. 59. 72 fNFORMAT(ON FROM PR~NT OR ELECTRONIC SOURCES FORM ":j ;j !.··-) e Date of publication/website 2 Record information from the publication or website that helps you answer as many of the following questions as you can. a How serious is this p,robleryi in our community? -, - ·s~e..flr:> --r-~ be, ,l- b e Which of the following do you think is true? " There isn't a law or policy for dealing with the problem. ., The law for dealing with the problem is not adequate. • The law for dealing with the problem is adequate, but it is not being well enforced. O Yes ¡Jl No O Yes ~ No -~Yes O lJo d What levels of government or governmental agencies, if any, at"e responsible for dealing with the problem? What are they doing about the problem? ..:i::- r: r' ç .'$ ij(_ ~ è': !Je {, tL IÄ- se è,n: ry ,>t ¡cf I~ l,tf.,5 it. c{iFr è"< ç'/'~t- Øt? /¡e 1'c;>,S- ~t? t l r ,,.f,- .- ,11 e¿: afe ' - ..ç.,,·/l l/1 & f>ëb11/e ¿,{,,'? ¿ /J(/'-:f.,'/lj.' ·±//l efr·, "")ß---1 { e What disagreements about this policy or ways of dealing with it exist in our community? ,t'..i 2009 Center for Civic Education
  60. 60. (CONTINUED) INFORMATION FROM PRINT OR ELECTRONIC SOURCES FORM f Who are the major individuals,groups, or organizationsexpressing opinions on the problem? Tk2-rè ,-s "- øfofA-t #..·f- ·th e lAf,·ves,'tt • Why are they interested in the problem? , ,0 ez fh ,/'t;,,:::.: --;- h Lr ,·f 15 ~""r+ af' • What positions are they taking? -rh ef &r~ ,LJ().__/1,Jil-¡j , fv' .,c.r /fJ · ()-, • What are the advantages and disadvantages of their positions? AJ v1t.//!.(. ·,:;-_ T'Y:' 1 ?f./¡t, /' ,-¡.-.1~ '://'',,,. ¿¿::;,r1--~é/~ £1/h~ fr . .¡/,(<.., +/,:/ 1:@ 5 · // /{ ;/ /lj'(? ~Ill- • How are they trying to influence government to adopt their position on the problem? 1.h,.&/ w~~ -/&' /v?~~ ft0-e g How can my classflates and I get more information on their positions? tJ P r¿'? t,-, e 1 -.../ e ./J ~-·~e.,!-,"' ¿;,r: © 2009 Center for cu« Education I l. 73 f ------·_,

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