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IOT ARCHITECTURE
LAYERED
ARCHITECTURE
created by : Dr. Rabia Afzaal
Architecture
 Architecture is
the process of
planning, designing
and constructing
buildings or structures
 Layered architecture,
also known as n-tier
architecture, is a
common and widely
used architectural
pattern in software
development
3 layered and 5 layered
architecture
A three-layer architecture is
the common and generally
known structure. It was first
used in the initial phases of
this IoT study. It indicates
three levels: perception,
network, and application.
5 Layer architecture can be
considered as an extension to
the basic architecture of IoT
because it has two additional
layers to the basic model.
3 Layered IoT Architecture
Three layers, namely, the perception, network, and
application layers.
(i) The perception layer is the physical layer, which has
sensors for sensing and gathering information about the
environment. It senses some physical parameters or
identifies other smart objects in the environment.
(ii) The network layer is responsible for connecting to other
smart things, network devices, and servers. Its features are
also used for transmitting and processing sensor data.
(iii) The application layer is responsible for delivering
application specific services to the user. It defines various
applications in which the Internet of Things can be
deployed, for example, smart homes, smart cities, and
smart health.
3 Layered IoT Architecture
Three layers, namely, the perception, network, and
application layers.
(i) The perception layer is the physical layer, which has
sensors for sensing and gathering information about the
environment. It senses some physical parameters or
identifies other smart objects in the environment.
(ii) The network layer is responsible for connecting to other
smart things, network devices, and servers. Its features are
also used for transmitting and processing sensor data.
(iii) The application layer is responsible for delivering
application specific services to the user. It defines various
applications in which the Internet of Things can be
deployed, for example, smart homes, smart cities, and
smart health.
5 Layered IoT Architecture
5 Layered Architecture
 Perception Layer :
This is the first layer of IoT architecture. In the perception
layer, number of sensors and actuators are used to gather
useful information like temperature, moisture content, intruder
detection, sounds, etc. The main function of this layer is to get
information from surroundings and to pass data to another layer
so that some actions can be done based on that information.
 Network Layer :
As the name suggests, it is the connecting layer between
perception and middleware layer. It gets data from perception
layer and passes data to middleware layer using networking
technologies like 3G, 4G, UTMS, WiFI, infrared, etc. This is also
called communication layer because it is responsible for
communication between perception and middleware layer. All
the transfer of data done securely keeping the obtained data
confidential.
 Middleware Layer :
Middleware Layer has some advanced features like storage,
computation, processing, action taking capabilities. It stores all
data-set and based on the device address and name it gives
appropriate data to that device. It can also take decisions based
on calculations done on data-set obtained from sensors.
5 Layered Architecture
 Application Layer :
The application layer manages all
application process based on information
obtained from middleware layer. This
application involves sending emails,
activating alarm, security system, turn on
or off a device, smartwatch, smart
agriculture, etc.
 Business Layer :
The success of any device does not
depend only on technologies used in it
but also how it is being delivered to its
consumers. Business layer does these
tasks for the device. It involves making
flowcharts, graphs, analysis of results,
and how device can be improved, etc.
In 2014 the IoTWF architectural committee (led by Cisco, IBM, Rockwell
Automation, and others) published a seven-layer IoT architectural reference
model.
The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized
Architecture
IoT Reference Model
In an IoT system, data is generated by multiple kinds of devices,
processed in different ways, transmitted to different locations,
and acted upon by applications.
The proposed IoT reference model is comprised of seven levels.
Each level is defined with terminology that can be standardized
to create a globally accepted frame of reference.
The IoT Reference Model does not restrict the scope or locality
of its components.
For example, from a physical perspective, every element could
reside in a single rack of equipment or it could be distributed
across the world.
The IoT Reference Model also allows the processing occurring
at each level to range from trivial to complex, depending on the
situation.
The model describes how tasks at each level should be handled
to maintain simplicity, allow high scalability, and ensure
supportability. Finally, the model defines the functions required
Level 1
 Level 1: Physical Devices and Controllers
 The IoT Reference Model starts with Level 1: physical
devices and controllers that might control multiple devices.
 These are the “things” in the IoT, and they include a wide
range of endpoint devices that send and receive information.
 Today, the list of devices is already extensive. It will become
almost unlimited as more equipment is added to the IoT over
time. Devices are diverse, and there are no rules about size,
location, form factor, or origin. Some devices will be the size
of a silicon chip. Some will be as large as vehicles. The IoT
must support the entire range.
 Dozens or hundreds of equipment manufacturers will
produce IoT devices.
 To simplify compatibility and support manufacturability, the
IoT Reference Model generally describes the level of
processing needed from Level 1 devices.
Level 2
 Level 2: Connectivity Communications
and connectivity are concentrated in one
level
 Level 2. The most important function of Level
2 is reliable, timely information transmission.
This includes transmissions:
 ● Between devices (Level 1) and the
network
 ● Across networks (east-west)
 ● Between the network (Level 2) and low-
level information processing occurring at
Level 3
 Traditional data communication networks
have multiple functions, as evidenced by the
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 7-layer reference
model. However, a complete IoT system
contains many levels in addition to the
communications network.
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Security in IoT Reference Model
 Security in the IoT
 Discussions of security for each level
and for the movement of data
between levels could fill a multitude
of papers.
 For the purpose of the IoT Reference
Model, security measures must:
 ● Secure each device or system
 ● Provide security for all processes
at each level
 ● Secure movement and
communication between each level,
whether north- or south-bound
Summary of Reference Model
16x9
4x3
The Internet of Everything (IoT) Reference Model is a
decisive first step toward standardizing the concept and
terminology surrounding the IoT. From physical devices
and controllers at Level 1 to the collaboration and
processes at Level 7, the IoT Reference Model sets out
the functionalities required and concerns that must be
addressed before the industry can realize the value of the
IoT. With the goal of enabling the IoT, this reference
model provides a baseline for understanding its
requirements and its potential.

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IoT architecture.pptx

  • 2. Architecture  Architecture is the process of planning, designing and constructing buildings or structures  Layered architecture, also known as n-tier architecture, is a common and widely used architectural pattern in software development
  • 3. 3 layered and 5 layered architecture A three-layer architecture is the common and generally known structure. It was first used in the initial phases of this IoT study. It indicates three levels: perception, network, and application. 5 Layer architecture can be considered as an extension to the basic architecture of IoT because it has two additional layers to the basic model.
  • 4. 3 Layered IoT Architecture Three layers, namely, the perception, network, and application layers. (i) The perception layer is the physical layer, which has sensors for sensing and gathering information about the environment. It senses some physical parameters or identifies other smart objects in the environment. (ii) The network layer is responsible for connecting to other smart things, network devices, and servers. Its features are also used for transmitting and processing sensor data. (iii) The application layer is responsible for delivering application specific services to the user. It defines various applications in which the Internet of Things can be deployed, for example, smart homes, smart cities, and smart health.
  • 5. 3 Layered IoT Architecture Three layers, namely, the perception, network, and application layers. (i) The perception layer is the physical layer, which has sensors for sensing and gathering information about the environment. It senses some physical parameters or identifies other smart objects in the environment. (ii) The network layer is responsible for connecting to other smart things, network devices, and servers. Its features are also used for transmitting and processing sensor data. (iii) The application layer is responsible for delivering application specific services to the user. It defines various applications in which the Internet of Things can be deployed, for example, smart homes, smart cities, and smart health.
  • 6. 5 Layered IoT Architecture 5 Layered Architecture  Perception Layer : This is the first layer of IoT architecture. In the perception layer, number of sensors and actuators are used to gather useful information like temperature, moisture content, intruder detection, sounds, etc. The main function of this layer is to get information from surroundings and to pass data to another layer so that some actions can be done based on that information.  Network Layer : As the name suggests, it is the connecting layer between perception and middleware layer. It gets data from perception layer and passes data to middleware layer using networking technologies like 3G, 4G, UTMS, WiFI, infrared, etc. This is also called communication layer because it is responsible for communication between perception and middleware layer. All the transfer of data done securely keeping the obtained data confidential.  Middleware Layer : Middleware Layer has some advanced features like storage, computation, processing, action taking capabilities. It stores all data-set and based on the device address and name it gives appropriate data to that device. It can also take decisions based on calculations done on data-set obtained from sensors.
  • 7. 5 Layered Architecture  Application Layer : The application layer manages all application process based on information obtained from middleware layer. This application involves sending emails, activating alarm, security system, turn on or off a device, smartwatch, smart agriculture, etc.  Business Layer : The success of any device does not depend only on technologies used in it but also how it is being delivered to its consumers. Business layer does these tasks for the device. It involves making flowcharts, graphs, analysis of results, and how device can be improved, etc.
  • 8. In 2014 the IoTWF architectural committee (led by Cisco, IBM, Rockwell Automation, and others) published a seven-layer IoT architectural reference model. The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture
  • 9. IoT Reference Model In an IoT system, data is generated by multiple kinds of devices, processed in different ways, transmitted to different locations, and acted upon by applications. The proposed IoT reference model is comprised of seven levels. Each level is defined with terminology that can be standardized to create a globally accepted frame of reference. The IoT Reference Model does not restrict the scope or locality of its components. For example, from a physical perspective, every element could reside in a single rack of equipment or it could be distributed across the world. The IoT Reference Model also allows the processing occurring at each level to range from trivial to complex, depending on the situation. The model describes how tasks at each level should be handled to maintain simplicity, allow high scalability, and ensure supportability. Finally, the model defines the functions required
  • 10. Level 1  Level 1: Physical Devices and Controllers  The IoT Reference Model starts with Level 1: physical devices and controllers that might control multiple devices.  These are the “things” in the IoT, and they include a wide range of endpoint devices that send and receive information.  Today, the list of devices is already extensive. It will become almost unlimited as more equipment is added to the IoT over time. Devices are diverse, and there are no rules about size, location, form factor, or origin. Some devices will be the size of a silicon chip. Some will be as large as vehicles. The IoT must support the entire range.  Dozens or hundreds of equipment manufacturers will produce IoT devices.  To simplify compatibility and support manufacturability, the IoT Reference Model generally describes the level of processing needed from Level 1 devices.
  • 11. Level 2  Level 2: Connectivity Communications and connectivity are concentrated in one level  Level 2. The most important function of Level 2 is reliable, timely information transmission. This includes transmissions:  ● Between devices (Level 1) and the network  ● Across networks (east-west)  ● Between the network (Level 2) and low- level information processing occurring at Level 3  Traditional data communication networks have multiple functions, as evidenced by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7-layer reference model. However, a complete IoT system contains many levels in addition to the communications network.
  • 17. Security in IoT Reference Model  Security in the IoT  Discussions of security for each level and for the movement of data between levels could fill a multitude of papers.  For the purpose of the IoT Reference Model, security measures must:  ● Secure each device or system  ● Provide security for all processes at each level  ● Secure movement and communication between each level, whether north- or south-bound
  • 18. Summary of Reference Model 16x9 4x3 The Internet of Everything (IoT) Reference Model is a decisive first step toward standardizing the concept and terminology surrounding the IoT. From physical devices and controllers at Level 1 to the collaboration and processes at Level 7, the IoT Reference Model sets out the functionalities required and concerns that must be addressed before the industry can realize the value of the IoT. With the goal of enabling the IoT, this reference model provides a baseline for understanding its requirements and its potential.