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Internet of things

An Introspection over internet of things at Highschool

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ThingsThings
Contents
1. Introduction to IoT
1.1. What is Internet of Things?
1.1.1. Definition of IoT
1.1.2. ‘Things’ in Internet of Things
1.2 Two main parts of IoT
2. IoT Reference Model
3. Internet of Things Communications Models
3.1.Device-to -Device Communications
3.2. Device-to -Cloud Communications
3.3. Device-to -Gateway Model
3.4. Back-End Data-Sharing Mode
4. How Internet of Things Works
4.1. Working in non technical terms
4.2. Working of IoT in technical terms
5. Challenges with IoT
Introduction to IoT
1.1. What is Internet of Things?
● In simplest language Internet of Thing is the concept of
basically connecting any device with an on and off switch to the
Internet (and/or to each other). Here the domain Thing is
extremely large. This includes everything from cell phones,
coffee makers, washing machines, headphones, lamps,
wearable devices even humans and almost anything else we
can think of. This also applies to components of machines, for
example a jet engine of an airplane or the drill of an oil rig. As I
mentioned, if it has an on and off switch then chances are it can
be a part of the IoT. The relationship will be between people-
people, people-things, and things-things.
1.1.1. Definition of IoT
1.1.1. Definition of IoT
The more precise definition given on Wikipedia is “The
internet of things (IoT) is the internetworking of physical
devices, vehicles (also referred to as "connected devices"
and "smart devices"), buildings and other items—
embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuator,
and network connectivity that enable these objects to
collect and exchange data” The Internet of Things (IoT) is a
system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and
digital machines, objects, animals or people that are
provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer
data over a network without requiring human-to-human or
human-to-computer interaction.
1.1.2. ‘Things’ in Internet
of Things
A thing, in the Internet of Things, can be a person with a heart
monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an
automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire
pressure is low -- or any other natural or man-made object that can
be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer
data over a network.
IoT has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies,
micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), micro services and the
internet. The convergence has helped tear down the silo walls
between operational technologies (OT) and information technology
(IT), allowing unstructured machine-generated data to be analyzed
for insights that will drive improvements.

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Internet of things

  • 2. Contents 1. Introduction to IoT 1.1. What is Internet of Things? 1.1.1. Definition of IoT 1.1.2. ‘Things’ in Internet of Things 1.2 Two main parts of IoT 2. IoT Reference Model 3. Internet of Things Communications Models 3.1.Device-to -Device Communications 3.2. Device-to -Cloud Communications 3.3. Device-to -Gateway Model 3.4. Back-End Data-Sharing Mode 4. How Internet of Things Works 4.1. Working in non technical terms 4.2. Working of IoT in technical terms 5. Challenges with IoT
  • 3. Introduction to IoT 1.1. What is Internet of Things? ● In simplest language Internet of Thing is the concept of basically connecting any device with an on and off switch to the Internet (and/or to each other). Here the domain Thing is extremely large. This includes everything from cell phones, coffee makers, washing machines, headphones, lamps, wearable devices even humans and almost anything else we can think of. This also applies to components of machines, for example a jet engine of an airplane or the drill of an oil rig. As I mentioned, if it has an on and off switch then chances are it can be a part of the IoT. The relationship will be between people- people, people-things, and things-things.
  • 5. 1.1.1. Definition of IoT The more precise definition given on Wikipedia is “The internet of things (IoT) is the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles (also referred to as "connected devices" and "smart devices"), buildings and other items— embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuator, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data” The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
  • 6. 1.1.2. ‘Things’ in Internet of Things A thing, in the Internet of Things, can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low -- or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer data over a network. IoT has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), micro services and the internet. The convergence has helped tear down the silo walls between operational technologies (OT) and information technology (IT), allowing unstructured machine-generated data to be analyzed for insights that will drive improvements.
  • 8. 1.2 Two main components of IoT First main component of IoT is the device itself. For supporting IoT, device is connected with some hardware which support internet connectivity. This hardware is programmable and available for any type of device requirements. These hardware are called Prototype or Device SDK. Second, the server on which device is played. Server helps to monitor device from any location in the world
  • 9. 2. IoT Reference Model In an IoT system, data is generated by multiple kinds of devices, processed in different ways, transmitted to different locations, and acted upon by applications. The proposed IoT reference model is comprised of seven levels. Each level is defined with terminology that can be standardized to create a globally accepted frame of reference. The IoT Reference Model does not restrict the scope or locality of its components. For example, from a physical perspective, every element could reside in a single rack of equipment or it could be distributed across the world. The IoT Reference Model also allows the processing occurring at each level to range from trivial to complex, depending on the situation. The model describes how tasks at each level should be handled to maintain simplicity, allow high scalability, and ensure supportability. Finally, the model defines the functions required for an IoT system to be complete.
  • 11. 2. IoT Reference Model The IoT Reference Model provides the highest abstraction level for the definition of the IoT-A Architectural Reference Model. It promotes a common understanding of the IoT domain. The description of the IoT Reference Model includes a general discourse on the IoT domain, an IoT Domain Model as a top-level description, an IoT Information Model explaining how IoT information is going to be modelled, and an IoT Communication Model in order to understand specifics about communication between many heterogeneous IoT devices and the Internet as a whole. The definition of the IoT Reference Model is conforming to the OASIS reference model definition.
  • 12. Level 1: Physical Devices and Controllers The IoT Reference Model starts with Level 1: physical devices and controllers that might control multiple devices. These are the “things” in the IoT, and they include a wide range of endpoint devices that send and receive information. Today, the list of devices is already extensive. It will become almost unlimited as more equipment is added to the IoT over time.
  • 13. Level 2: Connectivity ● Communications and connectivity are concentrated in one level—Level 2. The most important function of Level 2 is reliable, timely information transmission. ● This includes transmissions : ● Between devices (Level 1) and the network ● Across networks (east-west) ● Between the network (Level 2) and low-level information processing occurring at Level 3 ●
  • 14. Level 3: Edge (Fog) Computing The functions of Level 3 are driven by the need to convert network data flows into information that is suitable for storage and higher level processing at Level 4 (data accumulation). This means that Level 3 activities focus on high-volume data analysis and transformation. For example, a Level 1 sensor device might generate data samples multiple times per second, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. A basic tenet of the IoT Reference Model is that the most intelligent system initiates information processing as early and as close to the edge of the network as possible. This is sometimes referred to as fog computing. Level 3 is where this occurs.
  • 15. Level 4: Data Accumulation Networking systems are built to reliably move data. The data is “in motion.” Prior to Level 4, data is moving through the network at the rate and organization determined by the devices generating the data. The model is event driven. Most applications cannot, or do not need to, process data at network wire speed. Applications typically assume that data is “at rest”—or unchanging—in memory or on disk. At Level 4, Data Accumulation, data in motion is converted to data at rest.
  • 16. Level 5: Data Abstraction IoT systems will need to scale to a corporate—or even global—level and will require multiple storage systems to accommodate IoT device data and data from traditional enterprise ERP, HRMS, CRM, and other systems. The data abstraction functions of Level 5 are focused on rendering data and its storage in ways that enable developing simpler, performance-enhanced applications.
  • 17. Level 6: Application ● Level 6 is the application level, where information interpretation occurs. Software at this level interacts with Level 5 and data at rest, so it does not have to operate at network speeds. ● Level 7: Collaboration and Processes ● One of the main distinctions between the Internet of Things (IoT) and IoT is that IoT includes people and processes. This difference becomes particularly clear at Level 7: Collaboration and Processes. The IoT system, and the information it creates, is of little value unless it yields action, which often requires people and processes. ●
  • 18. Summary The Internet of Everything (IoT) Reference Model is a decisive first step toward standardizing the concept and terminology surrounding the IoT. From physical devices and controllers at Level 1 to the collaboration and processes at Level 7, the IoT Reference Model sets out the functionalities required and concerns that must be addressed before the industry can realize the value of the IoT. With the goal of enabling the IoT, this reference model provides a baseline for understanding its requirements and its potential.
  • 19. 3. Internet of Things Communications Models In March 2015, the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) released a guiding architectural document for networking of smart objects (RFC 7452),39 which outlines a framework of four common communication models used by IoT devices. 3.1. Device-to -Device Communication model The device-to-device communication model represents two or more devices that directly connect and communicate between one another, rather than through an intermediary application server. These devices communicate over many types of networks, including IP networks or the Internet. Often, however these devices use protocols like Bluetooth,40 Z-Wave,41 or ZigBee 42 to establish direct device-to-device communications, as shown in Figure
  • 21. 3.2. Device-to -Cloud Communication model In a device-to-cloud communication model, the IoT device connects directly to an Internet cloud service like an application service provider to exchange data and control message traffic. This approach frequently takes advantage of existing communications mechanisms like traditional wired Ethernet or Wi-Fi connections to establish a connection between the device and the IP network, which ultimately connects to the cloud service. This is shown in Figure
  • 22. 3.3. Device-to-Gateway Model In the device-to-gateway model, or more typically, the device-to-application-layer gateway (ALG) model, the IoT device connects through an ALG service as a conduit to reach a cloud service. In simpler terms, this means that there is application software operating on a local gateway device, which acts as an intermediary between the device and the cloud service and provides security and other functionality such as data or protocol translation. The model is shown in Figure 3.
  • 24. 3.4. Back-End Data-Sharing Model The back-end data-sharing model refers to a communication architecture that enables users to export and analyze smart object data from a cloud service in combination with data from other sources. This architecture supports “the [user’s] desire for granting access to the uploaded sensor data to third parties”. This approach is an extension of the single device-to- cloud communication model, which can lead to data silos where “IoT devices upload data only to a single application service provider’’.A back-end sharing architecture allows the data collected from single IoT device data streams to be aggregated and analyzed.
  • 26. 4. How Internet of Things Works We know that all devices cannot directly communicate with each other. They need some medium and protocol to communicate with each other. 4.1. Working in non technical terms First, there’s the underlying technology, the various wireless radios that allow the devices to connect to the Internet and to each other. These include more familiar standards like Wi-Fi, low-energy Bluetooth, NFC and RFID, and some that most rarely heard of, like ZigBee, Z-Wave and 6LoWPAN Then there are the things themselves, whether they’re motion sensors, door locks or
  • 28. light bulbs. In some cases, there may also be a central hub that allows different devices to connect to one another. Finally, there are cloud services, which enable the collection and analysis of data so people, other devices can see what’s going on and take action via their mobile apps, Intelligence programs.
  • 29. 4.2 Working of IoT in technical terms Working on IoT starts with the thing which needs to be monitored on Internet. To monitor the device some sensors or actuators are connected with it. For example the sensors in AC to record the temperature and actuator to set the temperature. Till now device is not smarter. the device is required to be connected with internet. Now to facilitate communication with device the IoT service providing company(eg. konekt.io) provides a Prototype. Working of prototype is explained separately. This prototype is embedded with the device. The prototype is also called as Software Development Kit (SDK). When data is transmitted by Prototype it reaches its destination present on Internet. The destination is IoT service providing company’s servers. At the IoT server Data is checked for authentication. The IOT servers have various features. The data is then fed to the Virtual Device and Rules Engine. Virtual device and rules engine are present on the server. From there data is processed and then rules engine commands the device based on users requirements.This is how IoT works.
  • 31. 4.2.1. Virtual Device (Device Shadow) Virtual Device is virtual version, or “shadow,” of the device on the server. A thing shadow is actually a JSON document that is used to store and retrieve current state information of a thing (device, app, and so on). We can use the thing shadow to get and set the state of a thing over MQTT or HTTP, regardless of whether the thing is connected to the Internet. Each thing shadow is uniquely identified by its name. We can retrieve the last reported state of a device or set a desired future state through the API or using the rules engine. Device Shadows make it easier to build applications that interact with your devices by providing always available REST APIs. In addition, applications can set the desired future state of a device without accounting for the devices current state. IoT server compares the difference between the desired and last reported state, and command the device to make up the difference. The Device SDK makes it easy for the device to synchronize its state with its shadow, and to respond to desired future states set via the shadow.
  • 32. 4.2.2. Rules Engine (Application Program) ● Rules Engine helps in building applications that gather, process, analyze and act on data generated by connected devices at global scale. Rules engine actually are the services provided by the IoT servers to command device automatically based on past and present state. Rules in rules engine can programmed by user on the console provided by the IoT service providing company. The Rules Engine can also route messages to various other applications, devices and various other backend services. ● We can write rules using a SQL-like syntax. Rules can be authored to behave differently depending upon the content of the message. For example, if a temperature reading exceeds a certain threshold it could trigger a rule to transmit data to AWS Lambda. Rules can also be authored to take into account other data in the cloud, such as data from other devices. For example you could say take an action if this temperature is more than 15% higher than the average of 5 other devices. ●
  • 33. 4.2.3. Work of Prototype (Software Development Kit) The prototype, also known as Software Development Kit (SDK) is the hardware that is embedded with device. It is used as an interface between device and web application. The SDK is programmable and facilitates communication with device via MQTT, Websockets, HTTP. ● The SDK is connected with all the input and output pins of the device, actuator and sensor. SDK is programmed in such a way that it receives data from the device, process that data with the software installed on SDK and transmit data. ●
  • 35. 4.2.4. Features of SDK ● Gives a unique identity to device (using IpV6 address). ● Sends event data ● Receives messages ● Maps server commands to device functions. ● Buffers data when network connection is down ● Batches messages to improve communication efficiency. ● Supports pluggable transport protocols. HTTPS and AMQP protocols ●
  • 36. 5. Challenges with IoT 5.1. The Need for Open Standards ● The IoT consists of a lot of individual devices with their own specifications. Further growth in IoT will require that smart devices can communicate with each other.This is solvable if we can agree on standards instead of constantly aiming to disrupt, define or own aspects of this growing ecosystem. The IoT has the potential to redefine our world and could help solve some of its most pressing problems but for that to happen, we'll need to work together." 5.2. Sharing data ● "Connected and sensor-enabled devices that monitor a person's health are growing in popularity. It's likely we will see more of them in the future, as they have the potential to greatly improve health and reduce the cost of delivering care. There are however many unanswered questions, including who can access a person's data, how to ensure device and data interoperability, and how closely national or private care should be directly tied to ownership of such devices."
  • 37. 5.3. Energy Demands ● Several years ago, Gartner predicted that 4.9 billion smart devices would be used by 2015 -- an increase of thirty percent from 2030. By 2020, Gartner estimated that the number of smart devices would reach 25 billion by 2020, an increase of 100% each year. In 2012, the data centers that powered the Internet were estimated to require 30 billion watts of electricity a year -- enough to power a medium-sized town, and the Internet of Things is likely to require even more.
  • 38. 5.4. Storage Issues ● Storage of information generated by smart devices will increase the energy demands required by the Internet of Things. A single corporation like Google, which already has myriad server farms, each occupying tens of thousands of square feet, could be dwarfed by the demands of smart devices. ● However, the physical demands are only part of the problem. Much of the data generated by smart devices is needed only briefly to send signals to device, and does not need to be stored. Other data, such as timers for devices, might ordinarily need to be stored for only a week or two at the most.
  • 39. 5.5. Lack of Privacy and security issues ● Potentially, the Internet of Things is a wealth of information about those who use it. Smartphones can already be tracked, but smart devices point to a future where governments supplement census information with the output of smart devices, and manufacturers harvest information about your habits so efficiently that they make Facebook's insights into your interests and buying habits seem vague. ● At any rate, no matter how secure a device can be potentially, users can be guaranteed to remove much of the security. For example, I recently bought a router whose default login that gives access to a configuration file stored on my computer was "admin" and "password."