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Introduction to PHP
         Bradley Holt (http://bradley-holt.com/) &
Matthew Weier O’Phinney (http:/ /weierophinney.net/matthew/)

        Feedback: http://joind.in/1976
What is PHP?


Loosely typed scripting language

Interpreted at runtime (use an opcode cache)

Commonly used to build web applications
Who uses PHP?


Yahoo!

Facebook

20+ million other domain names
Brief History
Personal Home Page /
  Forms Interpreter

Created by Rasmus Lerdorf

PHP/FI 1.0 released in 1995

PHP/FI 2.0 released in 1997
PHP: Hypertext
     Preprocessor

Created by Andi Gutmans and Zeev Suraski

PHP 3.0 released in 1998

PHP 4.4 released in 2005
PHP 5


New object model

PHP 5.0 released in 2004

PHP 5.3 released in 2009
Syntax
Hello World

<?php
// hello.php
echo 'Hello, VT Code Camp.';
?>
Variable Assignment


<?php
$hello = 'Hello, VT Code Camp.';
echo $hello;
Comments
One Line Comments


<?php
// A one line comment
# Another one line comment
Multi-Line Comments

<?php
/*
A multi-line comment
*/
DocBlock Comments
<?php
/**
 * This function does nothing
 *
 * @param string $bar
 * @return void
 */
function foo($bar) {}
Primitive Data Types

<?php
$isPhpProgrammer = true; // boolean
$howOldIsPhp = 15; // integer
$pi = 3.14; // float
$event = 'VT Code Camp'; // string
Conditionals
If

<?php
if (true) {
    echo 'Yes';
}
If-Then-Else
<?php
if (false) {
    echo 'No';
} else {
    echo 'Yes';
}
If-Then-Else-If
<?php
if (false) {
    echo 'No';
} elseif (false) {
    echo 'No';
} else {
    echo 'Yes';
}
Switch
<?php
switch ('PHP') {
    case 'Ruby':
        echo 'No';
        break;
    case 'PHP':
        echo 'Yes';
        break;
}
Operators
Arithmetic
<?php
$a = 10;
$b = $a +   1;   //   11
$c = $a -   1;   //   9
$d = $a *   5;   //   50
$e = $a /   2;   //   5
$f = $a %   3;   //   1
String Concatenation


<?php
$myString = 'foo' . 'bar'; // foobar
$myString .= 'baz'; // foobarbaz
Comparison
Equivalence

<?php
if (2 == 3) { echo 'No'; }
if (3 == '3') { echo 'Yes'; }
if (2 != 3) { echo 'Yes'; }
Identity

<?php
if (3 === '3') { echo 'No'; }
if (3 === 3) { echo 'Yes'; }
if (3 !== 4) { echo 'Yes'; }
Logical Operators
<?php
// NOT
if (!true) { echo 'No'; }
// AND
if (true && false) { echo 'No'; }
// OR
if (true || false) { echo 'No'; }
Strings & Interpolation
Literal Single Quotes

<?php
$x = 2;
echo 'I ate $x cookies.';
// I ate $x cookies.
Double Quotes

<?php
$x = 2;
echo "I ate $x cookies.";
// I ate 2 cookies.
Literal Double Quotes

<?php
$x = 2;
echo "I ate $x cookies.";
// I ate $x cookies.
Curly Brace
         Double Quotes

<?php
$x = 2;
echo "I ate {$x} cookies.";
// I ate 2 cookies.
Constants
Defining


<?php
define('HELLO', 'Hello, Code Camp');
echo HELLO; // Hello, Code Camp
As of PHP 5.3


<?php
const HELLO = 'Hello, Code Camp';
echo HELLO; // Hello, Code Camp
Arrays
Enumerative
Automatic Indexing


<?php
$foo[] = 'bar'; // [0] => bar
$foo[] = 'baz'; // [1] => baz
Explicit Indexing


<?php
$foo[0] = 'bar'; // [0] => bar
$foo[1] = 'baz'; // [1] => baz
Array Construct with
     Automatic Indexing
<?php
$foo = array(
    'bar', // [0] => bar
    'baz', // [1] => baz
);
Array Construct with
      Explicit Indexing
<?php
$foo = array(
    0 => 'bar', // [0] => bar
    1 => 'baz', // [1] => baz
);
Array Construct with
     Arbitrary Indexing
<?php
$foo = array(
    1 => 'bar', // [1] => bar
    2 => 'baz', // [2] => baz
);
Associative
Explicit Indexing


<?php
$foo['a'] = 'bar'; // [a] => bar
$foo['b'] = 'baz'; // [b] => baz
Array Construct

<?php
$foo = array(
    'a' => 'bar', // [a] => bar
    'b' => 'baz', // [b] => baz
);
Iterators
While
<?php
$x = 0;
while ($x < 5) {
    echo '.';
    $x++;
}
For

<?php
for ($x = 0; $x < 5; $x++) {
    echo '.';
}
Foreach

<?php
$x = array(0, 1, 2, 3, 4);
foreach ($x as $y) {
    echo $y;
}
Foreach Key/Value Pairs
<?php
$talks = array(
    'php' => 'Intro to PHP',
    'ruby' => 'Intro to Ruby',
);
foreach ($talks as $id => $name) {
    echo "$name is talk ID $id.";
    echo PHP_EOL;
}
Functions
Built-in
<?php
echo strlen('Hello'); // 5
echo trim(' Hello '); // Hello
echo count(array(0, 1, 2, 3)); // 4
echo uniqid(); // 4c8a6660519d5
echo mt_rand(0, 9); // 3
echo serialize(42); // i:42;
echo json_encode(array('a' => 'b'));
// {"a":"b"}
User-Defined
<?php
function add($x, $y)
{
    return $x + $y;
}

echo add(2, 4); // 6
Anonymous Functions /
Closures (since PHP 5.3)
Variable Assignment
<?php
$sayHi = function ()
{
    return 'Hi';
};

echo $sayHi(); // Hi
Callbacks
<?php
$values = array(3, 7, 2);
usort($values, function ($a, $b) {
    if ($a == $b) { return 0; }
    return ($a < $b) ? -1 : 1;
});
/* [0] => 2
    [1] => 3
    [2] => 7 */
Classes & Objects
Class Declaration

<?php
class Car
{
}
Property Declaration

<?php
class Car
{
    private $_hasSunroof = true;
}
Method Declaration
<?php
class Car
{
    public function hasSunroof()
    {
        return $this->_hasSunroof;
    }
}
Class Constants
<?php
class Car
{
    const ENGINE_V4 = 'V4';
    const ENGINE_V6 = 'V6';
    const ENGINE_V8 = 'V8';
}

echo Car::ENGINE_V6; // V6
Object Instantiation
      & Member Access
<?php
$myCar = new Car();
if ($myCar->hasSunroof()) {
    echo 'Yay!';
}
Class Inheritance

<?php
class Chevy extends Car
{
}
Interfaces

<?php
interface Vehicle
{
    public function hasSunroof();
}
Implementing Interfaces
<?php
class Car implements Vehicle
{
    public function hasSunroof()
    {
        return $this->_hasSunroof;
    }
}
Member Visibility
Public



Default visibility

Visible everywhere
Protected


Visible to child classes

Visible to the object itself

Visible to other objects of the same type
Private



Visible to the object itself

Visible within the defining class declaration
Tools
IDEs
Eclipse (PDT, Zend Studio, Aptana)

NetBeans

PHPStorm

Emacs

Vim

Many more…
Frameworks
Zend Framework

Symfony

CodeIgniter

Agavi

CakePHP

Many more…
PEAR


PHP Extension and Application Repository

Package manager

PECL (PHP Extension Community Library)
Miscellaneous Tools
PHPUnit

phpDocumentor

Phing

PHP CodeSniffer

PHP Mess Detector

phpUnderControl
Example PHP Scripts
http://github.com/bradley-holt/introduction-to-php
Questions?
Thank You
         Bradley Holt (http://bradley-holt.com/) &
Matthew Weier O’Phinney (http:/ /weierophinney.net/matthew/)

        Feedback: http://joind.in/1976

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Introduction to PHP