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ILP course launch event – LDC Ireland
9 December 2020
Preventing obtrusive light
Put that light out!
What is it about?
• So what is covered within the course?
– Artificial light at night
• Predominately from external lighting installations
• Relevant internal lighting installations
– Artificial light during the day
• Media signage
– Effects
• Predominantly the effects on humans
• Sky glow
• Not forgetting fauna and flora
Who is it for
• Anyone interested in or responsible for the effects of artificial light
at night
– Planners
– Environmental officers
– Lighting designers
– Legal representatives
– Environmentalists
– Astronomers
– ……..
Mike Hawtin, North York Moors National Park
Course content
• An online course
Session 1
1A What is obtrusive light?
1B What guidance and requirements exist?
1C Understanding & managing light spill
Session 2
2A Understanding & managing glare & sky glow
2B Illuminated advertisements & media
2C Evidencing the design & obtrusive light measurement
General mitigation
• Right light, in the right place, at the right time, controlled by the
right system
• Apply the five principles for responsible lighting:
– Useful, all artificial lighting should have a clear purpose
– Targeted, light should only be directed where needed
– Low lighting levels, light should be no brighter than necessary
– Controlled, light should be used only when it is useful
– Colour, use the right light source for the task
What is obtrusive light?
• Many forms
Definitions & terms
• Look to the definitions
– Light spill (light Trespass)
– Intensity
– Brightness
– Glare
– .....
What guidance and requirements exist?
• Published Regulations, standards and guidance for most lighting
tasks, adherence to which will help mitigate obtrusive lighting
aspects
• The Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act (CNEA) 2005
• National planning policy framework (NPPF)
• National planning policy
• Commission Internationale De L’Eclairage (CIE)
• Professional industry guidance
National planning policy framework (NPPF)
• Makes little reference to lighting with regard to the control of
obtrusive light
– Limit the impact of light pollution from artificial light on local amenity,
intrinsically dark landscapes and nature conservation
– The national on-line planning guidance resource
i. When is light pollution relevant to planning?
ii. What factors should be considered when assessing whether a development proposal
might have implications for light pollution?
iii. What factors are relevant when considering where light shines?
iv. What factors are relevant when considering when light shines?
v. What factors are relevant when considering how much the light shines?
vi. What factors are relevant when considering possible ecological impact?
vii. What other information is available that could inform approaches to lighting and help
reduce light pollution?
Professional industry guidance
• CIE (International Commission of Illumination)
– CIE 150; 2017 Guide on the Limitation of the Effects of Obtrusive Light
from Outdoor Lighting Installations; and
– CIE 126: 1997 Guidelines for Minimizing Sky Glow
• ILP
– GN01/20 Guidance notes for the reduction of obtrusive light
• Limiting performance laid down based upon environment zones
Establishing the base line
• Establish the environmental zone
• Establish the base line (on site survey)
Understanding & managing light spill
• Defined in terms of illuminance (Lux)
– Light falling on a surface
• Vertical i.e. windows of a premises
• Horizontal i.e. into a garden
Limitations on premises
• Potential for causing a nuisance
• Vertical illuminance
– Limits apply to existing or potential nearby dwellings, premises
– Specifically windows
– Values are the summation of all light sources
Note
• For example an E4 zone
– Limitation 25 lux
– Existing base line established at 10 lux
Does not mean you can add 15 lux
Installation
• Luminaire with the right optical distribution at the right mounting
height is critical to minimising light spill and obtrusive light effects
yet providing the right lighting performance on the task area
Fauna and flora
• Presence of bats and other protected
species
– Generally affected by blue light content
• Look to warm white light sources
• Amber light sources
– Different species affected in different
ways
– One size does not fit all
Bats and lighting E Stone 2014
Managing glare and sky glow
• The uncomfortable brightness of a light source when viewed
against a darker background
– A potential nuisance
• The brightening of the night sky
Glare
• Condition of vision in which there is discomfort or a reduction in
the ability to see details or objects, caused by an unsuitable
distribution or range of luminance, or by extreme contrasts
– Two main types of glare
• Discomfort glare
– Glare that causes discomfort without necessarily impairing the vision of objects
• Disability glare
– Glare that impairs the vision of objects without necessarily causing discomfort
Sky glow
• The brightening of the night sky
– Natural sky glow
– Artificial sky glow
– A phenomenon / climate dependent
Media screens
• Purpose
– To convey images / messages related to advertising, media and
information primarily to a surface located observer
• Concern
– The lighting distribution is such that they contribute to:
• Obtrusive light / Light nuisance
• Spill light
• Sky glow
– Type of display
Illuminated adverts, media & domestic lighting
• Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) PLG05
– Developed to address concerns over the brightness of advertising and
related static and dynamic signage, media screens & facades and
projected signage
Domestic lighting
• Well designed, installed and maintained domestic exterior lighting
brings comfort and wellbeing to our lives, providing us with a
sense of security and pleasure in our homes
• Potential for:
– Source of legal nuisance
– Adverse effect on safety of adjacent areas
– Obtrusive light / light pollution
Evidencing the proposal
• So what evidence should be requested / provided?
– Not just contour lines
• Core aspects
– Base line assessment survey results
– What is the lit task requirements?
• Appropriate software
• Include all input data
– Luminaire details, maintenance factors, mounting heights, tilt, aiming
angles ….
• Good range of appropriate horizontal and vertical iso-contour plots
– 0.5 lux upwards, not just the minimum but a full range of levels
covering the who area
• Intensity calculations
Competency of assessment
• The lighting requirements of any proposed installation should be
assessed by someone who is competent.
• A qualified lighting professional should form part of the planning
assessment team.
• Appropriate qualifications may include Membership of the
Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Society of Lighting and
Lighting.
– Many Authorities have a street lighting officer, or there are
consultants: the Institution of Lighting Engineers can provide a list.
Measurement
• Guidance on the measurement of obtrusive light from outdoor
installations is given within CIE 150
• ILP GN 3/16 Measurement of the photometric performance of LED
lighting installations
Problems design vs installation
• Contractor substitution
– Contractor drastically changes the design
– Contractor procures alternative products to reduce costs
– Lack of performance verification
• Competency of contractor
– Luminaires installed incorrectly, lack of understanding of
luminaire performance and installation configuration
Thank you
• Questions
This course contains tables from CIE 150:2017 and CIE 126:1997 provided for use in GN01
The copyright of the data detailed within these tables belongs to CIE, email ciecb@cie.co.at and the table used in this course document should be used in conjunction with CIE 150:2017 and CIE 126:1997 and not as a replacement for the
procedures contained therein.
These documents can be obtained from http://cie.co.at/publications and members of a National Committee of the CIE can purchase them with a discount of 66.7 %.

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ILP Ireland webinar: Preventing Obtrusive Light

  • 1. ILP course launch event – LDC Ireland 9 December 2020 Preventing obtrusive light Put that light out!
  • 2. What is it about? • So what is covered within the course? – Artificial light at night • Predominately from external lighting installations • Relevant internal lighting installations – Artificial light during the day • Media signage – Effects • Predominantly the effects on humans • Sky glow • Not forgetting fauna and flora
  • 3. Who is it for • Anyone interested in or responsible for the effects of artificial light at night – Planners – Environmental officers – Lighting designers – Legal representatives – Environmentalists – Astronomers – …….. Mike Hawtin, North York Moors National Park
  • 4. Course content • An online course Session 1 1A What is obtrusive light? 1B What guidance and requirements exist? 1C Understanding & managing light spill Session 2 2A Understanding & managing glare & sky glow 2B Illuminated advertisements & media 2C Evidencing the design & obtrusive light measurement
  • 5. General mitigation • Right light, in the right place, at the right time, controlled by the right system • Apply the five principles for responsible lighting: – Useful, all artificial lighting should have a clear purpose – Targeted, light should only be directed where needed – Low lighting levels, light should be no brighter than necessary – Controlled, light should be used only when it is useful – Colour, use the right light source for the task
  • 6. What is obtrusive light? • Many forms
  • 7. Definitions & terms • Look to the definitions – Light spill (light Trespass) – Intensity – Brightness – Glare – .....
  • 8. What guidance and requirements exist? • Published Regulations, standards and guidance for most lighting tasks, adherence to which will help mitigate obtrusive lighting aspects • The Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act (CNEA) 2005 • National planning policy framework (NPPF) • National planning policy • Commission Internationale De L’Eclairage (CIE) • Professional industry guidance
  • 9. National planning policy framework (NPPF) • Makes little reference to lighting with regard to the control of obtrusive light – Limit the impact of light pollution from artificial light on local amenity, intrinsically dark landscapes and nature conservation – The national on-line planning guidance resource i. When is light pollution relevant to planning? ii. What factors should be considered when assessing whether a development proposal might have implications for light pollution? iii. What factors are relevant when considering where light shines? iv. What factors are relevant when considering when light shines? v. What factors are relevant when considering how much the light shines? vi. What factors are relevant when considering possible ecological impact? vii. What other information is available that could inform approaches to lighting and help reduce light pollution?
  • 10. Professional industry guidance • CIE (International Commission of Illumination) – CIE 150; 2017 Guide on the Limitation of the Effects of Obtrusive Light from Outdoor Lighting Installations; and – CIE 126: 1997 Guidelines for Minimizing Sky Glow • ILP – GN01/20 Guidance notes for the reduction of obtrusive light • Limiting performance laid down based upon environment zones
  • 11. Establishing the base line • Establish the environmental zone • Establish the base line (on site survey)
  • 12. Understanding & managing light spill • Defined in terms of illuminance (Lux) – Light falling on a surface • Vertical i.e. windows of a premises • Horizontal i.e. into a garden
  • 13. Limitations on premises • Potential for causing a nuisance • Vertical illuminance – Limits apply to existing or potential nearby dwellings, premises – Specifically windows – Values are the summation of all light sources
  • 14. Note • For example an E4 zone – Limitation 25 lux – Existing base line established at 10 lux Does not mean you can add 15 lux
  • 15. Installation • Luminaire with the right optical distribution at the right mounting height is critical to minimising light spill and obtrusive light effects yet providing the right lighting performance on the task area
  • 16. Fauna and flora • Presence of bats and other protected species – Generally affected by blue light content • Look to warm white light sources • Amber light sources – Different species affected in different ways – One size does not fit all Bats and lighting E Stone 2014
  • 17. Managing glare and sky glow • The uncomfortable brightness of a light source when viewed against a darker background – A potential nuisance • The brightening of the night sky
  • 18. Glare • Condition of vision in which there is discomfort or a reduction in the ability to see details or objects, caused by an unsuitable distribution or range of luminance, or by extreme contrasts – Two main types of glare • Discomfort glare – Glare that causes discomfort without necessarily impairing the vision of objects • Disability glare – Glare that impairs the vision of objects without necessarily causing discomfort
  • 19. Sky glow • The brightening of the night sky – Natural sky glow – Artificial sky glow – A phenomenon / climate dependent
  • 20. Media screens • Purpose – To convey images / messages related to advertising, media and information primarily to a surface located observer • Concern – The lighting distribution is such that they contribute to: • Obtrusive light / Light nuisance • Spill light • Sky glow – Type of display
  • 21. Illuminated adverts, media & domestic lighting • Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) PLG05 – Developed to address concerns over the brightness of advertising and related static and dynamic signage, media screens & facades and projected signage
  • 22. Domestic lighting • Well designed, installed and maintained domestic exterior lighting brings comfort and wellbeing to our lives, providing us with a sense of security and pleasure in our homes • Potential for: – Source of legal nuisance – Adverse effect on safety of adjacent areas – Obtrusive light / light pollution
  • 23. Evidencing the proposal • So what evidence should be requested / provided? – Not just contour lines • Core aspects – Base line assessment survey results – What is the lit task requirements? • Appropriate software • Include all input data – Luminaire details, maintenance factors, mounting heights, tilt, aiming angles …. • Good range of appropriate horizontal and vertical iso-contour plots – 0.5 lux upwards, not just the minimum but a full range of levels covering the who area • Intensity calculations
  • 24. Competency of assessment • The lighting requirements of any proposed installation should be assessed by someone who is competent. • A qualified lighting professional should form part of the planning assessment team. • Appropriate qualifications may include Membership of the Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Society of Lighting and Lighting. – Many Authorities have a street lighting officer, or there are consultants: the Institution of Lighting Engineers can provide a list.
  • 25. Measurement • Guidance on the measurement of obtrusive light from outdoor installations is given within CIE 150 • ILP GN 3/16 Measurement of the photometric performance of LED lighting installations
  • 26. Problems design vs installation • Contractor substitution – Contractor drastically changes the design – Contractor procures alternative products to reduce costs – Lack of performance verification • Competency of contractor – Luminaires installed incorrectly, lack of understanding of luminaire performance and installation configuration
  • 27. Thank you • Questions This course contains tables from CIE 150:2017 and CIE 126:1997 provided for use in GN01 The copyright of the data detailed within these tables belongs to CIE, email ciecb@cie.co.at and the table used in this course document should be used in conjunction with CIE 150:2017 and CIE 126:1997 and not as a replacement for the procedures contained therein. These documents can be obtained from http://cie.co.at/publications and members of a National Committee of the CIE can purchase them with a discount of 66.7 %.