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Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 1 of 20
Unit IG2: Risk assessment
Declaration: By submitting this assessment (Parts 1 – 4) for marking I declare that it is entirely my own work. I understand that falsely claiming that
the work is my own is malpractice and can lead to NEBOSH imposing severe penalties (see the NEBOSH Malpractice Policy for further information).
Important note: You must refer to the document ‘Unit IG2: risk assessment – Guidance and information for learners and Learning Partners’ while
completing all parts of this assessment. Your Learning Partner should provide you with a copy, but it can also be downloaded from the relevant
resources section for this qualification on the NEBOSH website.
Part 1: Background
You should aim to complete this section in 150 - 200 words.
Topic Comments
Name of organisation* Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd.
Site location* Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Number of workers 26,000
General description of the organisation
Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd is a leading company in Saudi Arabia. It is specialized in
many aspects like construction, infrastructure, oil and gas and engineering.
Since 1981, Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd has been established. The organisation is
responsible for major construction work all over the Kingdom. It also serves as a contractor for
many clients. The organisation has many projects at the moment and many more in the up-
coming future. It consists of a CEO, project managers, site engineers, workshop managers, safety
officers, supervisors, and workers and all are distributed according to the place they are needed.
The organisation focuses on health and safety of the employees and the public and it follows the
regulations provided by both the national and international laws. Many equipment is used in sites
such as loaders, dump trucks, excavators, jackhammers and more. There are 2 shifts in the
organisation, firstly from 6:00 to 14:00, and secondly from 14:00 to 22:00.
I chose this organisation due to it being my employer and the fact that I work there.
Description of the area to be included in the
risk assessment
The risk assessment covers the construction site, storage area and the in-site workshop.
Any other relevant information Both HSE and Project manager are responsible for the safety of all workers.
* If you’re worried about confidentiality, you can invent a false name and location for your organisation but, all other information provided must be
factual.
You should aim to complete this section in 100 - 200 words.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 2 of 20
Note: this section can be completed after you have competed your risk assessment.
Outline how the risk
assessment was carried out
this should include:
 sources of information
consulted;
 who you spoke to; and
 how you identified:
- the hazards;
- what is already
being done; and
- any additional
controls/actions
that may be
required.
Prior to doing the risk assessment, I have studied and reviewed some of the international and local regulations
and they were as the following:
1. C155 Occupational Safety and Health Convention by ILO 1981:
https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C155
2. C167 Safety and Health in Construction Convention by ILO:
https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:R164
3. R164 Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation by ILO 1981:
https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312312
4. Health and Safety Executive UK (HSE):
https://www.hse.gov.uk/
5. Construction safety manual by Saudi Aramco:
https://hsseworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/CSM_5thEdition.pdf
After that, I carried-out this risk assessment and gathered some data and information from some
supervisors and the safety officers in my working place. I had also reviewed some prior safety audits and
investigations to have a more understanding of the work and the hazards associated within it. I have also
asked some co-workers and colleagues about the common hazards that either took place before or was
about to happen (accidents, incidents or near misses) as well as their likelihood and severity.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 3 of 20
Part 2: Risk Assessment
[
Organisation name: Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd
Date of assessment: 5-5-2022
Scope of risk assessment: The risk assessment covers the construction site, storage area and the in-site workshop.
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
1. Working At Heights.
I have seen that
workers work in high
areas (above 2
meters) without using
safety harnesses and
with incomplete
scaffolds.
The scaffolds also
were not inspected in a
regular basis.
The workers that
are working on
the scaffoldings
and the other
workers under
them.
The workers might
slip out of balance
and fall, if no 100%
proper tie off was
already done, they
will surely get
severe injuries or
fractures,
Scaffoldings might
collapse or break
apart during the
work due to the
improper erecting.
 Ladders are
provided for the
workers to go up
and down safely.
 Workers work only
with a superior to
supervise them.
 Toe boards are
provided with the
scaffoldings during
work to prevent
falling.
 JSA (Job safety
analysis) is strictly
implemented.
 The scaffolding
working area is
always isolated
with barricades.
1. Provide man-lift machines for
workers.
2. Provide sufficient training to
the workers on how to safely
erect, work and dismantle a
scaffold.
3. Set a permit to work for
working at heights.
4. Set a plan to regularly check
the scaffoldings by
competent persons.
5. Providing high quality safety
harnesses.
6. Provide warning signs for
non-related workers to stay
away from the area.
2 weeks
2 weeks
1 week
1 week
5 days
1 week
Purchase
manager.
Project
manager.
Project
manager.
Site
supervisor.
Purchase
manager.
Project
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 4 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
 The scaffolds are
high quality ones
and they meet the
national standards.
2. Noise.
It was clearly seen that
some areas are having a
high and excessive noise
due to machinery
(Excavators, loaders and
jack hammers)
All personnel
inside the
affected area.
Due to the
continues need for
machinery, the loud
noise would harm
the personnel
exposed to noise
and it would impact
their auditory
system badly.
 Safety signs are
present in site.
 Noise reflecting
fabric is provided in
workers clothes.
 Supervision is
present.
 Decimal meters are
provided to monitor
the noise level.
 Frequent breaks
are set for workers
to minimise
exposure.
 JSA is present.
1. Replace the old machines
with newer ones to reduce
the noise.
2. Set scheduled maintenance
for machinery to lubricate
them to lower noise.
3. The area affected is being
isolated.
4. Set job rotation plan to avoid
over-exposure for workers.
5. Apply health surveillance on
a regular basis (once in a
month).
6. Provide high quality PPE
such as ears muffs and
plugs.
2 weeks
1 week
2 days
2 days
1 week
5 days
Purchase
manager.
Maintenance
manager.
Site
supervisor.
Site
supervisor.
Site
supervisor.
Purchase
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 5 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
3. Fire.
I have seen gasoline and
other flammable materials
were exposed to the sun and
to hot weather conditions in
the workshop area; the
temperature was over 50
degrees Celsius.
A fire may easily start with the
hot weather in site with
flammable materials directly
exposed.
All personnel in
the workshop
area and its
surroundings.
If a fire starts in
site, it may lead to
explosions and
large fire spreading
across the site
which may cause
lethal injuries and
burns.
 Ventilation system
is available in the
storage area.
 Safety fire-related
signs are present.
 Assembly points
are set for all
personnel.
 A fire warden is
present.
 Smoking areas
the labelled.
 Fire-resisting PPE
(like coveralls) are
given to workers.
1. Flammable materials must be
removed from direct exposer
to the sun and should be
stored in cool and dry area.
2. Provide cooling machines in
the workshop area.
3. Provide adequate training
and information for fire-
related safety steps workers.
4. Provide Fire extinguishers
across the site.
5. Set fire drills in proper and
safe ways.
6. Install smoke detecting
system in the workshop.
2 days
1 week
2 weeks
2 weeks
3 weeks
2 weeks
Workshop
manager.
Purchase
manager.
Site
supervisor.
Project
manager.
Safety officer.
Storage
manager.
4. Slips & trips.
A poured liquid in site has
been noticed and it could
cause slipping hazard, in
addition to debris that could
easily be tripped over.
Workers may easily slip or trip
due to the insufficient
housekeeping that has been
seen in site.
All personnel near
the area filled with
waste.
If these two wastes
wouldn’t be
managed or not got
removed, they will
surely increase the
risks of slips and
trips.
 Safety signs
regarding slips &
trips present.
 Workers are
provided with
safety shoes.
 Adequate
information and
warnings regarding
both slipping and
tripping are
1. Clearing walkways of any
obstacles.
2. Isolate the area that
contains waste until
cleaned.
3. Implement better
housekeeping and setting
proper places to dispose
of both poured liquids and
debris as well as applying
a strict system for
2 days
1 day
1 month
Site
supervisor.
Site
supervisor.
Project
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 6 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
They might lead to
injuries like
fractures.
provided to workers
in a regular basis.
 Good lighting
system is
present.
 Floors are in
good condition
and don’t need
any repairs.
 Supervision is
present.
disposing of the debris
that comes after working
immediately and enforce
this rule.
4. Conduct toolbox talks
every morning before the
start of work to warn
workers from their
possible risks.
5. Strictly ensure that all
workers put on safety
shoes and enforce this
law.
6. Provide more information
about slips and trips and
their hazards.
1 day
1 day
2 days
Site
supervisor.
Safety officer.
Site
supervisor.
5. Manual handling.
I have seen that the
workplace is in need of
frequent manual
handling, especially in
the storage area, I
have also seen that
there was a poor
manual handling
technique from the
workers.
Workers who are
needed to carry
loads.
An employee who
is overloaded
would probably
harm himself and
others, as well as
impacting the
resources they are
carrying.
The over-loaded
worker might get
 Manual handling
toolbox talks are
given to workers
 Workers are
provided with
sufficient
information about
manual handlings.
 Workers in good
health condition are
selected for the job
1. Minimise the manual
handling as possible and
relay on machinery and
equipment (forklifts and
trolleys), as they are present
in the workplace.
2. Buy and provide more
trolleys to lower the need of
manual handling.
3. Apply a strict rule to the
maximum weight that could
be carried by a single worker
(according to the UK law, a
1 week
1 week
2 weeks
Project
manager.
Purchase
manager.
Site
supervisor.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 7 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
back injuries, joint
injuries and other
ergonomic injuries.
 Workers don’t have
to carry for long
distances, due to
carrying machines
(forklifts and
cranes) are
available in site.
 Lighting system is
in good condition.
 High quality PPE
(gripping gloves) is
given to workers.
male worker’s maximum
weight for manual handling in
25kg) and enforce this rule.
4. Introduce the TILE technique
to workers (Task, Individual,
Load and Environment) for
safer manual and handling
and give workers more
information.
5. Sort and arrange groups for
manual handling to keep the
work sufficient and to prevent
injuries or fatigues.
6. Ensure supervision is
available during any manual
handling activity.
2 days
1 week
1 day
Safety officer.
Site
supervisor.
Site
supervisor.
6. Health, Welfare and
Work Environment.
As for the location of the
organisation, hot weather is
present in site and the
temperature sometimes
exceeds 50 degrees Celsius,
which creates possible risks.
All employees
including the
project manager,
site engineer,
supervisors and
all workers.
With very high
temperature
present, direct
exposure for long
durations may lead
to skin burns,
dehydration and
heat stresses.
 Appropriate
clothing is provided
for workers.
 Breaks for
personnel are
present.
 Water drinking
facilities available.
 Cameras are
distributed across
site.
1. Ban working directly
under the sun when the
temperature level
reaches 50 degrees
Celsius.
2. Distribute water drinking
facilities across the site.
3. Instal ventilation and
cooling systems in the
storage area and
workshops.
2 days
2 weeks
2 weeks
2 days
Project
manager.
Project
manager.
Purchase
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 8 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
 The workers did
not work for long
durations under the
sun, but there were
also those who did.
 Personnel wearing
PPE, like safety
helmets.
4. More frequent breaks for
workers.
5. Set a job rotation system
for workers to prevent
over exposure.
6. Giving proper training for
workers and instructing
them on how to deal with
heat related
emergencies.
2 days
2 weeks
Site
supervisor.
Site
supervisor.
Safety officer.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 9 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
7. Electricity.
Some of the wires in site were
found not properly insulated
and were exposed to both the
environment and personnel.
All workers,
electricians and
site supervisor.
When a non-
competent
electrician wires an
area, it needs to be
checked, or it may
lead to many
injuries and
hazards, like fires,
burns or even
explosions.
Electrical shocks
might happen when
approaching un-
insulated cables
and wires across
the construction
site.
 Supervision for
electricians is
available.
 Fuses are installed
to prevent
overload.
 Residual current
devices (RCDs) are
installed.
 The electrical
transformers and
control panels are
built far from the
workshop and
storage areas.
 JSA is properly
implemented.
 Appropriate PPE is
provided for
electricians
(Electric resistance
gloves, goggles,
clothing and safety
shoes).
1. The un-insulated
wires must be
insulated immediately
and properly by
competent personnel.
2. Isolate areas when
electricians are
working or when the
cables with live
electricity are
exposed.
3. Setting a permit to
work system for
electrical related
activities.
4. Setting a plan to
regularly inspect the
wires and cables in
site.
5. Hiring only competent
and certificated
personnel.
6. Provide and distribute
electrical related
warning signs in the
electrical areas.
1 day
1 day
1 week
3 days
1 week
1 week
Electrical
supervisor.
Electrical
supervisor.
Project
manager.
Safety officer.
HR manager.
Project
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 10 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
8. Confined spaces.
I have found workers in sump
pits and the work there was
not being implemented
properly, there was no proper
gas testing.
I have also seen that the
workers had poor
communication methods.
All workers inside
the confined
space and all
workers around it.
The confined space
areas have a
chance to be
contained with toxic
atmosphere, like:
H2s, less or high
oxygen levels.
these would harm
the workers
severely.
They workers might
inhale the toxic
vapours which
would result of
asphyxia,
respiratory distress
or even death.
 A permit to work
system is strictly
applied.
 A stand-by person
always available
during the work.
 Health surveillance
is taken
periodically.
 JSA is strictly
implemented.
 All workers use O2
detector.
 Appropriate PPE is
given to the
workers
(Respirators,
harnesses,
coveralls and
safety helmets.
1. A portable ventilation system
must be present and be
operated before the work.
2. Isolating the confined space
area by using barricades and
warning tapes.
3. Prior to starting the work, gas
test must be conducted.
4. Developing the
communicating methods by
providing two-way radios for
the workers.
5. Supervision from superiors
should always take place
during the work.
6. Provide training for
emergencies related to
evacuating workers from the
confined space.
3 days
1 day
1 day
3 days
1 day
2 weeks
Purchasing
manager.
Site
supervisor.
Site
supervisor.
Purchase
manager.
Project
manager.
Safety officer.
9. Vibration.
Vibration has been seen in
site and it was due to the
continuous use of jack
hammers and heavy
machinery.
The jack hammer
and heavy
equipment
operators and
workers in the
affected area.
With overexposure
to vibration,
workers might get
 Equipment and
machinery causing
vibration is
regularly checked
and maintained.
 JSA system is
present.
1. Replace the old machines
and equipment with newer
ones to minimise the
vibration.
2. Provide vibration absorbing
seats for heavy machines
operators.
2 weeks
1 week
Purchase
manager.
Purchasing
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 11 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
white fingers or
whole-body
vibration syndrome.
 Health surveillance
is regularly taken
for operators.
 Proper training is
given to the
operators.
 First aider available
in site.
 Proper PPE is
available for
exposed workers
like safety gloves
and coveralls.
3. Clear all personnel who are
not involved from the affected
area to lower exposer.
4. Instruct the workers with the
whole-body daily exposure
limit of 1.15 m.s-2.
5. Set up a job rotation system
to reduce the exposure time.
6. Provide more information and
warnings to the operators
and inform them with the
legal standards and daily
limits for exposures through
toolbox talks.
2 days
1 day
2 days
1 day
Site
supervisor.
Safety officer.
Site
supervisor.
Site
supervisor.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 12 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
10.Work equipment.
Some damaged tools and
equipment were seen in the
workshops and when I asked
the workers, clearly there
were no plans set for
maintaining and checking
them.
The worker who is
using the
equipment and
his co-workers.
A cracked grinder
disk was installed,
it would surely
break during the
work and cause
fatal injuries,
especially when not
wearing proper
PPE, it might cause
cuts, bleedings or
other long-term
injuries.
 The tools and
equipment are high
quality ones and
meet the
standards.
 Cameras are
present in the
workshop.
 Some guards are
installed on the
devices.
 Information about
how to use and
operate the tools
and equipment are
provided in written
documents.
 First aider is in site
for any emergency.
 Supervision is
always available
during the work.
1. The cracked or damaged
tools and equipment should
be removed.
2. Replacement of the old tool
and equipment.
3. A periodic maintenance and
check-ups must be
implemented.
4. Giving more sufficient training
for the workers about the
tools and equipment and how
to use them properly and
safely.
5. JSA (Job safety analysis)
system should be introduced
and be implemented.
6. Proper PPE
(like safety gloves and face
shields) must be given to all
workers.
1 day
3 days
3 days
2 weeks
1 week
5 days
Workshop
manager.
Workshop
manager.
Maintenance
manager.
Workshop
manager.
Workshop
manager
Purchase
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 13 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
11.Movement of people
and vehicles.
I have seen frequent vehicles
entering and exiting the site
and no designated routes for
them were present in-site.
All the workers
and the vehicle’s
drivers.
The workers might
get crashed by the
vehicles by
accident, there is
no clear pathway or
route for the
vehicles to go
through.
The vehicles might
also drop or loose
objects withing it
due to the work
with no signal man
always available,
that would create
risks to the
materials and
workers around
them.
 Pathways for the
workers are
labelled and
organised.
 Safety signs for
speed were
present.
 Drivers drive slowly
and according to
the safety signs
and policies
provided.
 Small vehicles are
provided with flags
to be easily seen.
 Cameras are
distributed across
site.
 Adequate training
was given to
drivers.
1. Ban vehicle drivers to drive
over the pedestrian
pathways.
2. Set a route for vehicles entry
and exit and set barricades
around it.
3. Set speed bumpers in the
route provided for vehicles.
4. Appoint or hire a certificated
traffic officer to control the
vehicle movement.
5. Crane operators should only
work with a signal man
always available.
6. Provide High visibility vests
for workers especially during
night time.
1 day
1 month
1 month
2 weeks
2 days
5 days
Project
manager.
Project
manager.
Project
manager.
HR manager.
Site
supervisor.
Purchase
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 14 of 20
Hazard category and hazard Who might be
harmed and how?
What are you already
doing?
What further controls/actions are
required?
Timescales
for further
actions to be
completed
(within …)
Responsible
person’s job
title
12. Hazardous
substances.
I have seen that many dust
and other airborne materials
were forming in site, this
happens due to the frequent
use of cutting machines to cut
wood and bricks and many
workers were not putting on
masks.
Workers in the
area.
Dust might cause
serious injuries if
inhaled, especially
if excessive
exposure
happened.
Cutting wood or
bricks will surely
form dust that
might affect
workers greatly.
 Workers within the
dust area were
staying away from
the dust emitted
from machines.
 Supervision
available during
cutting activities.
 Working for long
duration is
prohibited.
 Job rotation system
is present.
 JSA is strictly
implemented prior
to work.
 Suitable PPE was
worn, like
respirators and
face shields.
1. Any dust resulted after work
should be immediately
cleaned and removed.
2. Replace the old cutting
machines with more powerful
ones to reduce dust.
3. Install a ventilation system for
the workshops.
4. Spray water while cutting to
reduce dust.
5. Lower the speed of cutting
machines as possible.
6. Set a strict rule for all workers
to put on masks inside the
cutting area and ensure they
all are complying to it.
1 day
2 weeks.
1 week
2 days
1 day
5 days
Purchase
manager.
Purchase
manager.
Project
manager.
Workshop
manager.
Workshop
manager.
Purchase
manager.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 15 of 20
Part 3: Prioritise 3 actions with justification for the selection
Suggested word counts
Moral, general legal and financial arguments for all actions: 300 to 350 words
For EACH action:
Specific legal arguments: 100 to 150 words
Likelihood AND severity: 75 to 150 words
How effective the action is likely to be in controlling the risk: 100 to 150 words
Moral, general legal and financial arguments for ALL actions
Moral, general legal and financial
arguments
Moral:
Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. has a duty of ensuring all employees health and safety. The
organisation has obligations to apply the health and safety legislation to protect the workers. Every
worker has to wake up in the morning knowing that their workplace is a hazard-free working place
and this will surely increase their productivity and encourage them to do their best in the safest
manner. Frequent hazards and non-complying with the safety legislation are two negative examples
that might lead to a significant drop in the moral of employees, this is why the organisation is
required to morally apply these solutions given above.
Legal:
The organisation is complying with the health and safety legislation. It is a legal requirement to
follow both the international and national laws and to implement them for a safer workplace. For
example: the ILO states occupational Safety and Health Convention (C155) and the occupational
Safety and Health Recommendation (R164) both took place in 1981, these two are international
laws provided by the ILO and every organisation needs to follow them. Not complying with the
legislation will surely increase the rate of risks and will affect the equipment and machinery of the
organisation.
Financial:
If any hazard takes place in the organisation, it will surely affect the productivity and even come
with other financial consequences due to the impact on tools, equipment or the work delay duration.
The costs could be categorised into two types:
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 16 of 20
Direct costs, for example: Worker’s sick pays, first aid treatments, replacement or repairs of
impacted equipment. These will surely cost the organisation and will make it lose more money than
necessary.
Indirect costs, for example: the time lost for the project after the hazards, the drop on staff moral
level, the costs of hiring, recruiting and training newer personnel, and the reputation decrease due
to the damage to public image. These costs are insured and hard to count.
In summary, preventing hazards and implementing the rules of health and safety will surely prevent
or minimise the financial losses.
Justification for action 1
Action Set a plan to regularly check the scaffoldings by competent persons – Hazard category: working
at heights.
Specific legal arguments The ILO, safety and health in construction convention 1988 (C167), clearly states in article 14,
Scaffolds and ladders, (4):
“Scaffolds shall be inspected by a competent person in such cases and at such times as shall be
prescribed by national laws or regulations”.
And in the same article 14, (3):
“All scaffolds and ladders shall be constructed and used in accordance with national laws and
regulations”.
It is a legal requirement for the organisation to regularly do check-ups on the scaffoldings and never
expose them to harmful acids, weather conditions or any other materials that would impact them,
there were no inspections to them and this might lead to a violation and should be prioritised.
Consideration of likelihood AND severity The likelihood of any hazards can be categorized as: low, medium, high and very high. In this
case, the likelihood in considered high, because the number of workers working with scaffolds is
about 200 and they work on them for 6 hours per day, also there was no proper inspection present.
Considering severity, it can be stated in 4 types:
Minimal: No damage or injurie happened.
Minor: Injuries requiring first aid or slight damage to equipment.
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 17 of 20
Major: Injury that requires hospital treatment or significant damage to equipment.
Catastrophic: Death or irreparable damage to equipment.
In this case, any accident that might occur will surely impact both the workers and the equipment,
the severity in here should be classified as catastrophic.
How effective the action is likely to be in
controlling the risk. This should include:
 the intended impact of the action;
 justification for the timescale that you
indicated in your risk assessment;
and
 whether you think the action will fully
control the risk.
Inspecting the scaffolds in a regular basis will certainly prevent many hazards and accidents, it
will prevent the collapsing of scaffolds, injuring workers on top of them and it will prevent the impact
they might get. This will surely prevent the hazards mentioned and.
I suggested a 1-week time for the safety officer to check on them because inspecting them won’t
cost the organisation any additional fees and it will take a short time for the inspector to implement
the job. The organisation also has appointed safety officers already, so no new recruiting is
required.
This action will partially control the risks mentioned, the solutions mentioned above should all
be considered as well, but this action needs to be prioritised to control the risks.
Justification for action 2
Action Implement better housekeeping and setting proper places to dispose of both poured liquids and
debris as well as applying a strict system for disposing of the debris that comes after working
immediately and enforce this rule – Hazard category: Slips and trips.
Specific legal arguments According to the ILO, safety and health in construction recommendation 1988 (R175), safety
of workplaces (12):
“Housekeeping programmes should be established and implemented on construction sites which
should include provision for:
(a) the proper storage of materials and equipment;
(b) the removal of waste and debris at appropriate intervals”.
The organisation is required to properly implement a good housekeeping. It is also required to build
designated set points to dispose of debris and waste after work, this action is a legal requirement
as (R175) states and it will undoubtedly make the site a better working place. These
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 18 of 20
recommendations and legislations should be followed to implement the job more safely and to
avoid any violations and penalties for the organisation.
Consideration of likelihood AND severity Debris and waste scattered across the site will surely increase the risks of slipping and tripping, the
likelihood of these risks is considered very high, because the number of workers in-site is 1500
and they work for 8 hours straight. The organisation needs to take an action. According to prior
audits and reports, 3 cases involving tripping over waste have been reported, this is also another
reason the organisation is required to take an action to it.
The severity of slipping or tripping over them should be considered major, because there is a
chance that they might cause cuts, breaks, nerve and spine damage and traumatic brain injuries.
These accidents would even have workers claim for compensations, as well as working in an
unclean site would create more risks to other jobs and to vehicles, these are other reasons this
action needs to be prioritised.
How effective the action is likely to be in
controlling the risk. This should include:
 the intended impact of the action;
 justification for the timescale that you
indicated in your risk assessment;
and
 whether you think the action will fully
control the risk.
Removing waste and debris in proper places and keeping the site clean will help controlling the
risks. If the system mentioned above is implemented strictly, the workers will have clear
instructions and should be supervised to keep the site clean to avoid any obstacles and waste in
their way, this will surely benefit them to implement their job more safely and it will help them carry
on their job as intended with no obstacles to block their way
I suggested a 1-month timescale for the supervisors to set the necessary rules for this situation
and to build the points to dispose of wastes.
Disposing of debris and waste will positively affect the workplace and will keep the workers safe.
Workers must follow this rule and not take it lightly. This action will fully control the slipping and
tripping risks because the work site would be always clear.
Justification for action 3
Action Set a route for vehicles entry and exit and set barricades around it. – Hazard category: Movement
of people and vehicles.
Specific legal arguments According to the ILO, safety and health in construction convention 1988 (C167), Article 16
TRANSPORT, EARTH-MOVING AND MATERIALS-HANDLING EQUIPMENT (2), states the
following:
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 19 of 20
“On all construction sites on which vehicles, earth-moving or materials-handling equipment are
used:
(a) safe and suitable access ways shall be provided for them;
(b) traffic shall be so organised and controlled as to secure their safe operation”.
As stated by the ILO, it is a legal requirement to set routes for vehicles for entry and exit to prevent
any collisions. Appointing a traffic officer is also required for the organisation to fulfil the legislations.
Same convention (C167), article 13 (2), states:
“Safe means of access to and egress from all workplaces shall be provided and maintained, and
indicated where appropriate”.
The organisation is obliged to follow the international rules and standards provided by the ILO;
therefore, an action must be taken and be prioritised.
Consideration of likelihood AND severity The likelihood of any accidents without any safe and labelled routes is considered very high. There
are at least 1300 workers who are considered pedestrians and use the pathways given and they
work full-time. If no actions regarding this situation is taken, accidents would likely occur and take
place, because there are no borders, barricades or signs which the vehicles drivers may see to stay
on a safe route. The drivers might accidentally and easily drive over the workers pathway thinking it
is fine since no signs or labels are available. This will surely increase the likelihood or hazards to
happen.
Collusions or driving over any employee could result to lethal conditions, like breaks, disability or
even death. The severity is classified as catastrophic.
How effective the action is likely to be in
controlling the risk. This should include:
 the intended impact of the action;
 justification for the timescale that you
indicated in your risk assessment;
and
 whether you think the action will fully
control the risk.
Building up a route only for vehicles would benefit the organisation greatly and will increase the
safety measures. Both the workers and the drivers will be able to easily differentiate each path and
they will be going in the designated path for them. The workers already have their own pathway and
setting a vehicle route only will ensure their personal safety and will increase their moral level.
A 1 month is suggested for the project manager, due to the time needed to build up the route and
to set barricades on its borders.
This action would fully control the risk of collisions and the others mentioned above. Signs should
also be parts of the solution.
Part 4: Review, communicate and check
Suggested word counts for each section:
[Type here]
Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 20 of 20
 Planned review date or period and reasoning for this: 50 - 100 words
 How the risk assessment findings will be communicated and who needs to know the information: 100 - 150 words
 Follow up on the risk assessment: 100 - 150 words.
Planned review date/period with
reasoning
This risk assessment has been done on 5/5/2022. The organisation policy clearly states that risk
assessments should be reviewed in a 12-months period, therefore, I will Sechele the next upcoming
review on 4/5/2023. If any incidents, changes in the policies or any other changes occurred and
required early risk assessment revision, this risk assessment will be reviewed before the official
date stated.
How the risk assessment findings will be
communicated AND who you need to tell
Firstly, I will request a meeting with the project manager, site engineer, Storage manager, site
supervisors and safety officers to counsel them about this risk assessment. A written copy of this
risk assessment will be sent to the HSE as well as the superiors who attended the meeting.
Copies of the actions in this risk assessment will be distributed on noticeboards across the site for
workers and emails of it will also be sent to them as well. I will arrange with the supervisors to
spread the risk assessment actions in toolbox talks during a week. A soft and a hard copy of this
risk assessment will be saved in my office.
How you will follow up on the risk
assessment to check that the actions
have been carried out
To follow up this risk assessment, I will set up a timescale for each action’s deadline. I will
continually be on contact with the people responsible of each action and I will follow up with them to
check if every action is being implemented as planned. I will be expecting if there are any delays or
additional resources needed, therefore, if any action needed more time, manpower or resources, I
will immediately report to the superiors to provide any necessary supplies needed to finish the job
on time. I will consider taking tours around the site on a regular basis to check that the actions are
being implemented, and if any delays were present, they will be reported immediately to set up any
remedial actions.

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  • 1. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 1 of 20 Unit IG2: Risk assessment Declaration: By submitting this assessment (Parts 1 – 4) for marking I declare that it is entirely my own work. I understand that falsely claiming that the work is my own is malpractice and can lead to NEBOSH imposing severe penalties (see the NEBOSH Malpractice Policy for further information). Important note: You must refer to the document ‘Unit IG2: risk assessment – Guidance and information for learners and Learning Partners’ while completing all parts of this assessment. Your Learning Partner should provide you with a copy, but it can also be downloaded from the relevant resources section for this qualification on the NEBOSH website. Part 1: Background You should aim to complete this section in 150 - 200 words. Topic Comments Name of organisation* Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd. Site location* Khobar, Saudi Arabia Number of workers 26,000 General description of the organisation Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd is a leading company in Saudi Arabia. It is specialized in many aspects like construction, infrastructure, oil and gas and engineering. Since 1981, Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd has been established. The organisation is responsible for major construction work all over the Kingdom. It also serves as a contractor for many clients. The organisation has many projects at the moment and many more in the up- coming future. It consists of a CEO, project managers, site engineers, workshop managers, safety officers, supervisors, and workers and all are distributed according to the place they are needed. The organisation focuses on health and safety of the employees and the public and it follows the regulations provided by both the national and international laws. Many equipment is used in sites such as loaders, dump trucks, excavators, jackhammers and more. There are 2 shifts in the organisation, firstly from 6:00 to 14:00, and secondly from 14:00 to 22:00. I chose this organisation due to it being my employer and the fact that I work there. Description of the area to be included in the risk assessment The risk assessment covers the construction site, storage area and the in-site workshop. Any other relevant information Both HSE and Project manager are responsible for the safety of all workers. * If you’re worried about confidentiality, you can invent a false name and location for your organisation but, all other information provided must be factual. You should aim to complete this section in 100 - 200 words.
  • 2. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 2 of 20 Note: this section can be completed after you have competed your risk assessment. Outline how the risk assessment was carried out this should include:  sources of information consulted;  who you spoke to; and  how you identified: - the hazards; - what is already being done; and - any additional controls/actions that may be required. Prior to doing the risk assessment, I have studied and reviewed some of the international and local regulations and they were as the following: 1. C155 Occupational Safety and Health Convention by ILO 1981: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C155 2. C167 Safety and Health in Construction Convention by ILO: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:R164 3. R164 Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation by ILO 1981: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312312 4. Health and Safety Executive UK (HSE): https://www.hse.gov.uk/ 5. Construction safety manual by Saudi Aramco: https://hsseworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/CSM_5thEdition.pdf After that, I carried-out this risk assessment and gathered some data and information from some supervisors and the safety officers in my working place. I had also reviewed some prior safety audits and investigations to have a more understanding of the work and the hazards associated within it. I have also asked some co-workers and colleagues about the common hazards that either took place before or was about to happen (accidents, incidents or near misses) as well as their likelihood and severity.
  • 3. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 3 of 20 Part 2: Risk Assessment [ Organisation name: Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. Ltd Date of assessment: 5-5-2022 Scope of risk assessment: The risk assessment covers the construction site, storage area and the in-site workshop. Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title 1. Working At Heights. I have seen that workers work in high areas (above 2 meters) without using safety harnesses and with incomplete scaffolds. The scaffolds also were not inspected in a regular basis. The workers that are working on the scaffoldings and the other workers under them. The workers might slip out of balance and fall, if no 100% proper tie off was already done, they will surely get severe injuries or fractures, Scaffoldings might collapse or break apart during the work due to the improper erecting.  Ladders are provided for the workers to go up and down safely.  Workers work only with a superior to supervise them.  Toe boards are provided with the scaffoldings during work to prevent falling.  JSA (Job safety analysis) is strictly implemented.  The scaffolding working area is always isolated with barricades. 1. Provide man-lift machines for workers. 2. Provide sufficient training to the workers on how to safely erect, work and dismantle a scaffold. 3. Set a permit to work for working at heights. 4. Set a plan to regularly check the scaffoldings by competent persons. 5. Providing high quality safety harnesses. 6. Provide warning signs for non-related workers to stay away from the area. 2 weeks 2 weeks 1 week 1 week 5 days 1 week Purchase manager. Project manager. Project manager. Site supervisor. Purchase manager. Project manager.
  • 4. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 4 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title  The scaffolds are high quality ones and they meet the national standards. 2. Noise. It was clearly seen that some areas are having a high and excessive noise due to machinery (Excavators, loaders and jack hammers) All personnel inside the affected area. Due to the continues need for machinery, the loud noise would harm the personnel exposed to noise and it would impact their auditory system badly.  Safety signs are present in site.  Noise reflecting fabric is provided in workers clothes.  Supervision is present.  Decimal meters are provided to monitor the noise level.  Frequent breaks are set for workers to minimise exposure.  JSA is present. 1. Replace the old machines with newer ones to reduce the noise. 2. Set scheduled maintenance for machinery to lubricate them to lower noise. 3. The area affected is being isolated. 4. Set job rotation plan to avoid over-exposure for workers. 5. Apply health surveillance on a regular basis (once in a month). 6. Provide high quality PPE such as ears muffs and plugs. 2 weeks 1 week 2 days 2 days 1 week 5 days Purchase manager. Maintenance manager. Site supervisor. Site supervisor. Site supervisor. Purchase manager.
  • 5. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 5 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title 3. Fire. I have seen gasoline and other flammable materials were exposed to the sun and to hot weather conditions in the workshop area; the temperature was over 50 degrees Celsius. A fire may easily start with the hot weather in site with flammable materials directly exposed. All personnel in the workshop area and its surroundings. If a fire starts in site, it may lead to explosions and large fire spreading across the site which may cause lethal injuries and burns.  Ventilation system is available in the storage area.  Safety fire-related signs are present.  Assembly points are set for all personnel.  A fire warden is present.  Smoking areas the labelled.  Fire-resisting PPE (like coveralls) are given to workers. 1. Flammable materials must be removed from direct exposer to the sun and should be stored in cool and dry area. 2. Provide cooling machines in the workshop area. 3. Provide adequate training and information for fire- related safety steps workers. 4. Provide Fire extinguishers across the site. 5. Set fire drills in proper and safe ways. 6. Install smoke detecting system in the workshop. 2 days 1 week 2 weeks 2 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks Workshop manager. Purchase manager. Site supervisor. Project manager. Safety officer. Storage manager. 4. Slips & trips. A poured liquid in site has been noticed and it could cause slipping hazard, in addition to debris that could easily be tripped over. Workers may easily slip or trip due to the insufficient housekeeping that has been seen in site. All personnel near the area filled with waste. If these two wastes wouldn’t be managed or not got removed, they will surely increase the risks of slips and trips.  Safety signs regarding slips & trips present.  Workers are provided with safety shoes.  Adequate information and warnings regarding both slipping and tripping are 1. Clearing walkways of any obstacles. 2. Isolate the area that contains waste until cleaned. 3. Implement better housekeeping and setting proper places to dispose of both poured liquids and debris as well as applying a strict system for 2 days 1 day 1 month Site supervisor. Site supervisor. Project manager.
  • 6. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 6 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title They might lead to injuries like fractures. provided to workers in a regular basis.  Good lighting system is present.  Floors are in good condition and don’t need any repairs.  Supervision is present. disposing of the debris that comes after working immediately and enforce this rule. 4. Conduct toolbox talks every morning before the start of work to warn workers from their possible risks. 5. Strictly ensure that all workers put on safety shoes and enforce this law. 6. Provide more information about slips and trips and their hazards. 1 day 1 day 2 days Site supervisor. Safety officer. Site supervisor. 5. Manual handling. I have seen that the workplace is in need of frequent manual handling, especially in the storage area, I have also seen that there was a poor manual handling technique from the workers. Workers who are needed to carry loads. An employee who is overloaded would probably harm himself and others, as well as impacting the resources they are carrying. The over-loaded worker might get  Manual handling toolbox talks are given to workers  Workers are provided with sufficient information about manual handlings.  Workers in good health condition are selected for the job 1. Minimise the manual handling as possible and relay on machinery and equipment (forklifts and trolleys), as they are present in the workplace. 2. Buy and provide more trolleys to lower the need of manual handling. 3. Apply a strict rule to the maximum weight that could be carried by a single worker (according to the UK law, a 1 week 1 week 2 weeks Project manager. Purchase manager. Site supervisor.
  • 7. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 7 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title back injuries, joint injuries and other ergonomic injuries.  Workers don’t have to carry for long distances, due to carrying machines (forklifts and cranes) are available in site.  Lighting system is in good condition.  High quality PPE (gripping gloves) is given to workers. male worker’s maximum weight for manual handling in 25kg) and enforce this rule. 4. Introduce the TILE technique to workers (Task, Individual, Load and Environment) for safer manual and handling and give workers more information. 5. Sort and arrange groups for manual handling to keep the work sufficient and to prevent injuries or fatigues. 6. Ensure supervision is available during any manual handling activity. 2 days 1 week 1 day Safety officer. Site supervisor. Site supervisor. 6. Health, Welfare and Work Environment. As for the location of the organisation, hot weather is present in site and the temperature sometimes exceeds 50 degrees Celsius, which creates possible risks. All employees including the project manager, site engineer, supervisors and all workers. With very high temperature present, direct exposure for long durations may lead to skin burns, dehydration and heat stresses.  Appropriate clothing is provided for workers.  Breaks for personnel are present.  Water drinking facilities available.  Cameras are distributed across site. 1. Ban working directly under the sun when the temperature level reaches 50 degrees Celsius. 2. Distribute water drinking facilities across the site. 3. Instal ventilation and cooling systems in the storage area and workshops. 2 days 2 weeks 2 weeks 2 days Project manager. Project manager. Purchase manager.
  • 8. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 8 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title  The workers did not work for long durations under the sun, but there were also those who did.  Personnel wearing PPE, like safety helmets. 4. More frequent breaks for workers. 5. Set a job rotation system for workers to prevent over exposure. 6. Giving proper training for workers and instructing them on how to deal with heat related emergencies. 2 days 2 weeks Site supervisor. Site supervisor. Safety officer.
  • 9. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 9 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title 7. Electricity. Some of the wires in site were found not properly insulated and were exposed to both the environment and personnel. All workers, electricians and site supervisor. When a non- competent electrician wires an area, it needs to be checked, or it may lead to many injuries and hazards, like fires, burns or even explosions. Electrical shocks might happen when approaching un- insulated cables and wires across the construction site.  Supervision for electricians is available.  Fuses are installed to prevent overload.  Residual current devices (RCDs) are installed.  The electrical transformers and control panels are built far from the workshop and storage areas.  JSA is properly implemented.  Appropriate PPE is provided for electricians (Electric resistance gloves, goggles, clothing and safety shoes). 1. The un-insulated wires must be insulated immediately and properly by competent personnel. 2. Isolate areas when electricians are working or when the cables with live electricity are exposed. 3. Setting a permit to work system for electrical related activities. 4. Setting a plan to regularly inspect the wires and cables in site. 5. Hiring only competent and certificated personnel. 6. Provide and distribute electrical related warning signs in the electrical areas. 1 day 1 day 1 week 3 days 1 week 1 week Electrical supervisor. Electrical supervisor. Project manager. Safety officer. HR manager. Project manager.
  • 10. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 10 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title 8. Confined spaces. I have found workers in sump pits and the work there was not being implemented properly, there was no proper gas testing. I have also seen that the workers had poor communication methods. All workers inside the confined space and all workers around it. The confined space areas have a chance to be contained with toxic atmosphere, like: H2s, less or high oxygen levels. these would harm the workers severely. They workers might inhale the toxic vapours which would result of asphyxia, respiratory distress or even death.  A permit to work system is strictly applied.  A stand-by person always available during the work.  Health surveillance is taken periodically.  JSA is strictly implemented.  All workers use O2 detector.  Appropriate PPE is given to the workers (Respirators, harnesses, coveralls and safety helmets. 1. A portable ventilation system must be present and be operated before the work. 2. Isolating the confined space area by using barricades and warning tapes. 3. Prior to starting the work, gas test must be conducted. 4. Developing the communicating methods by providing two-way radios for the workers. 5. Supervision from superiors should always take place during the work. 6. Provide training for emergencies related to evacuating workers from the confined space. 3 days 1 day 1 day 3 days 1 day 2 weeks Purchasing manager. Site supervisor. Site supervisor. Purchase manager. Project manager. Safety officer. 9. Vibration. Vibration has been seen in site and it was due to the continuous use of jack hammers and heavy machinery. The jack hammer and heavy equipment operators and workers in the affected area. With overexposure to vibration, workers might get  Equipment and machinery causing vibration is regularly checked and maintained.  JSA system is present. 1. Replace the old machines and equipment with newer ones to minimise the vibration. 2. Provide vibration absorbing seats for heavy machines operators. 2 weeks 1 week Purchase manager. Purchasing manager.
  • 11. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 11 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title white fingers or whole-body vibration syndrome.  Health surveillance is regularly taken for operators.  Proper training is given to the operators.  First aider available in site.  Proper PPE is available for exposed workers like safety gloves and coveralls. 3. Clear all personnel who are not involved from the affected area to lower exposer. 4. Instruct the workers with the whole-body daily exposure limit of 1.15 m.s-2. 5. Set up a job rotation system to reduce the exposure time. 6. Provide more information and warnings to the operators and inform them with the legal standards and daily limits for exposures through toolbox talks. 2 days 1 day 2 days 1 day Site supervisor. Safety officer. Site supervisor. Site supervisor.
  • 12. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 12 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title 10.Work equipment. Some damaged tools and equipment were seen in the workshops and when I asked the workers, clearly there were no plans set for maintaining and checking them. The worker who is using the equipment and his co-workers. A cracked grinder disk was installed, it would surely break during the work and cause fatal injuries, especially when not wearing proper PPE, it might cause cuts, bleedings or other long-term injuries.  The tools and equipment are high quality ones and meet the standards.  Cameras are present in the workshop.  Some guards are installed on the devices.  Information about how to use and operate the tools and equipment are provided in written documents.  First aider is in site for any emergency.  Supervision is always available during the work. 1. The cracked or damaged tools and equipment should be removed. 2. Replacement of the old tool and equipment. 3. A periodic maintenance and check-ups must be implemented. 4. Giving more sufficient training for the workers about the tools and equipment and how to use them properly and safely. 5. JSA (Job safety analysis) system should be introduced and be implemented. 6. Proper PPE (like safety gloves and face shields) must be given to all workers. 1 day 3 days 3 days 2 weeks 1 week 5 days Workshop manager. Workshop manager. Maintenance manager. Workshop manager. Workshop manager Purchase manager.
  • 13. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 13 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title 11.Movement of people and vehicles. I have seen frequent vehicles entering and exiting the site and no designated routes for them were present in-site. All the workers and the vehicle’s drivers. The workers might get crashed by the vehicles by accident, there is no clear pathway or route for the vehicles to go through. The vehicles might also drop or loose objects withing it due to the work with no signal man always available, that would create risks to the materials and workers around them.  Pathways for the workers are labelled and organised.  Safety signs for speed were present.  Drivers drive slowly and according to the safety signs and policies provided.  Small vehicles are provided with flags to be easily seen.  Cameras are distributed across site.  Adequate training was given to drivers. 1. Ban vehicle drivers to drive over the pedestrian pathways. 2. Set a route for vehicles entry and exit and set barricades around it. 3. Set speed bumpers in the route provided for vehicles. 4. Appoint or hire a certificated traffic officer to control the vehicle movement. 5. Crane operators should only work with a signal man always available. 6. Provide High visibility vests for workers especially during night time. 1 day 1 month 1 month 2 weeks 2 days 5 days Project manager. Project manager. Project manager. HR manager. Site supervisor. Purchase manager.
  • 14. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 14 of 20 Hazard category and hazard Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further controls/actions are required? Timescales for further actions to be completed (within …) Responsible person’s job title 12. Hazardous substances. I have seen that many dust and other airborne materials were forming in site, this happens due to the frequent use of cutting machines to cut wood and bricks and many workers were not putting on masks. Workers in the area. Dust might cause serious injuries if inhaled, especially if excessive exposure happened. Cutting wood or bricks will surely form dust that might affect workers greatly.  Workers within the dust area were staying away from the dust emitted from machines.  Supervision available during cutting activities.  Working for long duration is prohibited.  Job rotation system is present.  JSA is strictly implemented prior to work.  Suitable PPE was worn, like respirators and face shields. 1. Any dust resulted after work should be immediately cleaned and removed. 2. Replace the old cutting machines with more powerful ones to reduce dust. 3. Install a ventilation system for the workshops. 4. Spray water while cutting to reduce dust. 5. Lower the speed of cutting machines as possible. 6. Set a strict rule for all workers to put on masks inside the cutting area and ensure they all are complying to it. 1 day 2 weeks. 1 week 2 days 1 day 5 days Purchase manager. Purchase manager. Project manager. Workshop manager. Workshop manager. Purchase manager.
  • 15. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 15 of 20 Part 3: Prioritise 3 actions with justification for the selection Suggested word counts Moral, general legal and financial arguments for all actions: 300 to 350 words For EACH action: Specific legal arguments: 100 to 150 words Likelihood AND severity: 75 to 150 words How effective the action is likely to be in controlling the risk: 100 to 150 words Moral, general legal and financial arguments for ALL actions Moral, general legal and financial arguments Moral: Nesma & Partners Contracting Co. has a duty of ensuring all employees health and safety. The organisation has obligations to apply the health and safety legislation to protect the workers. Every worker has to wake up in the morning knowing that their workplace is a hazard-free working place and this will surely increase their productivity and encourage them to do their best in the safest manner. Frequent hazards and non-complying with the safety legislation are two negative examples that might lead to a significant drop in the moral of employees, this is why the organisation is required to morally apply these solutions given above. Legal: The organisation is complying with the health and safety legislation. It is a legal requirement to follow both the international and national laws and to implement them for a safer workplace. For example: the ILO states occupational Safety and Health Convention (C155) and the occupational Safety and Health Recommendation (R164) both took place in 1981, these two are international laws provided by the ILO and every organisation needs to follow them. Not complying with the legislation will surely increase the rate of risks and will affect the equipment and machinery of the organisation. Financial: If any hazard takes place in the organisation, it will surely affect the productivity and even come with other financial consequences due to the impact on tools, equipment or the work delay duration. The costs could be categorised into two types:
  • 16. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 16 of 20 Direct costs, for example: Worker’s sick pays, first aid treatments, replacement or repairs of impacted equipment. These will surely cost the organisation and will make it lose more money than necessary. Indirect costs, for example: the time lost for the project after the hazards, the drop on staff moral level, the costs of hiring, recruiting and training newer personnel, and the reputation decrease due to the damage to public image. These costs are insured and hard to count. In summary, preventing hazards and implementing the rules of health and safety will surely prevent or minimise the financial losses. Justification for action 1 Action Set a plan to regularly check the scaffoldings by competent persons – Hazard category: working at heights. Specific legal arguments The ILO, safety and health in construction convention 1988 (C167), clearly states in article 14, Scaffolds and ladders, (4): “Scaffolds shall be inspected by a competent person in such cases and at such times as shall be prescribed by national laws or regulations”. And in the same article 14, (3): “All scaffolds and ladders shall be constructed and used in accordance with national laws and regulations”. It is a legal requirement for the organisation to regularly do check-ups on the scaffoldings and never expose them to harmful acids, weather conditions or any other materials that would impact them, there were no inspections to them and this might lead to a violation and should be prioritised. Consideration of likelihood AND severity The likelihood of any hazards can be categorized as: low, medium, high and very high. In this case, the likelihood in considered high, because the number of workers working with scaffolds is about 200 and they work on them for 6 hours per day, also there was no proper inspection present. Considering severity, it can be stated in 4 types: Minimal: No damage or injurie happened. Minor: Injuries requiring first aid or slight damage to equipment.
  • 17. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 17 of 20 Major: Injury that requires hospital treatment or significant damage to equipment. Catastrophic: Death or irreparable damage to equipment. In this case, any accident that might occur will surely impact both the workers and the equipment, the severity in here should be classified as catastrophic. How effective the action is likely to be in controlling the risk. This should include:  the intended impact of the action;  justification for the timescale that you indicated in your risk assessment; and  whether you think the action will fully control the risk. Inspecting the scaffolds in a regular basis will certainly prevent many hazards and accidents, it will prevent the collapsing of scaffolds, injuring workers on top of them and it will prevent the impact they might get. This will surely prevent the hazards mentioned and. I suggested a 1-week time for the safety officer to check on them because inspecting them won’t cost the organisation any additional fees and it will take a short time for the inspector to implement the job. The organisation also has appointed safety officers already, so no new recruiting is required. This action will partially control the risks mentioned, the solutions mentioned above should all be considered as well, but this action needs to be prioritised to control the risks. Justification for action 2 Action Implement better housekeeping and setting proper places to dispose of both poured liquids and debris as well as applying a strict system for disposing of the debris that comes after working immediately and enforce this rule – Hazard category: Slips and trips. Specific legal arguments According to the ILO, safety and health in construction recommendation 1988 (R175), safety of workplaces (12): “Housekeeping programmes should be established and implemented on construction sites which should include provision for: (a) the proper storage of materials and equipment; (b) the removal of waste and debris at appropriate intervals”. The organisation is required to properly implement a good housekeeping. It is also required to build designated set points to dispose of debris and waste after work, this action is a legal requirement as (R175) states and it will undoubtedly make the site a better working place. These
  • 18. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 18 of 20 recommendations and legislations should be followed to implement the job more safely and to avoid any violations and penalties for the organisation. Consideration of likelihood AND severity Debris and waste scattered across the site will surely increase the risks of slipping and tripping, the likelihood of these risks is considered very high, because the number of workers in-site is 1500 and they work for 8 hours straight. The organisation needs to take an action. According to prior audits and reports, 3 cases involving tripping over waste have been reported, this is also another reason the organisation is required to take an action to it. The severity of slipping or tripping over them should be considered major, because there is a chance that they might cause cuts, breaks, nerve and spine damage and traumatic brain injuries. These accidents would even have workers claim for compensations, as well as working in an unclean site would create more risks to other jobs and to vehicles, these are other reasons this action needs to be prioritised. How effective the action is likely to be in controlling the risk. This should include:  the intended impact of the action;  justification for the timescale that you indicated in your risk assessment; and  whether you think the action will fully control the risk. Removing waste and debris in proper places and keeping the site clean will help controlling the risks. If the system mentioned above is implemented strictly, the workers will have clear instructions and should be supervised to keep the site clean to avoid any obstacles and waste in their way, this will surely benefit them to implement their job more safely and it will help them carry on their job as intended with no obstacles to block their way I suggested a 1-month timescale for the supervisors to set the necessary rules for this situation and to build the points to dispose of wastes. Disposing of debris and waste will positively affect the workplace and will keep the workers safe. Workers must follow this rule and not take it lightly. This action will fully control the slipping and tripping risks because the work site would be always clear. Justification for action 3 Action Set a route for vehicles entry and exit and set barricades around it. – Hazard category: Movement of people and vehicles. Specific legal arguments According to the ILO, safety and health in construction convention 1988 (C167), Article 16 TRANSPORT, EARTH-MOVING AND MATERIALS-HANDLING EQUIPMENT (2), states the following:
  • 19. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 19 of 20 “On all construction sites on which vehicles, earth-moving or materials-handling equipment are used: (a) safe and suitable access ways shall be provided for them; (b) traffic shall be so organised and controlled as to secure their safe operation”. As stated by the ILO, it is a legal requirement to set routes for vehicles for entry and exit to prevent any collisions. Appointing a traffic officer is also required for the organisation to fulfil the legislations. Same convention (C167), article 13 (2), states: “Safe means of access to and egress from all workplaces shall be provided and maintained, and indicated where appropriate”. The organisation is obliged to follow the international rules and standards provided by the ILO; therefore, an action must be taken and be prioritised. Consideration of likelihood AND severity The likelihood of any accidents without any safe and labelled routes is considered very high. There are at least 1300 workers who are considered pedestrians and use the pathways given and they work full-time. If no actions regarding this situation is taken, accidents would likely occur and take place, because there are no borders, barricades or signs which the vehicles drivers may see to stay on a safe route. The drivers might accidentally and easily drive over the workers pathway thinking it is fine since no signs or labels are available. This will surely increase the likelihood or hazards to happen. Collusions or driving over any employee could result to lethal conditions, like breaks, disability or even death. The severity is classified as catastrophic. How effective the action is likely to be in controlling the risk. This should include:  the intended impact of the action;  justification for the timescale that you indicated in your risk assessment; and  whether you think the action will fully control the risk. Building up a route only for vehicles would benefit the organisation greatly and will increase the safety measures. Both the workers and the drivers will be able to easily differentiate each path and they will be going in the designated path for them. The workers already have their own pathway and setting a vehicle route only will ensure their personal safety and will increase their moral level. A 1 month is suggested for the project manager, due to the time needed to build up the route and to set barricades on its borders. This action would fully control the risk of collisions and the others mentioned above. Signs should also be parts of the solution. Part 4: Review, communicate and check Suggested word counts for each section:
  • 20. [Type here] Learner number: 00677821 Learner name: Khaled Alnaiem Page 20 of 20  Planned review date or period and reasoning for this: 50 - 100 words  How the risk assessment findings will be communicated and who needs to know the information: 100 - 150 words  Follow up on the risk assessment: 100 - 150 words. Planned review date/period with reasoning This risk assessment has been done on 5/5/2022. The organisation policy clearly states that risk assessments should be reviewed in a 12-months period, therefore, I will Sechele the next upcoming review on 4/5/2023. If any incidents, changes in the policies or any other changes occurred and required early risk assessment revision, this risk assessment will be reviewed before the official date stated. How the risk assessment findings will be communicated AND who you need to tell Firstly, I will request a meeting with the project manager, site engineer, Storage manager, site supervisors and safety officers to counsel them about this risk assessment. A written copy of this risk assessment will be sent to the HSE as well as the superiors who attended the meeting. Copies of the actions in this risk assessment will be distributed on noticeboards across the site for workers and emails of it will also be sent to them as well. I will arrange with the supervisors to spread the risk assessment actions in toolbox talks during a week. A soft and a hard copy of this risk assessment will be saved in my office. How you will follow up on the risk assessment to check that the actions have been carried out To follow up this risk assessment, I will set up a timescale for each action’s deadline. I will continually be on contact with the people responsible of each action and I will follow up with them to check if every action is being implemented as planned. I will be expecting if there are any delays or additional resources needed, therefore, if any action needed more time, manpower or resources, I will immediately report to the superiors to provide any necessary supplies needed to finish the job on time. I will consider taking tours around the site on a regular basis to check that the actions are being implemented, and if any delays were present, they will be reported immediately to set up any remedial actions.