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Internet of Things (IoT)
Innovations & Megatrends Update
Wednesday, December 12, 2018
Mark Goldstein, International Research Center
PO Box 825, Tempe, AZ 85280-0825, Phone: 602-470-0389,
markg@researchedge.com, URL: http://www.researchedge.com/
Presentation Available at http://www.slideshare.net/markgirc
© 2018 - International Research Center
Phoenix Chapter
http://ewh.ieee.org/r6/phoenix/compsociety/
Phoenix Chapter
http://ewh.ieee.org/r6/phoenix/compsociety/
IoT Overview and Ecosystems
IoT Computing Platforms
IoT Sensors and Device Integration
IoT Gateways, Programming, and Platforms
IoT Wireless Protocols & Communications
IoT Application Arenas
• Consumer and Home Automation
• Healthcare and Life Science
• Retail and Logistics
• Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
• Smart Buildings
• Smart Cities and Environment
• Autonomous Vehicles & Transportation
IoT Security, Privacy, and Blockchain
IoT Standards and Organizations
IoT Big Data, Applications, and Analytics
IoT Business Models and Outlook
Internet of Things (IoT)
Innovations & Megatrends Update
Presentation Available at
http://www.slideshare.net/markgirc
IoT Overview and Ecosystems
Source: Gartner 2017
Capabilities of an IoT Component
Source: U.S. NIST 2018
Source: Teradata Corporation
Internet of Things Basics
Source: Postscapes (http://postscapes.com/)
Source: Postscapes (http://postscapes.com/)
Source: Postscapes (http://postscapes.com/)
IoT Solutions Architecture
Source: TechBeacon (https://techbeacon.com/4-stages-iot-architecture)
Source: IDC & Peplink 2015
IoT Vision
Source: TE Connectivity
IoT Adoption Landscape
IoT Deployment Trends
Source: Cisco VNI 2018
Source:
CompTIA
https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/internet-things-word-cloud-words-which-
related-to-concept-iot-refers-to-uniquely-38616417.jpg
IoT Computing Platforms
The Exponential Curve of Technological Innovations
Leading Up to the Singularity
http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/
embedded/embedded-design-center.html
Arduino Mega 2560
Raspberry Pi 2 Model B Nwazet Pi Media Center
Night Vision Camera Modules
MicroSD Card Adapter
BLE Mini Bluetooth 4.0 Interface
Arduino, Raspberry & Other Microcontrollers
Ultimate GPS Breakout
UDOO Quad Core w/SATA
16GB NOOBS
SD Card
Raspberry Pi
Camera Board
PiFace Relay+
https://www.element14.com/community/community/raspberry-pi/
BeagleBone Black Wireless with
USB, Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, MicroSD & HDMI
https://beagleboard.org/black
https://elinux.org/Beagleboard:BeagleBoneBlack
https://github.com/beagleboard/beaglebone-black/wiki
86.40 mm × 53.3 mm
(3.40 in × 2.10 in)
AT&T Dedicated IoT Starter Kit for Amazon Web Services
https://starterkit.att.com/
https://www.raspberrypi.org/products/pi-zero/
The Raspberry Pi Zero is half the size of
a Model A+, with twice the utility. A tiny
Raspberry Pi that’s affordable enough
for any project!
• 1Ghz, Single-core CPU
• 512MB RAM
• Mini HDMI & USB On-The-Go ports
• Micro USB power
• HAT-compatible 40-pin header
• Composite video & reset headers
• Can utilize Raspbian Jessie OS Adafruit Raspberry Pi Zero Starter Pack
http://www.adafruit.com/products/2816
65 mm x 30 mm x 5 mm
BeagleBone PocketBeagle USB Fob Computer
https://beagleboard.org/pocket
https://github.com/beagleboard/pocketbeagle/wiki
56 mm x 36 mm x 5 mm
http://www.ti.com/product/cc2541
The Texas Instruments
CC2541 is a power-
optimized true system-on-
chip (SoC) solution for
both Bluetooth low energy
and proprietary 2.4-GHz
applications. It enables
robust network nodes to
be built with low total bill-
of-material costs. The
CC2541 combines the
excellent performance of a
leading RF transceiver
with an industry-standard
enhanced 8051 MCU, in-
system programmable
flash memory, 8-KB RAM,
and many other powerful
supporting features and
peripherals. The CC2541 is
highly suited for systems
where ultralow power
consumption is required.
TI CC2541 SOC
Intel’s Edison computer is housed in an SD card form factor and comes with built-
in Linux and both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth wireless. The computer, which is based on
Intel's 22-nanometer Quark chips, can be the basis for a new wave of products
and will become available summer 2014. Source: eWeek
Intel Curie Module Unleashing Wearable Device Innovation
http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en
/wearables/wearable-soc.html
Intel’s Curie module is a complete low-
power solution for the wearable space
with compute, motion sensor, Bluetooth
Low Energy, and battery charging
capabilities.
Key Features:
• Low-power, 32-bit Intel Quark SE SoC
• 384kB Flash memory, 80kB SRAM
• Small and efficient open source real-
time operating system (RTOS)
• Low-power integrated DSP sensor hub
with a proprietary pattern matching
accelerator
• Bluetooth Low Energy
• 6-Axis combo sensor with
accelerometer and gyroscope
• Battery charging circuitry (PMIC)
• Released January, 2015
Approximately 26 mm x 35 mm
https://software.intel.com/en-us/node/675623
Netclearance Systems, Inc.’s (NCS) mBeaconSense hub embeds temperature, vibration,
accelerometer, magnetic, and light sensors into a 15mm x 20mm form factor making it the
industry's smallest beacon technology to incorporate multiple data sensors into one device.
Combined with the Netclearance Systems' Wi-Fi, Ethernet, and mesh gateways,
mBeaconSense enables multiple remote sensing capabilities in a single tag allowing for
streamlined, and cost-effective deployments. mBeaconSense includes everything necessary
to create next generation IoT sensing capabilities utilizing low power Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.
The mBeaconSense incorporates a near field communication (NFC) antenna and memory to
provide close proximity passive identification capabilities making the product both a hybrid
passive and active tag. http://www.netclearance.com/
In 2015, ASUS launched a new type of Chrome device: the Chromebit. Smaller
than a candy bar, the Chromebit is a full computer that will be available for less
than $100. By simply plugging this device into any display, you can turn it into a
computer. It’s the perfect upgrade for an existing desktop and will be really useful
for schools and businesses.
Source: http://chrome.blogspot.com/2015/03/more-chromebooks-for-everyone.html
ASUS Chromebit Turns Any TV into a Chrome PC
• Rockchip RK3288 (with quad-core Mali 760 graphics)
• 2GB of RAM, 16GB of solid state storage
• Plugs into any HDMI-equipped display
• Dual-band 802.11ac Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 4.0, USB 2.0 port
(Plus Windows
& Streaming Media
Mini-Devices)
IoT Sensors and Device Integration
SunFounder 37 Modules Raspberry Pi B+ Sensor Kit
http://www.sunfounder.com/index.php?c=show&id=47&model=Sensor%20Kit%20for%20B+
Detailed tutorial, source code
& 32 lessons on project DVD
Sensor Cluster Trends for Mobile Phones
(Inertial Measurement Units)
AMS AV-MLV-P2 is a volatile organic compounds (VOC) gas sensor which can detect
alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, amines, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
MEMSIC Accelerometer Structure and Chip Integration
Creating a sensor-based IoT edge device is challenging, due to the multiple
design domains involved. But, creating an edge device that combines the
electronics using the traditional CMOS IC flow and a MEMS sensor on the same
silicon die can seem impossible. In fact, many IoT edge devices combine multiple
dies in a single package, separating electronics from the MEMS design. The
Tanner AMS IC design flow accommodates single or multiple die techniques for
successful IoT edge device design and verification, able to meet the unique
challenge of fusing CMOS IC and MEMS design on a single die.
Source: Mentor Graphics
A new antenna miniaturization mechanism, acoustically actuated nanomechanical magnetoelectric (ME)
antennas, could successfully miniaturize the magnitude of 1-2 orders using magnetic current for
radiation. The ME Antennas open up a variety of opportunities for bio-medical applications, wearable
antennas, internet of things, etc.
Source: https://contest.techbriefs.com/2018/entries/electronics-sensors-iot/9243-0702-222339-future-
antenna-miniaturization-mechanism-magnetoelectric-antennas
Source: EDN Magazine
Wikipedia on Smart Dust:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartdust
Wikipedia on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network
Smart Dust Motes for
Wireless Sensor
Networks
(WSN)
Multihop Wireless Sensor Network
Sensors for Vehicle
Computer Vision Systems
Source: Michigan Tech
Research Institute (MTRI)
http://mtri.org/automotivebenchmark.html
(Visible + Infrared)
The world's first smartphone with a giant six-inch screen and a built-in ADI (U.S.,
http://www.analog.com/) spectrometer running integrated software by Consumer Physics
(U.S., https://www.consumerphysics.com/) and manufacturers by electronics giant Sichuan
Changhong Electric Co. (China). (Source: Sichuan Changhong Electric)
External Bluetooth spectrometers include the SCiO Pocket
Molecular Sensor (https://www.consumerphysics.com/myscio/)
and Tellspec Handheld Spectrometer (http://tellspec.com/en/)
Atmotube Pro Air Quality and Weather Tracker
Contribute to
the Global
Air Quality Map
Our new most advanced air
pollution tracker. Detects VOCs,
PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 pollutants,
like dust, pollen, soot and mold
spores, measures atmospheric
pressure, altitude, temperature,
and humidity
https://www.indiegogo.com/pr
ojects/atmotube-plus-and-
atmotube-pro/coming_soon
https://www.cs.cmu.edu/news/internet-
things-made-simple-one-sensor-
package-does-work-many
http://www.gierad.com/projects/supersensor/
Source: Fujitsu
Source: IDTechEx 2016
Source: IDTechEx 2016
Source: Cymbet
Energy Harvesting Sweet Spot
http://www.electronicproducts.com/Po
wer_Products/Power_Management/Ne
w_mineral_can_simultaneously_convert
_movement_sunlight_and_heat_into_el
ectricity.aspx
Source: Electronic Products 2/17
IoT Gateways,
Programming, and Platforms
Representative IoT End-to-End Business Solution
Definition of an IoT Platform: An IoT platform is a software suite or cloud service (IoT
platform as a service) that facilitates operations involving IoT endpoints (such as sensors,
devices, multidevice systems and fleets), and cloud and enterprise resources. The platform
monitors IoT event streams, enables specialized analysis and application development, and
engages back-end IT systems, and it may help control the endpoints to support IoT
solutions. Source: Gartner 3/17
Essential Elements of an IoT Platform
Source: SDxCentral
Telit m2m AIR Mobile Core Service
http://www.telit.com/
https://octoblu.com/ (Now part of Citrix)
Full-Stack IoT Messaging and Automation Platform
AWS IoT Architecture
Source: VDC Research
Azure IoT Suite Overview
Source: VDC Research
IoT Challenges and Cisco Jasper/Tele2 Solutions
Google’s Serverless Cloud IoT platform
Google Cloud IoT is a comprehensive set of fully managed and integrated services that
allow you to easily and securely connect, manage, and ingest IoT data from globally
dispersed devices at a large scale, process and analyze/visualize that data in real time, and
implement operational changes and take actions as needed. Device data captured by Cloud
IoT Core gets published to Cloud Pub/Sub for downstream analytics. You can do ad hoc
analysis using Google BigQuery, easily run advanced analytics and apply machine learning
with Cloud Machine Learning Engine, or visualize IoT data results with rich reports and
dashboards in Google Data Studio. https://cloud.google.com/solutions/iot/
IoT Platform Vendors Leaderboard
Source: Navigant Research 2017
IoT Wireless Protocols
and Communications
U.S. Wireless Spectrum Overview
• The FCC regulates the use of radio frequencies within the U.S., assigning usage rights and conditions to
various bands across geographic sub-areas. ITU & WRC regulate internationally. Radio frequency physics
favor lower frequencies for greater signal carrying distance as well as structure & foliage penetration.
• Most non-governmental frequencies are licensed, often via auctions to commercial entities and reserved
exclusively for their use. Cellular (& unlicensed Wi-Fi) dominate mobile connectivity. Microwave &
millimeter wave are commonly used for broadcast, backhaul & PtP. FCC considering additional licensed
bands for commercial/public purposes by reallocating spectrum and at times relocating existing uses.
• A limited amount of unlicensed spectrum is currently available, however more is being considered or
processed for release. 902-928 MHz has been used for consumer and commercial devices since 1993. The
explosion of Wi-Fi is the result of developments in 2.4 & 5 GHz unlicensed bands. Mobile uses and the
emergence of IoT is driving demand for more unlicensed bandwidth & bringing new delivery protocols.
CBRS at 3550-3700 MHz is of special interest as a new shared unlicensed option. The FCC is considering
enabling flexible use of the 3.7-4.2 GHz Band. White spaces wireless will share unlicensed, reallocated
500-700 MHz TV bands reaching to 10 km NLOS now & up to 100 km in the future, outstanding for WRAN.
10 KHz 1 MHz 100 MHz 10 GHz 1THzDC 100 Hz
Cellular 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G Spectrum
United States Carrier Frequency Use
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_frequencies_in_the_US
Qualcomm
Cellular 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G Protocols & Apps Evolution
Evolution of Mobile Standards
Cisco
5G Services Bandwidth & Latency Requirements
Qualcomm
5G Diverse Services & Devices
GMSA/Heavy Reading
5G Access Network Requirements
5G Use Cases
Source: Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF) 2018
5G LTE Advanced
& New Radio (NR)
Source: Cabling Installation & Maintenance 7/18
Macro and Small Cell Deployment for Cellular Densification
IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi Wireless Overview
HaLow
White-Fi
WiGig
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
IEEE 802.11 Variants,
Frequencies &
Ranges
Current Wi-Fi LAN/WAN Characteristics
https://wireless-home-network-made-
easy.com/how-does-wifi-work.html
≤10km≤1km≤250 m≤100 m
/ax
IEEE 802.11ac Wi-Fi Wireless WAN Example
Ubiquiti Networks airMAX Application
https://airmax.ubnt.com
/
Source: Ubiquiti Networks
Extreme High-Throughput (EHT) Wi-Fi in 6 GHz Band
EHT aims to use up to 320-MHz channels in the 6 GHz band. Developers hope
that the 6 GHz band is cleared by 2020 for unlicensed use that would include both
Wi-Fi and cellular. Wi-Fi proponents aim to retrofit 802.11ax for 6 GHz by that time
and have an enhanced 6-GHz implementation available with EHT by 2023.
Cognitive radio capabilities with agile multiband frequency use are increasingly
utilized & continually advancing in devices & access points to optimize spread
spectrum use for geolocation, speed, latency, capacity, distance & interference.
https://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1333499
V2X - IEEE 802.11p
V2X uses unlicensed 5.9 GHz ITS
frequencies for short-to-medium range
vehicle safety & operations, C-V2X over
cellular expands range & capabilities
Next Generation
Dedicated Short
Range
Communications
(DSRC) for
Intelligent
Transportation
Systems (ITS)
vehicle safety &
operations
IEEE 802.11 Wireless Evolution & Outlook
IEEE 802.11 Variant Tech & Spectrum Apps & Notes
IEEE 802.11abg Wi-Fi Legacy protocols on unlicensed 2.4
& 5 GHz bands to 600 Mbps to 100+
m outdoors
Baseline Wi-Fi capabilities for APs & CPE,
Overall Wi-Fi performance may be limited
by legacy devices & interference
IEEE 802.11n Wi-Fi 4 Adds MIMO streams to abg for
focusing transmissions to 250 m
Great advance in Wi-Fi performance for
multi-antenna APs & CPE
IEEE 802.11ac
Wi-Fi 5
Current highest performance
protocol on unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz
bands up to 3.5 Gbps
Downlink MU-MIMO, Mature, widely
available advanced Wi-Fi performance &
capabilities in base stations, APs & CPE
IEEE 802.11ax
Wi-Fi 6
Pending higher performance
protocol on unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz
bands up to 10.5 Gbps
Wi-Fi 6 spec pending with commercial
development & deployment to follow, Full
MU-MIMO, OFDMA, WPA3 security
Next Gen Wi-Fi 6 GHZ band unlicensed & cellular
reallocation possible
IEEE 802.11k/v/r agile multiband pending,
Extreme High-Throughput (EHT) pending
IEEE 802.11p V2X Unlicensed 5.9 GHz ITS for short-to-
medium range, Next gen DSRC
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) & Vehicle-to-
Everything (V2X) for vehicle safety & ops
IEEE 802.11af
White Spaces
White-Fi
Uses select unlicensed TV bands
from approx. 470-700 MHz to 600
Mbps up to 10 km (long distance)
NLOS, Nominal cost for geo
database use per device
White-Fi, White Spaces Wireless or Super
Wi-Fi, Managed by cognitive radio tech &
geo database dynamically assigning
channels for use, IEEE 802.22 emerging for
WRAN up to 100 km
IEEE 802.11ah
HaLow
Uses unlicensed 902-928 MHz UHF
frequencies up to 100 Kbps to 1 km,
up to 8K low power devices per AP
WWAN supporting bulk M2M & Io/IIoTT
communications for long-range, low-data
rate applications
IEEE 802.11ad
WiGig
Uses unlicensed 60 GHz ISM band
for up to 7 Gbps up to 5 m range
(within a room)
Optimized for short-range media & high-
bandwidth apps, IEEE 802.11ay will
eventually extend to 20+ Gbps
Source:
International Research Center
https://www.bluetooth.com/specifications/bluetooth-core-specification/bluetooth5
Source: Link Labs
Low Power Wide Area
Networks (LPWAN)
Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS)
Wireless Spectrum: Frequencies & Tiers
(SAS = Spectrum Allocation Server)
Mobile Experts
https://www.leverege.com/blog
post/what-is-cbrs-lte-3-5-ghz
3.5 GHz Band
Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS)
Wireless Opportunities
CBRS Alliance’s OnGo
(https://www.cbrsalliance.org/)
improves wireless coverage and
capacity on a massive scale, making
it ideal for in-building, public space
and IoT/IIoT wireless needs
MulteFire Alliance
(https://www.multefire.org/)
combines the high performance of
LTE with the simple deployment of
Wi-Fi
Neutral Host Network Provider with OnGo Neutral Host Network Provider with OnGo
New Entrant MVNO Capacity
Improvement Business Model
Graphics: Mobile Experts
https://www.mobile-experts.net/
White Spaces Wireless Spectrum & Opportunities
thinkd2c
https://www.carlsonwireless.com/
https://www.carlsonwireless.com/
White Spaces Markets & Verticals
Rohde & SchwartzHarbor Research/CBRS Alliance
Postscapes
Multiple Pathways for IoT Connectivity
IoT Connection Technology Summary
IoT Technology Data Rate and Range Needs
Rohde & Schwartz
IoT Connection Technologies Operating Range
Source: Keysight Technologies
- CBRS
- 802.11ax
Added
- 802.22
(White Spaces)
Added- V2V & V2X
U.S. Wireless Technology & Spectrum Summary
Wireless Protocol Tech & Spectrum Apps & Notes
Cellular 2G,
3G, 4G & 5G
FCC licenses 850 & 1900 MHz bands at
auctions for specific geographic
subareas, 2G delivers data at up to 1
Mbps & 3G to 15 Mbps, 4G also utilizes
600, 700, 1700, 2100 & 5200 MHz bands
for up to 50 Mbps, 5G uses same bands
at up to 3 Gbps, 24/28/37/39/47 GHz
spectrum auctions, 5G NR & 6G follow
All U.S. bands are licensed thru FCC
auctions, WW LTE convergence, 5G
standards maturing & deployment now
thru 2020+ requiring densification in
urban areas adding small cells/DAS for
capacity, AT&T FirstNet national public
safety overlay deploying, Also 5G fixed
wireless, Lots of tower & fiber builds
IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi
Variants
Legacy IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n to 600 Mbps
& IEEE 802.11ac to 3.5 Gbps on
unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz bands shared
among many users & applications,
Interference risks
Broad mature deployment for LANs &
WANs, Low-cost hardware, Pending
IEEE 802.11ax will provide up to 10.5
Gbps with more efficient spectrum
utilization & increased throughput
IEEE 802.16 WiMAX 2.3/2.5/3.5 GHz use w/o firm allocations,
802.16e adds mobility & MIMO
Middle & last mile broadband to 50 km,
Limited market adoption to date
Citizens Broadband
Radio Service
(CBRS)
Recent allocation of 3550-3700 MHz for
shared unlicensed use of 80 MHz band
& licensed use (with priority) of up to 7
10 MHz channels, Shared with higher
priority users (U.S. Military Radar, Fixed
Satellite Systems) thru Spectrum
Allocation Server (SAS), Further reach
than 5 GHz Wi-Fi
LTE style protocols for voice & data,
Shared spectrum use with situation
awareness & dynamic allocation, CBRS
Alliance’s OnGo & MulteFire Alliance
protocols offer Neutral Host Network
Provider & MVNO models, Specs stable
& equipment reaching the market,
Expansion into 3.7-4.2 GHz possible
White Spaces
Wireless
IEEE 802.11af (White-Fi) uses select
unlicensed bands from approx. 470-700
MHz to 600 Mbps to 10 km NLOS for
WRAN, up to 100 km in the future with
IEEE 802.22
White-Fi uses a TV White Space
Database (geo database) to manage
spectrum use by unlicensed white
space devices by geographic area,
Microsoft supporting & doing trials
Source: International
Research Center
U.S. Wireless Technology & Spectrum Summary (Continued)
Wireless Protocol Tech & Spectrum Apps & Notes
Short Haul Special
Purpose Networks
• Bluetooth - IEEE 802.15.1 at unlicensed 2.4
GHz to 1 Mbps to 30 m, Version 5.0
provides 2 Mbps at greater range, Low
Energy (LE), IoT/IIoT & mesh capabilities
• Zigbee - IEEE 802.15.4 at unlicensed 915
MHz (NA) & 2.4 GHz at up to 250 Kbps to
100 m, Low power, Suited for IoT/IIoT
• Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) at unlicensed
5.9 GHz ITS via IEEE 802.11p DSRC
• LiFi short-range data networking with light
• RFID/NFC - PAN for Logistics, POS & IoT
Bluetooth expanding beyond
connecting peripherals to
devices & computers to PAN &
LAN applications, Bluetooth &
Zigbee will both support health
monitoring, smart homes/
buildings/cities, mobile lifestyle,
transportation, energy, etc. with
M2M/IoT/IIoT sensor data
aggregation, V2X integrates
vehicles for safety & ops
Low-Power Wide-
Area Networks
(LPWANs)
• IEEE 802.11ah - HaLow uses unlicensed
902-928 MHz frequencies, Supports bulk
M2M & IoT/IIoT communications at 100
Kbps to 1 km for up to 8,192 low-power
devices per AP
• LoRaWAN - Unlicensed 902-928 MHz in NA
at 22 Kbps at very long range (city wide
coverage) with deep indoor coverage for
IoT/IIoT
• Sigfox - Unlicensed 915 MHz (in NA) to 100
bps up to 40 km for broad, low-speed reach
• NB-IoT (or LTE-M2) - Narrowband (NB)
cellular for LPWAN to 250 Kbps, Mobile
operators need new equipment to utilize
• LTE Cat M1 - Cellular for LPWAN to 1 Mbps,
more easily integrates to existing cellular
deployments
Long-range IoT/IIoT data
collection will be a high device
volume, high-growth
opportunity at low data rates
requiring low-cost
subscriptions, All of these
LPWAN variants support health
monitoring, smart homes/
buildings/cities, mobile lifestyle,
transportation, energy, etc., A
number of LPWAN approaches
will play out with IEEE 802.11ah
(HaLow) & LoRaWAN likely to
dominate augmented by cellular
data services & use of other
LPWANs for select situations,
Weightless specs
Source: International
Research Center
Source: IHS Markit 2018
Consumer and Home Automation
https://www.pcmag.com/news/365034/traveling-for-
the-holidays-protect-your-home-with-these-gad
11/18
https://nest.com/thermostat
/life-with-nest-thermostat/
Nest Thermostat Printed
Circuit Board Layout
Source: Mentor Graphics
LEDs can be engineered to produce practically any desired spectrum of visible
light. Blue or violet LEDs pump mixes of phosphors, which down-convert some of
the light and mix with the pump color to produce something humans perceive as
white light. Near-monochrome LEDs, whose spectrum amounts to a single sharp
peak, can be mixed at varying intensities to produce light of any apparent color in
a wide gamut. Hue is controlled over WiFi. The bulbs and router talk amongst
themselves using a wireless mesh network protocol called ZigBee, IEEE 802.15.4.
Source: Phillips (http://meethue.com/en-us/)
Sengled Pulse
AwoX StriimLIGHT
MiPow PlayBulb Color
Klipsch LightSpeakers
http://www.klipsch.com/lightspeaker-
in-ceiling-lighting-and-audio-systemhttp://www.playbulb.com/en/playbulb-color.html
http://www.awox.com/connected
-lighting/awox-striim-light/
http://www.sengled.com/product/pulse
LED Light Bulbs That Play Audio
Japanese Super Toilet: This luxury toilet from Japan has controls for almost every
aspect of the bathroom experience. It can warm the seat, give a massage, play
music, adjust the height and temperature of the bidet stream (that plastic tube
allows the tester in the showroom to see the height of the stream without getting
water on the floor), and much more. It can even make flushing sounds -- without
actually flushing -- to cover up the sounds of embarrassing body functions.
Source: Contractor Magazine 4/15
The Smart Home as a Service combines web intelligence, smart home sensors,
data centers, with intelligence living in the cloud – all administered by service
providers. Source: Qorvo Low Power Wireless
https://www.tivo.com/products/bolt-detail
TiVo Mini VOX for TruMultiRoom
CableCARD
TiVo BOLT VOX
4 Tuners/.5 TB $199.99
4 Tuners/1 TB $299.99
6 Tuners/3 TB $499.99
(w. 2 CableCARDs)
TiVo Service Plan
$14.99/Month
$149.99/Year
$549.99 All In
TiVo Bolt OTA
Antenna ATSC Only
4 Tuners/1 TB $249.99
$6.99/Month
$69.99/Year
$249.99 All In
$179.99
$2.99/Month Each
7.3” D x 11.4” W x 1.8” H
/Antenna
6.1" D x 6.1" W x 1.3" H
All the Realities: Augment, Mixed and Virtual
Source: Cisco 2018
Source: Qualcomm 2018
A glimpse into the future — sleek and stylish XR glasses.
Healthcare and Life Sciences
(Including Wearables)
http://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com/
Source: The Atlantic Council & Intel Security
Source: U.S. Chamber of Commerce 2017
Selected Consumer Wearables
http://www.bresslergroup.com/blog/learning-wearables-looking-edges/
Source: Beecham Research
Micro-Systems Used in Healthcare Applications
Source: Yole Development
Atomo Diagnostics is a medical technology company bringing next generation rapid diagnostic
solutions to market and radically changing the way that we diagnose disease. AtomoRapid has
launched in Africa and the UK, and USA market entry is underway. The AtomoRapid blood
testing platform can accommodate test strips for a wide variety of conditions from celiac
disease, allergy through to infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV. Also offering
AtomoRapid to leading diagnostic companies interested in converting their rapid tests onto
this revolutionary rapid test platform.
http://atomodiagnostics.com/
AtomoRapid Blood Testing Platform
https://www.theengineer.co.uk/
diagnostic-d4-disease/
Integrated Lab-On-A-Chip Uses Smartphone to
Quickly Detect Multiple Pathogens
The system uses a commercial smartphone to acquire and interpret real-time images of an
enzymatic amplification reaction that takes place in a silicon microfluidic chip that
generates green fluorescence and displays a visual read-out of the test at the point-of-care.
The system is composed of an unmodified smartphone and a portable 3-D-printed cradle
that supports the optical and electrical components, and interfaces with the rear-facing
camera of the smartphone. (Credit: Micro & Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Source: https://www.mdtmag.com/news/2017/10/integrated-
lab-chip-uses-smartphone-quickly-detect-multiple-pathogens
Source: IEEE Spectrum 11/14
Perspiration Biosensor Patches
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/
2017-08/dgi-st082017.php
https://www.nature.com/
articles/ncomms15894
http://www.uh.edu/news-events/stories/2016/September/09272016-Researchers-Create-Glucose-Sensing-Contact-Lens.php
AliveCor KardiaCare Mobile EKG
Take a medical-grade EKG in just 30 seconds. Simply open the Kardia app on your
smart phone, put your fingers on the electrodes and see results instantly.
SmartRhythm monitoring works with your Apple Watch to intelligently evaluate
the relationship between heart rate ranges, activity levels and other factors. If
heart rate appears inconsistent with the activity level from your watch, a
notification will be sent to record an EKG. https://www.alivecor.com/
KardiaMobile KardiaBand
http://mimobaby.com/
Add Pacif-i
Bluetooth
Smart Pacifier
for Temperature
Mimo Smart Baby Monitor
http://bluemaestro.com/pacifi-smart-pacifier/
Medtronic Micra Pacemaker
http://newsroom.medtronic.com/phoenix.zhtml
?c=251324&p=irol-newsarticle&id=1883208 Ron Wilson
World's Smallest,
Minimally Invasive
Cardiac Pacemaker
Delivered directly
into the heart
through a catheter
inserted in the
femoral vein
at AZBio
A DIY $100 Ultrasound No Bigger Than a Band-Aid
https://www.ecnmag.com/videos/2018/09/
diy-100-ultrasound-no-bigger-band-aid
First prize in the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize was awarded to Final Frontier Medical Devices,
a team in Pennsylvania. The team, led by brothers Dr. Basil Harris, an emergency medicine
physician, and George Harris, a network engineer, created an artificial intelligence engine
called DxtER that learns to diagnose medical conditions via data from emergency medicine
and analyzing patients. Final Frontier Medical Devices was awarded $2.6 million at the
Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize ceremony on April 12, 2017.
http://www.zdnet.com/article/qualcomm-tricorder-xprize-goes-to-u-s-team-for-device-fusing-ai-iot-health/
https://tricorder.xprize.org/teams/final-frontier-medical-devices
Final Frontier Medical Devices DxtER Tricorder XPrize Winner
http://life365inc.com/
Engaging this
population with low
cost, lite touch
solutions can help
shape positive
outcomes, avoid
more expensive
healthcare
utilization, and yield
a higher return on
an enterprise digital
health investment.
http://life365inc.com/
Digital Health as a Service (DHaaS) Platform
Continua Health Alliance Enables the
Personal Health Information Network (PHIN)
Source: Continua Health Alliance (http://www.continuaalliance.org/)
National Health Information Network (NHIN)
http://healthit.hhs.gov/portal/server.pt?open=512&mode=2&cached=true&objID=1142
http://weliveupnorth.com/plant-monitor/
Arable's Pulsepod Collects Hyperlocal Weather & Crop Data
http://www.arable.com/
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Potential Applications
Retail and Logistics
Source: Cisco
Beacon Enabled Local Retail Offer Service
Source: GSA
Swirl iBeacon Platform and Ecosystem
http://www.swirl.com/
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Source: Intel
Source: LNS Research
Flattening of the Industrial Networking Architecture
Source: LNS Research
Wireless Connection Technologies for Industrial IoT
Source: Texas Instruments
Source: LNS Research
Smart Buildings
IoT for the GSA Smart Building
Source: U.S. NIST 2018
Enterprise Internet of Things (EIoT)
Source: Cisco
Source: U.S. NIST 2018
Smart Building IoT Architecture
Source: Arm Limited 2018
Source: Memoori 2014
Intelligent Buildings Value Chain
Source: Frost & Sullivan
Smart Cities and Environments
Source: FutureStructure Water, Waste & Energy Systems 6/14
Source: Teradata & Cisco 2018
A Smart City Connects Information Across Sectors
http://www.forbes.com/sites/jacobmorgan/2014/09/04/cities-of-the-future-
what-do-they-look-like-how-do-we-build-them-and-whats-their-impact/
Cities of the Future: What Do They Look Like, How
Do We Build Them, and What's Their Impact?
The Array of Things (AoT) is an NSF grant
funded urban sensing project to implement a
network of interactive, modular sensor boxes
that will be installed around Chicago to
collect real-time data on the city’s
environment, infrastructure, and activity for
research and public use. The nodes will
initially measure temperature, barometric
pressure, light, vibration, carbon monoxide,
nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone,
ambient sound intensity, pedestrian and
vehicle traffic, and surface temperature.
Continued research and development will
help create sensors to monitor other urban
factors of interest such as flooding and
standing water, precipitation, wind, and
pollutants. See: http://arrayofthings.github.io/
http://www2.acuitybrands.com/H
olophane_Outdoor_Video_LP4
In a study of air pollution, a small pollution sensor was used to measure black carbon level
continuously, combined with an Android smartphone with CalFit software for recording GPS
information on user location. The indoor/outdoor study of 54 Barcelona schoolchildren was
associated with BREATHE, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution
and brain development. The researchers conclude that mobile technologies could contribute
valuable new insights into air pollution exposure. Source: Kurzweil AI
http://www.kurzweilai.net/turning-smartphones-into-personal-real-time-pollution-location-monitors
Smartphones as Personal, Real-Time Pollution-Location Monitors
Source: Global Market Insights
The Intel Intelligent Systems Framework provides a consistent framework for
connectivity, security, and manageability. Flexible developer ‘recipes’ use
scalable, off-the-shelf elements that in turn, shift resource investments from
interoperability to extracting value from data.
http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/embedded/intelligent-systems.html
Source: GSMA
Mobile Operators Can Enable Smart City Services
Smart City Multidimensional Factors
Source: Beecham Research
Source: Nesta 2014 (http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/smart-cities-and-china)
1) A growing adoption and awareness of the smart city concept by an expanding set of
government leaders. Not only does IDC see more demand for strategy development and
implementation road maps, but the requests come from cities, counties, states and central/federal
government agencies. We predict that by 2017, at least 20 of the world’s largest countries will
create national smart city policies to prioritize funding and document technical and business
guidelines.
2) A high variability in understanding the impact of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the
benefits and challenges that must be considered from new types of mobile and connected
things (drones, wearables, connected cars). We continue to see many of the same cities
investing in the smart city IoT, but even for cities with pilot projects, there is a lack of citywide
strategy at the level of guidelines for implementations. As such, we predict that in 2016, 90 percent
of cities worldwide will lack a comprehensive set of policies on the public and private use of drones,
sensors and devices. This will result in increased privacy and security risks. Similarly, we see a
more acute and faster adoption of public safety and transportation IoT investment, often without a
strategic framework, which IDC believes will lead to more project risk and wasted spending, such
as spending on duplicative systems or devices.
3) Information from social media, crowdsourcing and sharing economy companies will have
a greater impact on cities. Cities are grappling with how to ingest this data into systems and put it
to use. Not only is this data unstructured in the form of text, video, images and audio, but it also
comes from a variety of sources that exist independent of government. This presents a challenge
since data from these sources can be highly relevant and useful for improving government services.
The Waze traffic app is a great example of this — crowdsourced traffic information for commuters, if
integrated with systems in the transportation management center, would help operators update
digital signs more quickly, potentially adjust traffic signals and dispatch responders more quickly.
But getting this information into existing systems is not a simple task. Source: IDC 2016
Smart City Trends to Expect
https://www.cbinsights.com/research/iot-
smart-cities-market-map-company-list/
Transportation
Source: ARK Invest 2018
Source: U.S. DOT 2018 (https://www.transportation.gov/av/3)
(U.S.)
Source: General Motors 2017
Autonomous Vehicles (AV)
Autonomous Vehicle Potential Benefits and Costs
Source: Victoria Transport Policy Institute 2015
Automated Driving Technology Progression
Source: Navigant Research 2017
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
Automated Vehicles for Safety
https://www.nhtsa.gov/technology-
innovation/automated-vehicles-safety
Source: KPMG
Imaging Technologies for Automotive
Autonomous Vehicles (AV)
Source: General Motors 2017
Minimum Viable Product (MVP)
Vehicle Terminal Software Architecture
Source: Intel
https://www.infopulse.co
m/blog/how-to-ensure-
automotive-
cybersecurity-in-the-next-
gen-vehicles-part-1/
Source: Parks Associates
https://aecc.org/
Intelligent Transportation with IoT
Source: Intel
Source: General Motors 2017
Autonomous Vehicles (AV)
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/11/technology/a
rizona-tech-industry-favorite-self-driving-hub.html
https://www.bizjournals.com/phoenix/news/2018/07/31/
waymo-valley-metro-partner-for-inaugural-self.html
Valley Metro CEO Scott Smith & Shaun Stewart of Waymo
Valley Metro CEO Scott Smith & Phoenix Acting Mayor Thelda Williams
https://www.bizjournals.com/phoenix/news/2018/09/17/electric-
car-maker-with-phoenix-area-factory-plans.html
Local Motors Olli Project
https://localmotors.com/meet-olli/
https://www.ibm.com/blogs/internet-of-things/accessible-olli/
#AccessibleOlli
https://nikolamotor.com/
https://www.bizjournals.com/phoenix/news/2018/09/12/
self-driving-semi-truck-startup-creating-500-jobs.html
http://www.tusimple.com/
Full-Stack Autonomous
Driving Technologies
High-Speed Environment
Long-Distance Sensing
Level 4 Autonomous Class 8 Truck
9/12/18
A Silicon Valley startup claims to be the world’s first real-world application of autonomous driving. If the
claim is true, it beat Waymo, Tesla, Apple, the global car industry and all the other Silicon Valley startups.
The startup is called Udelv. This week it delivered groceries to two customers of a local store called
Draeger’s Market. The delivery van drove autonomously from the store to the customers’ houses,
although (as required by California law) a “safety driver” sat in the driver’s seat during the delivery.
I talked to Udelv CEO Daniel Laury, and he told me the delivery was “a huge milestone.” Draeger’s Market
deliveries go online to the public “next week,” according to Laury. The “milestone” Laury refers to is
commercialization. He’s saying that Udelv is the first company to actually use autonomous vehicles for a
service that’s paid for by a customer (in this case, the grocery store).
Udelv’s model shows how autonomous deliveries could work on a massive scale.
Its custom, proprietary electric vehicles are basically robotic lockers. Each van has 18 lockers that can
carry a collective weight of 700 pounds. When the van gets within a few minutes of a customer’s house,
that customer receives an alert via the company’s free app (currently available on iOS, with the Android
version coming soon, according to Laury). https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/udelv/id1341233287
Once the van arrives, customers use the app to unlock the compartment that holds their groceries. The
Udelv fleet is monitored by a control room of humans, who can take over in “unique situations” and drive
the vans by remote control if necessary. Udelv monetizes with a simple model. It charges companies to
make deliveries. Its goal is to cut the cost of deliveries in half, according to Laury. Udelv also plans to
expand beyond Silicon Valley and seek out autonomous-vehicle-friendly states to set up shop in.
https://www.computerworld.com/article/3252162/robotics/why-
we-re-getting-self-driving-delivery-before-self-driving-ubers.html
https://www.udelv.com/
https://www.azcentral.com/videos/entertainment/2017/05/04/-postmates-start-using-robots-delivery/101265926/
https://www.starship.xyz/ https://get.postmatescode.com/ https://www.doordash.com/
https://azcommerce.com/iam/
https://techcrunch.com/2017/03/07/airbus-reveals-a-modular-self-piloting-flying-car-concept/
https://medium.com/@UberPubPolicy/fast-forwarding-to-a-future-of-on-demand-urban-air-transportation-f6ad36950ffa
http://uber.com/elevate/whitepaper
Impacts of Driving Automation, Connectivity,
and MaaS in a Model City
Source: Navigant Research 2017
http://csi.asu.edu/projects/drawn-futures/drawn-futures-arizona-2045/
ASU Center for Science and the Imagination
Drawn Futures: Arizona 2045
IoT Security, Privacy, and Blockchain
https://f5.com/labs/articles/threat-intelligence/ddos/ddoss-newest-minions-iot-devices-v1-22426
IoT Security Threat Map
Source: Beecham Research
Internet of Things (IoT)
“Smart” devices incorporated into
the electric grid, vehicles including
autonomous vehicles, and
household appliances are improving
efficiency, energy conservation, and
convenience. However, security
industry analysts have demonstrated
that many of these new systems can
threaten data privacy, data integrity,
or continuity of services. In the
future, intelligence services might
use the IoT for identification,
surveillance, monitoring, location
tracking, and targeting for
recruitment, or to gain access to
networks or user credentials.
http://content.govdelivery.com/attachments/USODN
I/2016/02/09/file_attachments/496870/SASC%2B201
6%2BWWTA%2BSFR%2B-%2B9%2BFeb%2B16.pdf
Source: RCR Wireless 2017
Current technologies on the “privacy panic cycle”. (Adapted from Castro, D., & McQuinn, A.
(2015). The privacy panic cycle: a guide to public fears about new technologies.
Washington, D. C. Source: Information Technology & Innovation Foundation ITIF)
Privacy Panic Cycle
Securing an IoT Product or System
Source: Zentri
Internet of Things Security Attributes
Source: Hewlett Packard Enterprise
Source: RCR Wireless 2017
https://www.ctia.org/about-ctia/programs/certification-resources
https://api.ctia.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/CTIA-IoT-Cybersecurity-Certification-Test-Plan-V1_0.pdf
IoT Cybersecurity
House Passes SMART IoT Act
https://www.benton.org/headlines/
house-passes-smart-iot-act
11/29/18
http://www.parksassociates.com/
blog/article/iot-vulnerability-can-
be-reduced-with-blockchain-
implementation
IoT Vulnerability
Can Be Reduced
with Blockchain
Implementation
Applications of Blockchain in Networking and IoT
Source: CB Insights
https://standards.ieee.org/develop/wg/blockchain_wg.html
https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/2418.html
P2418 - Standard for the Framework of
Blockchain Use in Internet of Things (IoT)
IBM Files Patent That Tackles Challenges
of Running a Blockchain on IoT Devices
https://www.crn.com/news/internet-of-things/300102956/ibm-files-patent-
that-tackles-challenges-of-running-a-blockchain-on-iot-devices.htm
IoT Standards and Organizations
Source: IEEE Computer - Imagineering an Internet of Everything 6/14
Information Flow Between the Cyber and Physical Worlds
https://www.led-professional.com/technology/standardization/zigbee-alliance-and-thread-group-join-force
http://www.threadgroup.org/
http://www.zigbee.org/
Source: ZigBee Alliance (http://www.zigbee.org/zigbee-for-developers/zigbee3-0/)
http://openinterconnect.org/
http://www.upnp.org/
Universal Plug and Play Forum
IoT Groups Merge Efforts
OIC taps UPnP, eschewing rival AllSeen
The Open Interconnect Consortium will acquire assets of and combine its
technologies with those of the Universal Plug and Play Forum, a fifteen-year old
group focused on automating links between PCs and peripherals typically over
Wi-Fi. By adopting the UPnP’s widely used service discovery software and likely
many of its members, OIC will bolster its position as an applications-layer
software stack for the Internet of Things.
All sides agree the IoT is encumbered with too many competing and overlapping
platforms, networks, protocols and frameworks as the result of a land grab for
what is seen as the next big thing. With the deal, OIC gets an edge over its closest
rival, the AllSeen Alliance. However it’s not clear whether it gets the heft it will
need to stand out against the two giants in this space – Google’s Thread/Weave
and Apple’s HomeKit.
Currently, AllSeen has a lead in the market with more than 185 members and
shipping products using its specifications. OIC, which has about 100 members,
expects first products using its recently ratified spec to appear at CES in January.
Both OIC and AllSeen are hosted by the Linux Foundation.
Source: EE Times 11/23/15
http://www.eweek.com/networking/iot-standards-groups-ocf-allseen-alliance-merge.html
http://www.iiconsortium.org/test-beds.htm
http://www.w3.org/WoT/
http://www.w3.org/WoT/IG/
https://www.shodan.io/
IoT Big Data,
Applications, and Analytics
Source: HP
Growth in M2M Connections Drive New Data Analytics Needs
Source: AT&T
Why the Internet of Things Matters
https://thecerberusgroup.com/
Internet of Things Data Value Chain
Source: Navigant Research
Source: HP
Source: LNS Research
https://awsinsider.net/articles/2017/10/12/aw
s-microsoft-deep-learning-gluon.aspx
Source: AWSInsider.net 10/12/17
IBM Watson’s System Architecture
Adoption Across the Analytics Spectrum
Advanced Analytics Maturity Path
Source: Intel Corporation 2017
Big Data and Analytics MaturityScape
Source: IDC 2015
IoT Business Models
and Outlook
IoT Functional Areas That Provide Quickest ROI
Source: Tata Consultancy Services 2018
Source: Tata Consultancy Services 2018
Future X Network Enabling a New Digital Era
Source: Bell Labs Consulting
https://f5.com/labs/articles/threat-intelligence/ddos/the-hunt-for-iot-the-rise-of-thingbots
Internet of Things (IoT) Roadblocks
Those making their first foray into connected products can improve the success of their IoT programs by
understanding the following hazards.
• Too many inputs and too much data – Having too much data is nearly as bad as not having enough.
It’s easy to get excited about the promise of new technology. But overdoing it on early programs can
result in data explosion that overwhelms IT systems as well as stakeholders.
• Too many alarms – Nothing guarantees organizational disengagement from a supposedly smart
system than many “false positive” errors. False alarms are the spam of the IIoT world. They drown out
the actual errors and condition stakeholders to ignore system feedback.
• Missed critical alarms – If false positives are frustrating, a false negative can be catastrophically
damaging depending upon the system. No notification or late notification of a potential safety concern
can cause product, personnel, environmental or secondary damage, and can bring the program into
question.
• Unclear guidance – Feedback must be actionable, correct, and timely to the multiple stakeholders
involved. Feedback that is unclear or requires time-consuming offline analysis substantially reduces
system value.
• Unprepared Organization – connected products often require “connected organizations”.
Organizations may need to work together in new and different ways to realize revenue and margin
projections.
• Customer Backlash – Even in cases where the customer clearly has the most to gain through a newly
connected product, there is a risk of customer backlash. Consumer privacy and security risks are
substantial concerns carrying the specter of legal action. Additionally, there is a risk of Government
charges. This US Federal Trade Commission Report provides a good overview of possible risks as
well as the FTC’s recommendations.
• Perceived cost versus benefit – Ideally, the success of an IIoT-enabled product would be easily
quantified. Cost for a connected product can be high, once infrastructure costs are considered. Costs
are often easier to measure than success, particularly if success is tied to lagging and less correlated
metrics such as customer satisfaction. Subjective comparison of cost versus success puts a program
at risk. Without positive proof of value and clearly defined and accepted targets, a single large adverse
event can undermine the program. Source: LNS Research
Barriers to Adoption of IoT/Analytics Solutions
In a 2018 survey with over 600 respondents, security is the most significant barrier that limits the
adoption of IoT/analytics solutions.
Source: Bain & Co. in Embedded Systems Engineering 9/18
Internet of Things Playbook
Source: Navigant Research
Internet of Things (IoT) Maturity Mode
Source: TDWI
IoT Success Requires an Ecosystem of
Internal and External Partnerships
Source: Cisco
https://cbi-blog.s3.amazonaws.com/blog/wp-
content/uploads/2016/10/Final-Graphic-2.png
Key Trends Driving IoT in 2018 and Beyond
Source: IHS Markit 2018
12 Predictions for the IoT Market in 2018
1. IoT markets will consolidate and grow more integrated
2. IoT-related privacy concerns will continue, but won’t slow adoption
3. Technical barriers to IIoT will fade, but the talent gap will remain a
hurdle
4. 3G-driven IoT deployments will fade into obscurity
5. Industrial uses of AR technology will gain ground, but will remain
immature
6. Micro-location will be a star technology of 2018
7. IoT deployments will scale thanks to increased networking
automation
8. Pushes for IoT regulation will continue as new data governance
frameworks emerge
9. Enterprise companies will see security breaches as a cost of doing
business—while stepping up their defenses
10. Medical devices will emerge as a vulnerable hacking target
11. LPWAN will pick up in industrial markets
12. Agile development picks up in hardware and manufacturing, but
the Holy Grail will be services
Source: Internet of Things Institute by Brian Buntz 12/8/17
http://www.ioti.com/analytics/iot-council-co-chair-provides-2018-iot-predictions
Arm IoT Predictions for 2019
Source: Arm Limited in EE Times Article 12/10/18
(https://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1334059)
Gartner’s Top Strategic IoT Technology Trends
http://www.eweek.com/it-management/gartner-lists-top-10-strategic-iot-technologies-trends-through-2023
Emerging Technologies Hype Cycle
IoT

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IEEE CS Phoenix - Internet of Things Innovations & Megatrends Update 12/12/18

  • 1. Internet of Things (IoT) Innovations & Megatrends Update Wednesday, December 12, 2018 Mark Goldstein, International Research Center PO Box 825, Tempe, AZ 85280-0825, Phone: 602-470-0389, markg@researchedge.com, URL: http://www.researchedge.com/ Presentation Available at http://www.slideshare.net/markgirc © 2018 - International Research Center Phoenix Chapter http://ewh.ieee.org/r6/phoenix/compsociety/
  • 2. Phoenix Chapter http://ewh.ieee.org/r6/phoenix/compsociety/ IoT Overview and Ecosystems IoT Computing Platforms IoT Sensors and Device Integration IoT Gateways, Programming, and Platforms IoT Wireless Protocols & Communications IoT Application Arenas • Consumer and Home Automation • Healthcare and Life Science • Retail and Logistics • Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) • Smart Buildings • Smart Cities and Environment • Autonomous Vehicles & Transportation IoT Security, Privacy, and Blockchain IoT Standards and Organizations IoT Big Data, Applications, and Analytics IoT Business Models and Outlook Internet of Things (IoT) Innovations & Megatrends Update Presentation Available at http://www.slideshare.net/markgirc
  • 3. IoT Overview and Ecosystems
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  • 7. Capabilities of an IoT Component Source: U.S. NIST 2018
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  • 13. IoT Solutions Architecture Source: TechBeacon (https://techbeacon.com/4-stages-iot-architecture)
  • 14. Source: IDC & Peplink 2015 IoT Vision
  • 15. Source: TE Connectivity IoT Adoption Landscape
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  • 22. The Exponential Curve of Technological Innovations Leading Up to the Singularity
  • 24. Arduino Mega 2560 Raspberry Pi 2 Model B Nwazet Pi Media Center Night Vision Camera Modules MicroSD Card Adapter BLE Mini Bluetooth 4.0 Interface Arduino, Raspberry & Other Microcontrollers Ultimate GPS Breakout UDOO Quad Core w/SATA
  • 25. 16GB NOOBS SD Card Raspberry Pi Camera Board PiFace Relay+ https://www.element14.com/community/community/raspberry-pi/
  • 26. BeagleBone Black Wireless with USB, Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, MicroSD & HDMI https://beagleboard.org/black https://elinux.org/Beagleboard:BeagleBoneBlack https://github.com/beagleboard/beaglebone-black/wiki 86.40 mm × 53.3 mm (3.40 in × 2.10 in)
  • 27. AT&T Dedicated IoT Starter Kit for Amazon Web Services https://starterkit.att.com/
  • 28. https://www.raspberrypi.org/products/pi-zero/ The Raspberry Pi Zero is half the size of a Model A+, with twice the utility. A tiny Raspberry Pi that’s affordable enough for any project! • 1Ghz, Single-core CPU • 512MB RAM • Mini HDMI & USB On-The-Go ports • Micro USB power • HAT-compatible 40-pin header • Composite video & reset headers • Can utilize Raspbian Jessie OS Adafruit Raspberry Pi Zero Starter Pack http://www.adafruit.com/products/2816 65 mm x 30 mm x 5 mm
  • 29. BeagleBone PocketBeagle USB Fob Computer https://beagleboard.org/pocket https://github.com/beagleboard/pocketbeagle/wiki 56 mm x 36 mm x 5 mm
  • 30. http://www.ti.com/product/cc2541 The Texas Instruments CC2541 is a power- optimized true system-on- chip (SoC) solution for both Bluetooth low energy and proprietary 2.4-GHz applications. It enables robust network nodes to be built with low total bill- of-material costs. The CC2541 combines the excellent performance of a leading RF transceiver with an industry-standard enhanced 8051 MCU, in- system programmable flash memory, 8-KB RAM, and many other powerful supporting features and peripherals. The CC2541 is highly suited for systems where ultralow power consumption is required. TI CC2541 SOC
  • 31. Intel’s Edison computer is housed in an SD card form factor and comes with built- in Linux and both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth wireless. The computer, which is based on Intel's 22-nanometer Quark chips, can be the basis for a new wave of products and will become available summer 2014. Source: eWeek
  • 32. Intel Curie Module Unleashing Wearable Device Innovation http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en /wearables/wearable-soc.html Intel’s Curie module is a complete low- power solution for the wearable space with compute, motion sensor, Bluetooth Low Energy, and battery charging capabilities. Key Features: • Low-power, 32-bit Intel Quark SE SoC • 384kB Flash memory, 80kB SRAM • Small and efficient open source real- time operating system (RTOS) • Low-power integrated DSP sensor hub with a proprietary pattern matching accelerator • Bluetooth Low Energy • 6-Axis combo sensor with accelerometer and gyroscope • Battery charging circuitry (PMIC) • Released January, 2015
  • 33. Approximately 26 mm x 35 mm https://software.intel.com/en-us/node/675623
  • 34. Netclearance Systems, Inc.’s (NCS) mBeaconSense hub embeds temperature, vibration, accelerometer, magnetic, and light sensors into a 15mm x 20mm form factor making it the industry's smallest beacon technology to incorporate multiple data sensors into one device. Combined with the Netclearance Systems' Wi-Fi, Ethernet, and mesh gateways, mBeaconSense enables multiple remote sensing capabilities in a single tag allowing for streamlined, and cost-effective deployments. mBeaconSense includes everything necessary to create next generation IoT sensing capabilities utilizing low power Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. The mBeaconSense incorporates a near field communication (NFC) antenna and memory to provide close proximity passive identification capabilities making the product both a hybrid passive and active tag. http://www.netclearance.com/
  • 35. In 2015, ASUS launched a new type of Chrome device: the Chromebit. Smaller than a candy bar, the Chromebit is a full computer that will be available for less than $100. By simply plugging this device into any display, you can turn it into a computer. It’s the perfect upgrade for an existing desktop and will be really useful for schools and businesses. Source: http://chrome.blogspot.com/2015/03/more-chromebooks-for-everyone.html ASUS Chromebit Turns Any TV into a Chrome PC • Rockchip RK3288 (with quad-core Mali 760 graphics) • 2GB of RAM, 16GB of solid state storage • Plugs into any HDMI-equipped display • Dual-band 802.11ac Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 4.0, USB 2.0 port (Plus Windows & Streaming Media Mini-Devices)
  • 36. IoT Sensors and Device Integration
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  • 39. SunFounder 37 Modules Raspberry Pi B+ Sensor Kit http://www.sunfounder.com/index.php?c=show&id=47&model=Sensor%20Kit%20for%20B+ Detailed tutorial, source code & 32 lessons on project DVD
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  • 43. Sensor Cluster Trends for Mobile Phones (Inertial Measurement Units) AMS AV-MLV-P2 is a volatile organic compounds (VOC) gas sensor which can detect alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, amines, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • 44. MEMSIC Accelerometer Structure and Chip Integration Creating a sensor-based IoT edge device is challenging, due to the multiple design domains involved. But, creating an edge device that combines the electronics using the traditional CMOS IC flow and a MEMS sensor on the same silicon die can seem impossible. In fact, many IoT edge devices combine multiple dies in a single package, separating electronics from the MEMS design. The Tanner AMS IC design flow accommodates single or multiple die techniques for successful IoT edge device design and verification, able to meet the unique challenge of fusing CMOS IC and MEMS design on a single die. Source: Mentor Graphics
  • 45. A new antenna miniaturization mechanism, acoustically actuated nanomechanical magnetoelectric (ME) antennas, could successfully miniaturize the magnitude of 1-2 orders using magnetic current for radiation. The ME Antennas open up a variety of opportunities for bio-medical applications, wearable antennas, internet of things, etc. Source: https://contest.techbriefs.com/2018/entries/electronics-sensors-iot/9243-0702-222339-future- antenna-miniaturization-mechanism-magnetoelectric-antennas
  • 46. Source: EDN Magazine Wikipedia on Smart Dust: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartdust Wikipedia on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network Smart Dust Motes for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Multihop Wireless Sensor Network
  • 47. Sensors for Vehicle Computer Vision Systems Source: Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI) http://mtri.org/automotivebenchmark.html (Visible + Infrared)
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  • 54. The world's first smartphone with a giant six-inch screen and a built-in ADI (U.S., http://www.analog.com/) spectrometer running integrated software by Consumer Physics (U.S., https://www.consumerphysics.com/) and manufacturers by electronics giant Sichuan Changhong Electric Co. (China). (Source: Sichuan Changhong Electric) External Bluetooth spectrometers include the SCiO Pocket Molecular Sensor (https://www.consumerphysics.com/myscio/) and Tellspec Handheld Spectrometer (http://tellspec.com/en/)
  • 55. Atmotube Pro Air Quality and Weather Tracker Contribute to the Global Air Quality Map Our new most advanced air pollution tracker. Detects VOCs, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 pollutants, like dust, pollen, soot and mold spores, measures atmospheric pressure, altitude, temperature, and humidity https://www.indiegogo.com/pr ojects/atmotube-plus-and- atmotube-pro/coming_soon
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  • 64. Representative IoT End-to-End Business Solution Definition of an IoT Platform: An IoT platform is a software suite or cloud service (IoT platform as a service) that facilitates operations involving IoT endpoints (such as sensors, devices, multidevice systems and fleets), and cloud and enterprise resources. The platform monitors IoT event streams, enables specialized analysis and application development, and engages back-end IT systems, and it may help control the endpoints to support IoT solutions. Source: Gartner 3/17
  • 65. Essential Elements of an IoT Platform Source: SDxCentral
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  • 69. Telit m2m AIR Mobile Core Service http://www.telit.com/
  • 70. https://octoblu.com/ (Now part of Citrix) Full-Stack IoT Messaging and Automation Platform
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  • 73. Azure IoT Suite Overview Source: VDC Research
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  • 75. IoT Challenges and Cisco Jasper/Tele2 Solutions
  • 76. Google’s Serverless Cloud IoT platform Google Cloud IoT is a comprehensive set of fully managed and integrated services that allow you to easily and securely connect, manage, and ingest IoT data from globally dispersed devices at a large scale, process and analyze/visualize that data in real time, and implement operational changes and take actions as needed. Device data captured by Cloud IoT Core gets published to Cloud Pub/Sub for downstream analytics. You can do ad hoc analysis using Google BigQuery, easily run advanced analytics and apply machine learning with Cloud Machine Learning Engine, or visualize IoT data results with rich reports and dashboards in Google Data Studio. https://cloud.google.com/solutions/iot/
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  • 78. IoT Platform Vendors Leaderboard Source: Navigant Research 2017
  • 79. IoT Wireless Protocols and Communications
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  • 81. U.S. Wireless Spectrum Overview • The FCC regulates the use of radio frequencies within the U.S., assigning usage rights and conditions to various bands across geographic sub-areas. ITU & WRC regulate internationally. Radio frequency physics favor lower frequencies for greater signal carrying distance as well as structure & foliage penetration. • Most non-governmental frequencies are licensed, often via auctions to commercial entities and reserved exclusively for their use. Cellular (& unlicensed Wi-Fi) dominate mobile connectivity. Microwave & millimeter wave are commonly used for broadcast, backhaul & PtP. FCC considering additional licensed bands for commercial/public purposes by reallocating spectrum and at times relocating existing uses. • A limited amount of unlicensed spectrum is currently available, however more is being considered or processed for release. 902-928 MHz has been used for consumer and commercial devices since 1993. The explosion of Wi-Fi is the result of developments in 2.4 & 5 GHz unlicensed bands. Mobile uses and the emergence of IoT is driving demand for more unlicensed bandwidth & bringing new delivery protocols. CBRS at 3550-3700 MHz is of special interest as a new shared unlicensed option. The FCC is considering enabling flexible use of the 3.7-4.2 GHz Band. White spaces wireless will share unlicensed, reallocated 500-700 MHz TV bands reaching to 10 km NLOS now & up to 100 km in the future, outstanding for WRAN. 10 KHz 1 MHz 100 MHz 10 GHz 1THzDC 100 Hz
  • 82. Cellular 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G Spectrum United States Carrier Frequency Use https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_frequencies_in_the_US Qualcomm
  • 83. Cellular 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G Protocols & Apps Evolution Evolution of Mobile Standards Cisco 5G Services Bandwidth & Latency Requirements Qualcomm 5G Diverse Services & Devices GMSA/Heavy Reading 5G Access Network Requirements
  • 84. 5G Use Cases Source: Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF) 2018
  • 85. 5G LTE Advanced & New Radio (NR)
  • 86. Source: Cabling Installation & Maintenance 7/18 Macro and Small Cell Deployment for Cellular Densification
  • 87. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi Wireless Overview HaLow White-Fi WiGig Wi-Fi Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11 Variants, Frequencies & Ranges Current Wi-Fi LAN/WAN Characteristics https://wireless-home-network-made- easy.com/how-does-wifi-work.html ≤10km≤1km≤250 m≤100 m /ax
  • 88. IEEE 802.11ac Wi-Fi Wireless WAN Example Ubiquiti Networks airMAX Application https://airmax.ubnt.com / Source: Ubiquiti Networks
  • 89. Extreme High-Throughput (EHT) Wi-Fi in 6 GHz Band EHT aims to use up to 320-MHz channels in the 6 GHz band. Developers hope that the 6 GHz band is cleared by 2020 for unlicensed use that would include both Wi-Fi and cellular. Wi-Fi proponents aim to retrofit 802.11ax for 6 GHz by that time and have an enhanced 6-GHz implementation available with EHT by 2023. Cognitive radio capabilities with agile multiband frequency use are increasingly utilized & continually advancing in devices & access points to optimize spread spectrum use for geolocation, speed, latency, capacity, distance & interference. https://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1333499
  • 90. V2X - IEEE 802.11p V2X uses unlicensed 5.9 GHz ITS frequencies for short-to-medium range vehicle safety & operations, C-V2X over cellular expands range & capabilities Next Generation Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) vehicle safety & operations
  • 91. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Evolution & Outlook IEEE 802.11 Variant Tech & Spectrum Apps & Notes IEEE 802.11abg Wi-Fi Legacy protocols on unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz bands to 600 Mbps to 100+ m outdoors Baseline Wi-Fi capabilities for APs & CPE, Overall Wi-Fi performance may be limited by legacy devices & interference IEEE 802.11n Wi-Fi 4 Adds MIMO streams to abg for focusing transmissions to 250 m Great advance in Wi-Fi performance for multi-antenna APs & CPE IEEE 802.11ac Wi-Fi 5 Current highest performance protocol on unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz bands up to 3.5 Gbps Downlink MU-MIMO, Mature, widely available advanced Wi-Fi performance & capabilities in base stations, APs & CPE IEEE 802.11ax Wi-Fi 6 Pending higher performance protocol on unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz bands up to 10.5 Gbps Wi-Fi 6 spec pending with commercial development & deployment to follow, Full MU-MIMO, OFDMA, WPA3 security Next Gen Wi-Fi 6 GHZ band unlicensed & cellular reallocation possible IEEE 802.11k/v/r agile multiband pending, Extreme High-Throughput (EHT) pending IEEE 802.11p V2X Unlicensed 5.9 GHz ITS for short-to- medium range, Next gen DSRC Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) & Vehicle-to- Everything (V2X) for vehicle safety & ops IEEE 802.11af White Spaces White-Fi Uses select unlicensed TV bands from approx. 470-700 MHz to 600 Mbps up to 10 km (long distance) NLOS, Nominal cost for geo database use per device White-Fi, White Spaces Wireless or Super Wi-Fi, Managed by cognitive radio tech & geo database dynamically assigning channels for use, IEEE 802.22 emerging for WRAN up to 100 km IEEE 802.11ah HaLow Uses unlicensed 902-928 MHz UHF frequencies up to 100 Kbps to 1 km, up to 8K low power devices per AP WWAN supporting bulk M2M & Io/IIoTT communications for long-range, low-data rate applications IEEE 802.11ad WiGig Uses unlicensed 60 GHz ISM band for up to 7 Gbps up to 5 m range (within a room) Optimized for short-range media & high- bandwidth apps, IEEE 802.11ay will eventually extend to 20+ Gbps Source: International Research Center
  • 93. Source: Link Labs Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN)
  • 94. Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) Wireless Spectrum: Frequencies & Tiers (SAS = Spectrum Allocation Server) Mobile Experts https://www.leverege.com/blog post/what-is-cbrs-lte-3-5-ghz 3.5 GHz Band
  • 95. Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) Wireless Opportunities CBRS Alliance’s OnGo (https://www.cbrsalliance.org/) improves wireless coverage and capacity on a massive scale, making it ideal for in-building, public space and IoT/IIoT wireless needs MulteFire Alliance (https://www.multefire.org/) combines the high performance of LTE with the simple deployment of Wi-Fi Neutral Host Network Provider with OnGo Neutral Host Network Provider with OnGo New Entrant MVNO Capacity Improvement Business Model Graphics: Mobile Experts https://www.mobile-experts.net/
  • 96. White Spaces Wireless Spectrum & Opportunities thinkd2c https://www.carlsonwireless.com/
  • 98. Rohde & SchwartzHarbor Research/CBRS Alliance Postscapes Multiple Pathways for IoT Connectivity IoT Connection Technology Summary IoT Technology Data Rate and Range Needs Rohde & Schwartz
  • 99. IoT Connection Technologies Operating Range Source: Keysight Technologies - CBRS - 802.11ax Added - 802.22 (White Spaces) Added- V2V & V2X
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  • 101. U.S. Wireless Technology & Spectrum Summary Wireless Protocol Tech & Spectrum Apps & Notes Cellular 2G, 3G, 4G & 5G FCC licenses 850 & 1900 MHz bands at auctions for specific geographic subareas, 2G delivers data at up to 1 Mbps & 3G to 15 Mbps, 4G also utilizes 600, 700, 1700, 2100 & 5200 MHz bands for up to 50 Mbps, 5G uses same bands at up to 3 Gbps, 24/28/37/39/47 GHz spectrum auctions, 5G NR & 6G follow All U.S. bands are licensed thru FCC auctions, WW LTE convergence, 5G standards maturing & deployment now thru 2020+ requiring densification in urban areas adding small cells/DAS for capacity, AT&T FirstNet national public safety overlay deploying, Also 5G fixed wireless, Lots of tower & fiber builds IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi Variants Legacy IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n to 600 Mbps & IEEE 802.11ac to 3.5 Gbps on unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz bands shared among many users & applications, Interference risks Broad mature deployment for LANs & WANs, Low-cost hardware, Pending IEEE 802.11ax will provide up to 10.5 Gbps with more efficient spectrum utilization & increased throughput IEEE 802.16 WiMAX 2.3/2.5/3.5 GHz use w/o firm allocations, 802.16e adds mobility & MIMO Middle & last mile broadband to 50 km, Limited market adoption to date Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) Recent allocation of 3550-3700 MHz for shared unlicensed use of 80 MHz band & licensed use (with priority) of up to 7 10 MHz channels, Shared with higher priority users (U.S. Military Radar, Fixed Satellite Systems) thru Spectrum Allocation Server (SAS), Further reach than 5 GHz Wi-Fi LTE style protocols for voice & data, Shared spectrum use with situation awareness & dynamic allocation, CBRS Alliance’s OnGo & MulteFire Alliance protocols offer Neutral Host Network Provider & MVNO models, Specs stable & equipment reaching the market, Expansion into 3.7-4.2 GHz possible White Spaces Wireless IEEE 802.11af (White-Fi) uses select unlicensed bands from approx. 470-700 MHz to 600 Mbps to 10 km NLOS for WRAN, up to 100 km in the future with IEEE 802.22 White-Fi uses a TV White Space Database (geo database) to manage spectrum use by unlicensed white space devices by geographic area, Microsoft supporting & doing trials Source: International Research Center
  • 102. U.S. Wireless Technology & Spectrum Summary (Continued) Wireless Protocol Tech & Spectrum Apps & Notes Short Haul Special Purpose Networks • Bluetooth - IEEE 802.15.1 at unlicensed 2.4 GHz to 1 Mbps to 30 m, Version 5.0 provides 2 Mbps at greater range, Low Energy (LE), IoT/IIoT & mesh capabilities • Zigbee - IEEE 802.15.4 at unlicensed 915 MHz (NA) & 2.4 GHz at up to 250 Kbps to 100 m, Low power, Suited for IoT/IIoT • Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) at unlicensed 5.9 GHz ITS via IEEE 802.11p DSRC • LiFi short-range data networking with light • RFID/NFC - PAN for Logistics, POS & IoT Bluetooth expanding beyond connecting peripherals to devices & computers to PAN & LAN applications, Bluetooth & Zigbee will both support health monitoring, smart homes/ buildings/cities, mobile lifestyle, transportation, energy, etc. with M2M/IoT/IIoT sensor data aggregation, V2X integrates vehicles for safety & ops Low-Power Wide- Area Networks (LPWANs) • IEEE 802.11ah - HaLow uses unlicensed 902-928 MHz frequencies, Supports bulk M2M & IoT/IIoT communications at 100 Kbps to 1 km for up to 8,192 low-power devices per AP • LoRaWAN - Unlicensed 902-928 MHz in NA at 22 Kbps at very long range (city wide coverage) with deep indoor coverage for IoT/IIoT • Sigfox - Unlicensed 915 MHz (in NA) to 100 bps up to 40 km for broad, low-speed reach • NB-IoT (or LTE-M2) - Narrowband (NB) cellular for LPWAN to 250 Kbps, Mobile operators need new equipment to utilize • LTE Cat M1 - Cellular for LPWAN to 1 Mbps, more easily integrates to existing cellular deployments Long-range IoT/IIoT data collection will be a high device volume, high-growth opportunity at low data rates requiring low-cost subscriptions, All of these LPWAN variants support health monitoring, smart homes/ buildings/cities, mobile lifestyle, transportation, energy, etc., A number of LPWAN approaches will play out with IEEE 802.11ah (HaLow) & LoRaWAN likely to dominate augmented by cellular data services & use of other LPWANs for select situations, Weightless specs Source: International Research Center
  • 104. Consumer and Home Automation
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  • 109. LEDs can be engineered to produce practically any desired spectrum of visible light. Blue or violet LEDs pump mixes of phosphors, which down-convert some of the light and mix with the pump color to produce something humans perceive as white light. Near-monochrome LEDs, whose spectrum amounts to a single sharp peak, can be mixed at varying intensities to produce light of any apparent color in a wide gamut. Hue is controlled over WiFi. The bulbs and router talk amongst themselves using a wireless mesh network protocol called ZigBee, IEEE 802.15.4. Source: Phillips (http://meethue.com/en-us/)
  • 110. Sengled Pulse AwoX StriimLIGHT MiPow PlayBulb Color Klipsch LightSpeakers http://www.klipsch.com/lightspeaker- in-ceiling-lighting-and-audio-systemhttp://www.playbulb.com/en/playbulb-color.html http://www.awox.com/connected -lighting/awox-striim-light/ http://www.sengled.com/product/pulse LED Light Bulbs That Play Audio
  • 111. Japanese Super Toilet: This luxury toilet from Japan has controls for almost every aspect of the bathroom experience. It can warm the seat, give a massage, play music, adjust the height and temperature of the bidet stream (that plastic tube allows the tester in the showroom to see the height of the stream without getting water on the floor), and much more. It can even make flushing sounds -- without actually flushing -- to cover up the sounds of embarrassing body functions. Source: Contractor Magazine 4/15
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  • 117. The Smart Home as a Service combines web intelligence, smart home sensors, data centers, with intelligence living in the cloud – all administered by service providers. Source: Qorvo Low Power Wireless
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  • 120. https://www.tivo.com/products/bolt-detail TiVo Mini VOX for TruMultiRoom CableCARD TiVo BOLT VOX 4 Tuners/.5 TB $199.99 4 Tuners/1 TB $299.99 6 Tuners/3 TB $499.99 (w. 2 CableCARDs) TiVo Service Plan $14.99/Month $149.99/Year $549.99 All In TiVo Bolt OTA Antenna ATSC Only 4 Tuners/1 TB $249.99 $6.99/Month $69.99/Year $249.99 All In $179.99 $2.99/Month Each 7.3” D x 11.4” W x 1.8” H /Antenna 6.1" D x 6.1" W x 1.3" H
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  • 122. All the Realities: Augment, Mixed and Virtual Source: Cisco 2018
  • 123. Source: Qualcomm 2018 A glimpse into the future — sleek and stylish XR glasses.
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  • 125. Healthcare and Life Sciences (Including Wearables)
  • 127. Source: The Atlantic Council & Intel Security
  • 128. Source: U.S. Chamber of Commerce 2017
  • 131. Micro-Systems Used in Healthcare Applications Source: Yole Development
  • 132. Atomo Diagnostics is a medical technology company bringing next generation rapid diagnostic solutions to market and radically changing the way that we diagnose disease. AtomoRapid has launched in Africa and the UK, and USA market entry is underway. The AtomoRapid blood testing platform can accommodate test strips for a wide variety of conditions from celiac disease, allergy through to infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV. Also offering AtomoRapid to leading diagnostic companies interested in converting their rapid tests onto this revolutionary rapid test platform. http://atomodiagnostics.com/ AtomoRapid Blood Testing Platform
  • 134. Integrated Lab-On-A-Chip Uses Smartphone to Quickly Detect Multiple Pathogens The system uses a commercial smartphone to acquire and interpret real-time images of an enzymatic amplification reaction that takes place in a silicon microfluidic chip that generates green fluorescence and displays a visual read-out of the test at the point-of-care. The system is composed of an unmodified smartphone and a portable 3-D-printed cradle that supports the optical and electrical components, and interfaces with the rear-facing camera of the smartphone. (Credit: Micro & Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Source: https://www.mdtmag.com/news/2017/10/integrated- lab-chip-uses-smartphone-quickly-detect-multiple-pathogens
  • 135. Source: IEEE Spectrum 11/14 Perspiration Biosensor Patches
  • 138. AliveCor KardiaCare Mobile EKG Take a medical-grade EKG in just 30 seconds. Simply open the Kardia app on your smart phone, put your fingers on the electrodes and see results instantly. SmartRhythm monitoring works with your Apple Watch to intelligently evaluate the relationship between heart rate ranges, activity levels and other factors. If heart rate appears inconsistent with the activity level from your watch, a notification will be sent to record an EKG. https://www.alivecor.com/ KardiaMobile KardiaBand
  • 139. http://mimobaby.com/ Add Pacif-i Bluetooth Smart Pacifier for Temperature Mimo Smart Baby Monitor http://bluemaestro.com/pacifi-smart-pacifier/
  • 140. Medtronic Micra Pacemaker http://newsroom.medtronic.com/phoenix.zhtml ?c=251324&p=irol-newsarticle&id=1883208 Ron Wilson World's Smallest, Minimally Invasive Cardiac Pacemaker Delivered directly into the heart through a catheter inserted in the femoral vein at AZBio
  • 141. A DIY $100 Ultrasound No Bigger Than a Band-Aid https://www.ecnmag.com/videos/2018/09/ diy-100-ultrasound-no-bigger-band-aid
  • 142. First prize in the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize was awarded to Final Frontier Medical Devices, a team in Pennsylvania. The team, led by brothers Dr. Basil Harris, an emergency medicine physician, and George Harris, a network engineer, created an artificial intelligence engine called DxtER that learns to diagnose medical conditions via data from emergency medicine and analyzing patients. Final Frontier Medical Devices was awarded $2.6 million at the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize ceremony on April 12, 2017. http://www.zdnet.com/article/qualcomm-tricorder-xprize-goes-to-u-s-team-for-device-fusing-ai-iot-health/ https://tricorder.xprize.org/teams/final-frontier-medical-devices Final Frontier Medical Devices DxtER Tricorder XPrize Winner
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  • 145. Engaging this population with low cost, lite touch solutions can help shape positive outcomes, avoid more expensive healthcare utilization, and yield a higher return on an enterprise digital health investment. http://life365inc.com/ Digital Health as a Service (DHaaS) Platform
  • 146. Continua Health Alliance Enables the Personal Health Information Network (PHIN) Source: Continua Health Alliance (http://www.continuaalliance.org/)
  • 147. National Health Information Network (NHIN) http://healthit.hhs.gov/portal/server.pt?open=512&mode=2&cached=true&objID=1142
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  • 150. Arable's Pulsepod Collects Hyperlocal Weather & Crop Data http://www.arable.com/
  • 151. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Potential Applications
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  • 156. Beacon Enabled Local Retail Offer Service Source: GSA
  • 157. Swirl iBeacon Platform and Ecosystem http://www.swirl.com/
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  • 159. Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
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  • 163. Source: LNS Research Flattening of the Industrial Networking Architecture
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  • 166. Wireless Connection Technologies for Industrial IoT Source: Texas Instruments
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  • 170. IoT for the GSA Smart Building Source: U.S. NIST 2018
  • 171. Enterprise Internet of Things (EIoT) Source: Cisco
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  • 174. Smart Building IoT Architecture Source: Arm Limited 2018
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  • 177. Intelligent Buildings Value Chain Source: Frost & Sullivan
  • 178. Smart Cities and Environments
  • 179. Source: FutureStructure Water, Waste & Energy Systems 6/14
  • 180. Source: Teradata & Cisco 2018 A Smart City Connects Information Across Sectors
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  • 183.
  • 184. The Array of Things (AoT) is an NSF grant funded urban sensing project to implement a network of interactive, modular sensor boxes that will be installed around Chicago to collect real-time data on the city’s environment, infrastructure, and activity for research and public use. The nodes will initially measure temperature, barometric pressure, light, vibration, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, ambient sound intensity, pedestrian and vehicle traffic, and surface temperature. Continued research and development will help create sensors to monitor other urban factors of interest such as flooding and standing water, precipitation, wind, and pollutants. See: http://arrayofthings.github.io/
  • 186. In a study of air pollution, a small pollution sensor was used to measure black carbon level continuously, combined with an Android smartphone with CalFit software for recording GPS information on user location. The indoor/outdoor study of 54 Barcelona schoolchildren was associated with BREATHE, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution and brain development. The researchers conclude that mobile technologies could contribute valuable new insights into air pollution exposure. Source: Kurzweil AI http://www.kurzweilai.net/turning-smartphones-into-personal-real-time-pollution-location-monitors Smartphones as Personal, Real-Time Pollution-Location Monitors
  • 188.
  • 189.
  • 190. The Intel Intelligent Systems Framework provides a consistent framework for connectivity, security, and manageability. Flexible developer ‘recipes’ use scalable, off-the-shelf elements that in turn, shift resource investments from interoperability to extracting value from data. http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/embedded/intelligent-systems.html
  • 191. Source: GSMA Mobile Operators Can Enable Smart City Services
  • 192.
  • 193. Smart City Multidimensional Factors Source: Beecham Research
  • 194. Source: Nesta 2014 (http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/smart-cities-and-china)
  • 195. 1) A growing adoption and awareness of the smart city concept by an expanding set of government leaders. Not only does IDC see more demand for strategy development and implementation road maps, but the requests come from cities, counties, states and central/federal government agencies. We predict that by 2017, at least 20 of the world’s largest countries will create national smart city policies to prioritize funding and document technical and business guidelines. 2) A high variability in understanding the impact of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the benefits and challenges that must be considered from new types of mobile and connected things (drones, wearables, connected cars). We continue to see many of the same cities investing in the smart city IoT, but even for cities with pilot projects, there is a lack of citywide strategy at the level of guidelines for implementations. As such, we predict that in 2016, 90 percent of cities worldwide will lack a comprehensive set of policies on the public and private use of drones, sensors and devices. This will result in increased privacy and security risks. Similarly, we see a more acute and faster adoption of public safety and transportation IoT investment, often without a strategic framework, which IDC believes will lead to more project risk and wasted spending, such as spending on duplicative systems or devices. 3) Information from social media, crowdsourcing and sharing economy companies will have a greater impact on cities. Cities are grappling with how to ingest this data into systems and put it to use. Not only is this data unstructured in the form of text, video, images and audio, but it also comes from a variety of sources that exist independent of government. This presents a challenge since data from these sources can be highly relevant and useful for improving government services. The Waze traffic app is a great example of this — crowdsourced traffic information for commuters, if integrated with systems in the transportation management center, would help operators update digital signs more quickly, potentially adjust traffic signals and dispatch responders more quickly. But getting this information into existing systems is not a simple task. Source: IDC 2016 Smart City Trends to Expect
  • 199. Source: U.S. DOT 2018 (https://www.transportation.gov/av/3) (U.S.)
  • 200. Source: General Motors 2017 Autonomous Vehicles (AV)
  • 201. Autonomous Vehicle Potential Benefits and Costs Source: Victoria Transport Policy Institute 2015
  • 202. Automated Driving Technology Progression Source: Navigant Research 2017
  • 203. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Automated Vehicles for Safety https://www.nhtsa.gov/technology- innovation/automated-vehicles-safety
  • 206. Autonomous Vehicles (AV) Source: General Motors 2017 Minimum Viable Product (MVP)
  • 207. Vehicle Terminal Software Architecture Source: Intel
  • 209.
  • 212. Intelligent Transportation with IoT Source: Intel
  • 213. Source: General Motors 2017 Autonomous Vehicles (AV)
  • 215. https://www.bizjournals.com/phoenix/news/2018/07/31/ waymo-valley-metro-partner-for-inaugural-self.html Valley Metro CEO Scott Smith & Shaun Stewart of Waymo Valley Metro CEO Scott Smith & Phoenix Acting Mayor Thelda Williams
  • 217. Local Motors Olli Project https://localmotors.com/meet-olli/ https://www.ibm.com/blogs/internet-of-things/accessible-olli/ #AccessibleOlli
  • 220. A Silicon Valley startup claims to be the world’s first real-world application of autonomous driving. If the claim is true, it beat Waymo, Tesla, Apple, the global car industry and all the other Silicon Valley startups. The startup is called Udelv. This week it delivered groceries to two customers of a local store called Draeger’s Market. The delivery van drove autonomously from the store to the customers’ houses, although (as required by California law) a “safety driver” sat in the driver’s seat during the delivery. I talked to Udelv CEO Daniel Laury, and he told me the delivery was “a huge milestone.” Draeger’s Market deliveries go online to the public “next week,” according to Laury. The “milestone” Laury refers to is commercialization. He’s saying that Udelv is the first company to actually use autonomous vehicles for a service that’s paid for by a customer (in this case, the grocery store). Udelv’s model shows how autonomous deliveries could work on a massive scale. Its custom, proprietary electric vehicles are basically robotic lockers. Each van has 18 lockers that can carry a collective weight of 700 pounds. When the van gets within a few minutes of a customer’s house, that customer receives an alert via the company’s free app (currently available on iOS, with the Android version coming soon, according to Laury). https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/udelv/id1341233287 Once the van arrives, customers use the app to unlock the compartment that holds their groceries. The Udelv fleet is monitored by a control room of humans, who can take over in “unique situations” and drive the vans by remote control if necessary. Udelv monetizes with a simple model. It charges companies to make deliveries. Its goal is to cut the cost of deliveries in half, according to Laury. Udelv also plans to expand beyond Silicon Valley and seek out autonomous-vehicle-friendly states to set up shop in. https://www.computerworld.com/article/3252162/robotics/why- we-re-getting-self-driving-delivery-before-self-driving-ubers.html https://www.udelv.com/
  • 225. Impacts of Driving Automation, Connectivity, and MaaS in a Model City Source: Navigant Research 2017
  • 226.
  • 227. http://csi.asu.edu/projects/drawn-futures/drawn-futures-arizona-2045/ ASU Center for Science and the Imagination Drawn Futures: Arizona 2045
  • 228. IoT Security, Privacy, and Blockchain
  • 230. IoT Security Threat Map Source: Beecham Research
  • 231.
  • 232.
  • 233. Internet of Things (IoT) “Smart” devices incorporated into the electric grid, vehicles including autonomous vehicles, and household appliances are improving efficiency, energy conservation, and convenience. However, security industry analysts have demonstrated that many of these new systems can threaten data privacy, data integrity, or continuity of services. In the future, intelligence services might use the IoT for identification, surveillance, monitoring, location tracking, and targeting for recruitment, or to gain access to networks or user credentials. http://content.govdelivery.com/attachments/USODN I/2016/02/09/file_attachments/496870/SASC%2B201 6%2BWWTA%2BSFR%2B-%2B9%2BFeb%2B16.pdf
  • 235. Current technologies on the “privacy panic cycle”. (Adapted from Castro, D., & McQuinn, A. (2015). The privacy panic cycle: a guide to public fears about new technologies. Washington, D. C. Source: Information Technology & Innovation Foundation ITIF) Privacy Panic Cycle
  • 236.
  • 237. Securing an IoT Product or System Source: Zentri
  • 238. Internet of Things Security Attributes Source: Hewlett Packard Enterprise
  • 241. House Passes SMART IoT Act https://www.benton.org/headlines/ house-passes-smart-iot-act 11/29/18
  • 242.
  • 243.
  • 245. Applications of Blockchain in Networking and IoT Source: CB Insights
  • 247. IBM Files Patent That Tackles Challenges of Running a Blockchain on IoT Devices https://www.crn.com/news/internet-of-things/300102956/ibm-files-patent- that-tackles-challenges-of-running-a-blockchain-on-iot-devices.htm
  • 248.
  • 249. IoT Standards and Organizations
  • 250. Source: IEEE Computer - Imagineering an Internet of Everything 6/14 Information Flow Between the Cyber and Physical Worlds
  • 252. Source: ZigBee Alliance (http://www.zigbee.org/zigbee-for-developers/zigbee3-0/)
  • 253.
  • 256. IoT Groups Merge Efforts OIC taps UPnP, eschewing rival AllSeen The Open Interconnect Consortium will acquire assets of and combine its technologies with those of the Universal Plug and Play Forum, a fifteen-year old group focused on automating links between PCs and peripherals typically over Wi-Fi. By adopting the UPnP’s widely used service discovery software and likely many of its members, OIC will bolster its position as an applications-layer software stack for the Internet of Things. All sides agree the IoT is encumbered with too many competing and overlapping platforms, networks, protocols and frameworks as the result of a land grab for what is seen as the next big thing. With the deal, OIC gets an edge over its closest rival, the AllSeen Alliance. However it’s not clear whether it gets the heft it will need to stand out against the two giants in this space – Google’s Thread/Weave and Apple’s HomeKit. Currently, AllSeen has a lead in the market with more than 185 members and shipping products using its specifications. OIC, which has about 100 members, expects first products using its recently ratified spec to appear at CES in January. Both OIC and AllSeen are hosted by the Linux Foundation. Source: EE Times 11/23/15
  • 261. IoT Big Data, Applications, and Analytics
  • 263. Growth in M2M Connections Drive New Data Analytics Needs
  • 264.
  • 266. Why the Internet of Things Matters
  • 268. Internet of Things Data Value Chain Source: Navigant Research
  • 272. IBM Watson’s System Architecture
  • 273.
  • 274. Adoption Across the Analytics Spectrum
  • 275. Advanced Analytics Maturity Path Source: Intel Corporation 2017
  • 276. Big Data and Analytics MaturityScape Source: IDC 2015
  • 278. IoT Functional Areas That Provide Quickest ROI Source: Tata Consultancy Services 2018
  • 279. Source: Tata Consultancy Services 2018
  • 280. Future X Network Enabling a New Digital Era Source: Bell Labs Consulting
  • 281.
  • 283.
  • 284.
  • 285.
  • 286. Internet of Things (IoT) Roadblocks Those making their first foray into connected products can improve the success of their IoT programs by understanding the following hazards. • Too many inputs and too much data – Having too much data is nearly as bad as not having enough. It’s easy to get excited about the promise of new technology. But overdoing it on early programs can result in data explosion that overwhelms IT systems as well as stakeholders. • Too many alarms – Nothing guarantees organizational disengagement from a supposedly smart system than many “false positive” errors. False alarms are the spam of the IIoT world. They drown out the actual errors and condition stakeholders to ignore system feedback. • Missed critical alarms – If false positives are frustrating, a false negative can be catastrophically damaging depending upon the system. No notification or late notification of a potential safety concern can cause product, personnel, environmental or secondary damage, and can bring the program into question. • Unclear guidance – Feedback must be actionable, correct, and timely to the multiple stakeholders involved. Feedback that is unclear or requires time-consuming offline analysis substantially reduces system value. • Unprepared Organization – connected products often require “connected organizations”. Organizations may need to work together in new and different ways to realize revenue and margin projections. • Customer Backlash – Even in cases where the customer clearly has the most to gain through a newly connected product, there is a risk of customer backlash. Consumer privacy and security risks are substantial concerns carrying the specter of legal action. Additionally, there is a risk of Government charges. This US Federal Trade Commission Report provides a good overview of possible risks as well as the FTC’s recommendations. • Perceived cost versus benefit – Ideally, the success of an IIoT-enabled product would be easily quantified. Cost for a connected product can be high, once infrastructure costs are considered. Costs are often easier to measure than success, particularly if success is tied to lagging and less correlated metrics such as customer satisfaction. Subjective comparison of cost versus success puts a program at risk. Without positive proof of value and clearly defined and accepted targets, a single large adverse event can undermine the program. Source: LNS Research
  • 287. Barriers to Adoption of IoT/Analytics Solutions In a 2018 survey with over 600 respondents, security is the most significant barrier that limits the adoption of IoT/analytics solutions. Source: Bain & Co. in Embedded Systems Engineering 9/18
  • 288. Internet of Things Playbook Source: Navigant Research
  • 289.
  • 290. Internet of Things (IoT) Maturity Mode Source: TDWI
  • 291. IoT Success Requires an Ecosystem of Internal and External Partnerships Source: Cisco
  • 292.
  • 294. Key Trends Driving IoT in 2018 and Beyond Source: IHS Markit 2018
  • 295. 12 Predictions for the IoT Market in 2018 1. IoT markets will consolidate and grow more integrated 2. IoT-related privacy concerns will continue, but won’t slow adoption 3. Technical barriers to IIoT will fade, but the talent gap will remain a hurdle 4. 3G-driven IoT deployments will fade into obscurity 5. Industrial uses of AR technology will gain ground, but will remain immature 6. Micro-location will be a star technology of 2018 7. IoT deployments will scale thanks to increased networking automation 8. Pushes for IoT regulation will continue as new data governance frameworks emerge 9. Enterprise companies will see security breaches as a cost of doing business—while stepping up their defenses 10. Medical devices will emerge as a vulnerable hacking target 11. LPWAN will pick up in industrial markets 12. Agile development picks up in hardware and manufacturing, but the Holy Grail will be services Source: Internet of Things Institute by Brian Buntz 12/8/17 http://www.ioti.com/analytics/iot-council-co-chair-provides-2018-iot-predictions
  • 296. Arm IoT Predictions for 2019 Source: Arm Limited in EE Times Article 12/10/18 (https://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1334059)
  • 297.
  • 298. Gartner’s Top Strategic IoT Technology Trends http://www.eweek.com/it-management/gartner-lists-top-10-strategic-iot-technologies-trends-through-2023