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High-Speed and Energy-Efficient Carry Skip Adder Operating
Under a Wide Range of Supply Voltage Levels
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a carry skip adder (CSKA) structure that has a higher speed yet lower
energy consumption compared with the conventional one. The speed enhancement is achieved
by applying concatenation and incrimination schemes to improve the efficiency of the
conventional CSKA (Conv-CSKA) structure. In addition, instead of utilizing multiplexer logic,
the proposed structure makes use of NAND-NOR-Invert (NNI) and NOR-NAND-Invert (NNI)
compound gates for the skip logic. The structure may be realized with both fixed stage size and
variable stage size styles, wherein the latter further improves the speed and energy parameters of
the adder. Finally, a hybrid variable latency extension of the proposed structure, which lowers
the power consumption without considerably impacting the speed, is presented. This extension
utilizes a modified parallel structure for increasing the slack time, and hence, enabling further
voltage reduction. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power
consumption using Xilinx 14.2.
Enhancement of the project:
Existing System:
ADDERS are a key building block in arithmetic and logic units (ALUs) and hence increasing
their speed and reducing their power/energy consumption strongly affect the speed and power
consumption of processors. There are many works on the subject of optimizing the speed and
power of these units, which have been reported. Obviously, it is highly desirable to achieve
higher speeds at low-power/energy consumptions, which is a challenge for the designers of
general purpose processors. One of the effective techniques to lower the power consumption of
digital circuits is to reduce the supply voltage due to quadratic dependence of the switching
energy on the voltage.
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Moreover, the subthreshold current, which is the main leakage component in OFF
devices, has an exponential dependence on the supply voltage level through the drain-induced
barrier lowering effect. Depending on the amount of the supply voltage reduction, the operation
of ON devices may reside in the super threshold, near-threshold, or subthreshold regions.
Working in the super threshold region provides us with lower delay and higher switching and
leakage powers compared with the near/subthreshold regions. In the subthreshold region, the
logic gate delay and leakage power exhibit exponential dependences on the supply and threshold
voltages. Moreover, these voltages are (potentially) subject to process and environmental
variations in the nano-scale technologies. The variations increase uncertainties in the aforesaid
performance parameters. In addition, the small subthreshold current causes a large delay for the
circuits operating in the subthreshold region.
CONVENTIONALCARRYSKIPADDER:
Figure 1: Conventional structure of the CSKA
The structure of an N-bit Conv-CSKA, which is based on blocks of the RCA (RCA blocks), is
shown in Fig. 1. In addition to the chain of FAs in each stage, there is carry skip logic. For an
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RCA that contains N cascaded FAs, the worst propagation delay of the summation of two N-bit
numbers, A and B, belongs to the case where all the FAs are in the propagation mode. It means
that the worst case delay belongs to the case where
Pi =Ai ⊕Bi =1fori =1... N
Where Pi is the propagation signal related to Ai and Bi. This shows that the delay of the RCA is
linearly related to N. In the case, where a group of cascaded FAs are in the propagate mode, the
carry output of the chain is equal to the carry input. In the CSKA, the carry skip logic detects this
situation, and makes the carry ready for the next stage without waiting for the operation of the
FA chain to be completed. The skip operation is performed using the gates and the multiplexer
shown in the figure. Based on this explanation, the NFAs of the CSKA are grouped in Q stages.
Each stage contains an RCA block with Mj FAs (j =1... Q) And skip logic. In each stage, the
inputs of the multiplexer (skip logic) are the carry input of the stage and the carry output of its
RCA block (FA chain). In addition, the product of the propagation signals (P) of the stage is used
as the selector signal of the multiplexer.
Fixed Stage Size CSKA:
By assuming that each stage of the CSKA contains MFAs, there are Q=N/M stages where for the
sake of simplicity, we assume Q is an integer. The input signals of the jth multiplexer are the
carry output of the FAs chain in the jth stage denoted byC0
j , the carry output of the previous
stage (carry input of the jth stage) denoted by C1
j(Fig. 1).
The critical path of the CSKA contains three parts: 1) the path of the FA chain of the first stage
whose delay is equal to M×TCARRY; 2) the path of the intermediate carry skip multiplexer
whose delay is equal to the (Q–1) ×TMUX; and 3) the path of the FA chain in the last stage
whose its delay is equal to the (M−1) ×TCARRY+TSUM.
Disadvantages:
 High power consumption
 High area coverage
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Proposed System:
The structure is based on combining the concatenation and the incrementation schemes with the
Conv-CSKA structure, and hence, is denoted by CI-CSKA. It provides us with the ability to use
simpler carry skip logics. The logic replaces 2:1 multiplexers by NAND-NOR-Invert (NNI) /
NOR-NAND-Invert (NNI) compound gates (Fig. 2). The gates, which consist of fewer
transistors, have lower delay, area, and smaller power consumption compared with those of the
2:1 multiplexer. Note that, in this structure, as the carry propagates through the skip logics, it
becomes complemented. Therefore, at the output of the skip logic of even stages, the
complement of the carry is generated. The structure has a considerable lower propagation delay
with a slightly smaller area compared with those of the conventional one. Note that while the
power consumptions of the AOI (or OAI) gate are smaller than that of the multiplexer, the power
consumption of the proposed CI-CSKA is a little more than that of the conventional one. This is
due to the increase in the number of the gates, which imposes a higher wiring capacitance (in the
noncritical paths).
Figure 2: Proposed CI-CSKA structure.
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The internal structure of the incrementation block, which contains a chain of half-adders (HAs),
is shown in Fig. 3. The reason for using both AOI and OAI compound gates as the skip logics is
the inverting functions of these gates in standard cell libraries.
Figure 3: Internal structure of the jth incrementation block
Proposed Hybrid Variable Latency CSKA Structure:
The basic idea behind using VSS CSKA structures was based on almost balancing the delays of
paths such that the delay of the critical path is minimized compared with that of the FSS
structure. This deprives us from having the opportunity of using the slack time for the supply
voltage scaling. To provide the variable latency feature for the VSS CSKA structure, we replace
some of the middle stages in our proposed structure with a PPA modified in this paper. It should
be noted that since the Conv-CSKA structure has a lower speed than that of the proposed one, in
this section, we do not consider the conventional structure. The proposed hybrid variable latency
CSKA structure is shown in Fig. 4 where an Mp-bit modified PPA is used for the pth stage
(nucleus stage). Since the nucleus stage, which has the largest size (and delay) among the stages,
is present in both SLP1 and SLP2, replacing it by the PPA reduces the delay of the longest off-
critical paths. Thus, the use of the fast PPA helps increasing the available slack time in the
variable latency structure. It should be mentioned that since the input bits of the PPA block are
used in the predictor block, this block becomes parts of both SLP1 and SLP2.
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Figure 4: Structure of the proposed hybrid variable latency CSKA.
In the proposed hybrid structure, the prefix network of the Brent–Kung adder is used for
constructing the nucleus stage (Fig. 4). One the advantages of the this adder compared with other
prefix adders is that in this structure, using forward paths, the longest carry is calculated sooner
compared with the intermediate carries, which are computed by backward paths. In addition, the
fan-out of adder is less than other parallel adders, while the length of its wiring is smaller.
Finally, it has a simple and regular layout.
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Figure 5 : internal structure of the pth stage of the proposed hybrid variable latency CSKA
Advantages:
 Reduce power consumption
 Reduce area coverage
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Software implementation:
 Modelsim
 Xilinx ISE

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High speed and energy-efficient carry skip adder operating under a wide range of supply voltage levels

  • 1. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back High-Speed and Energy-Efficient Carry Skip Adder Operating Under a Wide Range of Supply Voltage Levels Abstract: In this paper, we present a carry skip adder (CSKA) structure that has a higher speed yet lower energy consumption compared with the conventional one. The speed enhancement is achieved by applying concatenation and incrimination schemes to improve the efficiency of the conventional CSKA (Conv-CSKA) structure. In addition, instead of utilizing multiplexer logic, the proposed structure makes use of NAND-NOR-Invert (NNI) and NOR-NAND-Invert (NNI) compound gates for the skip logic. The structure may be realized with both fixed stage size and variable stage size styles, wherein the latter further improves the speed and energy parameters of the adder. Finally, a hybrid variable latency extension of the proposed structure, which lowers the power consumption without considerably impacting the speed, is presented. This extension utilizes a modified parallel structure for increasing the slack time, and hence, enabling further voltage reduction. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. Enhancement of the project: Existing System: ADDERS are a key building block in arithmetic and logic units (ALUs) and hence increasing their speed and reducing their power/energy consumption strongly affect the speed and power consumption of processors. There are many works on the subject of optimizing the speed and power of these units, which have been reported. Obviously, it is highly desirable to achieve higher speeds at low-power/energy consumptions, which is a challenge for the designers of general purpose processors. One of the effective techniques to lower the power consumption of digital circuits is to reduce the supply voltage due to quadratic dependence of the switching energy on the voltage.
  • 2. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Moreover, the subthreshold current, which is the main leakage component in OFF devices, has an exponential dependence on the supply voltage level through the drain-induced barrier lowering effect. Depending on the amount of the supply voltage reduction, the operation of ON devices may reside in the super threshold, near-threshold, or subthreshold regions. Working in the super threshold region provides us with lower delay and higher switching and leakage powers compared with the near/subthreshold regions. In the subthreshold region, the logic gate delay and leakage power exhibit exponential dependences on the supply and threshold voltages. Moreover, these voltages are (potentially) subject to process and environmental variations in the nano-scale technologies. The variations increase uncertainties in the aforesaid performance parameters. In addition, the small subthreshold current causes a large delay for the circuits operating in the subthreshold region. CONVENTIONALCARRYSKIPADDER: Figure 1: Conventional structure of the CSKA The structure of an N-bit Conv-CSKA, which is based on blocks of the RCA (RCA blocks), is shown in Fig. 1. In addition to the chain of FAs in each stage, there is carry skip logic. For an
  • 3. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back RCA that contains N cascaded FAs, the worst propagation delay of the summation of two N-bit numbers, A and B, belongs to the case where all the FAs are in the propagation mode. It means that the worst case delay belongs to the case where Pi =Ai ⊕Bi =1fori =1... N Where Pi is the propagation signal related to Ai and Bi. This shows that the delay of the RCA is linearly related to N. In the case, where a group of cascaded FAs are in the propagate mode, the carry output of the chain is equal to the carry input. In the CSKA, the carry skip logic detects this situation, and makes the carry ready for the next stage without waiting for the operation of the FA chain to be completed. The skip operation is performed using the gates and the multiplexer shown in the figure. Based on this explanation, the NFAs of the CSKA are grouped in Q stages. Each stage contains an RCA block with Mj FAs (j =1... Q) And skip logic. In each stage, the inputs of the multiplexer (skip logic) are the carry input of the stage and the carry output of its RCA block (FA chain). In addition, the product of the propagation signals (P) of the stage is used as the selector signal of the multiplexer. Fixed Stage Size CSKA: By assuming that each stage of the CSKA contains MFAs, there are Q=N/M stages where for the sake of simplicity, we assume Q is an integer. The input signals of the jth multiplexer are the carry output of the FAs chain in the jth stage denoted byC0 j , the carry output of the previous stage (carry input of the jth stage) denoted by C1 j(Fig. 1). The critical path of the CSKA contains three parts: 1) the path of the FA chain of the first stage whose delay is equal to M×TCARRY; 2) the path of the intermediate carry skip multiplexer whose delay is equal to the (Q–1) ×TMUX; and 3) the path of the FA chain in the last stage whose its delay is equal to the (M−1) ×TCARRY+TSUM. Disadvantages:  High power consumption  High area coverage
  • 4. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Proposed System: The structure is based on combining the concatenation and the incrementation schemes with the Conv-CSKA structure, and hence, is denoted by CI-CSKA. It provides us with the ability to use simpler carry skip logics. The logic replaces 2:1 multiplexers by NAND-NOR-Invert (NNI) / NOR-NAND-Invert (NNI) compound gates (Fig. 2). The gates, which consist of fewer transistors, have lower delay, area, and smaller power consumption compared with those of the 2:1 multiplexer. Note that, in this structure, as the carry propagates through the skip logics, it becomes complemented. Therefore, at the output of the skip logic of even stages, the complement of the carry is generated. The structure has a considerable lower propagation delay with a slightly smaller area compared with those of the conventional one. Note that while the power consumptions of the AOI (or OAI) gate are smaller than that of the multiplexer, the power consumption of the proposed CI-CSKA is a little more than that of the conventional one. This is due to the increase in the number of the gates, which imposes a higher wiring capacitance (in the noncritical paths). Figure 2: Proposed CI-CSKA structure.
  • 5. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back The internal structure of the incrementation block, which contains a chain of half-adders (HAs), is shown in Fig. 3. The reason for using both AOI and OAI compound gates as the skip logics is the inverting functions of these gates in standard cell libraries. Figure 3: Internal structure of the jth incrementation block Proposed Hybrid Variable Latency CSKA Structure: The basic idea behind using VSS CSKA structures was based on almost balancing the delays of paths such that the delay of the critical path is minimized compared with that of the FSS structure. This deprives us from having the opportunity of using the slack time for the supply voltage scaling. To provide the variable latency feature for the VSS CSKA structure, we replace some of the middle stages in our proposed structure with a PPA modified in this paper. It should be noted that since the Conv-CSKA structure has a lower speed than that of the proposed one, in this section, we do not consider the conventional structure. The proposed hybrid variable latency CSKA structure is shown in Fig. 4 where an Mp-bit modified PPA is used for the pth stage (nucleus stage). Since the nucleus stage, which has the largest size (and delay) among the stages, is present in both SLP1 and SLP2, replacing it by the PPA reduces the delay of the longest off- critical paths. Thus, the use of the fast PPA helps increasing the available slack time in the variable latency structure. It should be mentioned that since the input bits of the PPA block are used in the predictor block, this block becomes parts of both SLP1 and SLP2.
  • 6. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Figure 4: Structure of the proposed hybrid variable latency CSKA. In the proposed hybrid structure, the prefix network of the Brent–Kung adder is used for constructing the nucleus stage (Fig. 4). One the advantages of the this adder compared with other prefix adders is that in this structure, using forward paths, the longest carry is calculated sooner compared with the intermediate carries, which are computed by backward paths. In addition, the fan-out of adder is less than other parallel adders, while the length of its wiring is smaller. Finally, it has a simple and regular layout.
  • 7. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Figure 5 : internal structure of the pth stage of the proposed hybrid variable latency CSKA Advantages:  Reduce power consumption  Reduce area coverage
  • 8. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Software implementation:  Modelsim  Xilinx ISE