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小農民の闘い国際デー
   日本とのつながりを考える
   @from Earth Cafe "OHANA" 


                印鑰 智哉
ブラジルの歴史概観
1500年 ポルトガル人来航、先住民族の土地を奪う
サトウキビ・モノカルチャー 奴隷労働 アフリカとの奴隷貿易
1888年 奴隷制廃止
1908年 日本人移民開始
権威主義体制の中で小農民の権利獲得

1964年 軍事独裁開始(∼85年)
1984年 MST(土地なし地方労働者運動)誕生(1988年)
1988年 新憲法の下で農地改革が法制化。しかし…
1996年4月17日 パラ州エルドラードドスカラジャスで19人(21人)の虐殺
2003年 遺伝子組み換え大豆合法化問題。2005年遺伝子組み換え合法化
2008年 農薬使用量世界一に
ブラジルの小農民とは誰か?

先住民族

キロンボ(黒人自立共同体)住民

小農民・農業労働者
小農民はどのような存在?


食料生産の70%を生産

女性が食料生産で中心的な役割を果たすが、土地の
権利を持つケースはほとんどない
ブラジルの農地改革
1%の大土地所有者が46%の農地を独占。世界最悪
の独占

1988年憲法で義務化。しかし実行されず

1600人の小農民・農業労働者が暗殺されたが、実
刑宣告されたのはわずか8人。罰せられないからさ
らに (impunity/impunidade)
日本の関わり
軍事独裁政権による弾圧が厳しかった1970年代に
日本のODAでセラード開発計画(ブラジル内陸部
に大豆を植える大規模農業の開始、小農民排除)

同じ時代に紙パルプ用のユーカリ大規模植林を日本
のODAで行う

どちらも地方の小農民の生活を追い詰め、大規模モ
ノカルチャーの拡大に手を貸す
逆農地改革=遺伝子組み換え大豆
       モノカルチャー
1998年 遺伝子組み換え大豆が非合法下、密輸さ
れ、遺伝子組み換え大豆栽培開始

1998年 モンサント、バイオセキュリティ委員会で
遺伝子組み換え承認獲得→差し止め、裁判へ


2003年 ルラ政権、非合法大豆の限定承認

2005年 遺伝子組み換え合法化→急激に拡大
南米での農薬使用量割合

                      ↓ 参考:アルゼンチン

     ブラジルの農薬販売量

2000年から2010年にブラジルの農
薬は190%増加。世界全体では93%
の増加。
南米で遺伝子組み換え大豆が大ブームなワケ


狂牛病→肉骨粉飼料をやめて植物飼料へ


飼料マーケットを握る穀物メジャーの独占

バイオ燃料(バイオディーゼル)需要の高騰

日本の商社も南米での大豆確保を強化中
モンサントによる種子企業買収
小農民を追い詰める政策
森林法改悪(森林保護地域の縮小、大土地農園開発
に拍車)

憲法で認められている先住民族、キロンボ住民の土
地の権利を国会審議の対象に

キロンボ住民の土地の承認の違憲審査
食料主権と遺伝子組み換え


遺伝子組み換え大豆のモノカルチャー地域=   
食料がない・食料生産しない地域

食料を輸入しないと飢え死にする。
遺伝子組み換えモノカルチャー農業は
   何を社会にもたらすか?
遺伝子組み換え大豆のモノカルチャー=工場型農業

生物多様性の喪失、土壌の崩壊(砂地化)、水資源
の消失、土壌汚染、地下水の汚染

農業労働者と家族、住民の農薬被曝

職の喪失、地域経済の衰退(都市部への人口移動、
都市部での問題拡大)
遺伝子組み換え食品は安全か?
遺伝子組み換え大豆を食べさせたマウス、新生児死
亡率55% (ロシア、Dr.Irina Ermakova他)

遺伝子組み換えトウモロコシで飼育された肉を食べ
たカナダ人女性の血液や胎児からBt毒素が発見(女
性から93%、胎児から80%)


ガン、白血病、免疫系、神経系に障害が発生すると
する研究は多数発表されている
2011は歴史の転換点
原発と遺伝子組み換えは米国の戦争の世界化と日常
化

311で原発の安全神話が吹っ飛び、遺伝子組み換え
の安全神話を否定する研究が続き、収量低下、農薬
耐性スーパー雑草の出現、技術の限界。反対運動も
世界化
何ができるか?
消費者にできることはかなり多く、しかも有効(Euの遺伝
子組み換え蜂蜜拒否参照)

安全でない飼料を使った肉は買わない。

遺伝子組み換え飼料を使った肉に表示を(あるいはその逆)

自治体に遺伝子組み換えフリーゾーン宣言を!

バイオ燃料政策を変えさせる。

産業植林への投資を止めさせる

CSA(コミュニティサポート農業)をやろう!      
自然・有機農業のリスクを分担して、農作業も共有化
何ができるか?

実態調査 例:遺伝子組み換えパパイヤ流通開始。
GMパパイヤはトロイの木馬

スーパーにGMパパイヤおかないでと働きかけ

TPPに反対する
体を守る・免疫を強化する
様々な汚染の進む世界の中で、GMと闘うだけで自
分たちの体を防御しなければ、勝つ前に体が…

GM食品を食べればGM産業を             からせる。だから
可能な限り食べない。加工食品を避ける。

デトックスの意義

未完… 続きは http://twitter.com/tomo_nada/
出典
上映したビデオ
MST (Movimiento Sin Tierra) 1ra parte: Campamentos http://
documentalsemillas.blogspot.jp/2011/10/mst-movimiento-sin-tierra-1ra-parte.html

Marcha Interrompida - MST Eldorado dos Carajas http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=eyt3NOpJFqQ

Chico César. Pensar em Você http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UlcdPBgOxm4

Pecuária ilegal em terra Xavante http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmERB7fGuME

‘One must have courage’ http://www.survivalinternational.org/films/havecourage

大豆栽培が引き起こす悲劇 http://www.japangreen.tv/ch06food/fod_other/368.html
http://www.japangreen.tv/ch06food/fod_other/369.html

2012 Goldman Prize Winner for South and Central America: Sofia Gatica http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHHS45AJsoI
図表の出典
P-3 IBGE ブラジル地理統計院

P-10 ブラジル農薬販売量 ブラジル衛生監督局 Agência Nacional de
Vigilância Sanitária
アルゼンチン Red          Universitaria   de Ambiente y Salud – Medicos de
pueblos fumigados http://www.reduas.fcm.unc.edu.ar/situacion-de-los-
pueblos-fumigados-en-argentina-2012/#more-803
南米での農薬使用量割合 "O mercado de agroquímicos" Giovani Theisen
Embrapa
p-11∼12 大豆産業−ブラジル、アルゼンチンを中心に 小池洋一 星野妙子編
『ラテンアメリカの一次産品輸出産業―資料集―』調査研究報告書 アジア経
済研究所 2006 http://www.ide.go.jp/Japanese/Publish/Download/Report/pdf/
2005_04_11_02.pdf
p-15 "O mercado de agroquímicos" Giovani Theisen Embrapa

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小農民の闘い国際デー 日本とのつながりを考える @from Earth Cafe "OHANA"

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