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A Scalable Language Martin Odersky FOSDEM 2009
The software landscape today … ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
This is both good and bad ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Alternative: Scalable languages ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scala is a scripting language ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],scala>  var capital = Map("US"    "Washington", "France"    "Paris") capital: Map[String, String] = Map(US    Washington, France    Paris) scala>  capital += ("Japan"    "Tokio") scala>  capital("France") res7: String = Paris
Scala is the Java of the future ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],object   App  {    def   main ( args :  Array [ String ]) {    if  ( args   exists  (_. toLowerCase   ==   "-help" ))    printUsage ()   else     process ( args )   } }
Interoperability ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scala is a composition language ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],trait  Analyzer {  this : Backend =>   … } trait   Backend   extends   Analyzer   with   Optimization   with   Generation  { val   global :  Main     import   global ._ type   OutputMedium  <:  Writable   }
Is Scala a “kitchen-sink language”? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scala compared to Java Modeled   in libraries:   assert, enums, properties, events, actors, using, queries, … ,[object Object],+ abstract types Scala removes Scala adds - wildcards + existential types ,[object Object],+ pattern matching - special treatment of interfaces + mixin composition with traits - break, continue + closures  - primitive types + operator overloading - static members + a pure object system
Scala cheat sheet (1): Definitions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scala cheat sheet (2): Expressions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scala cheat sheet (3): Objects and Classes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scala cheat sheet (4): Traits ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Spring Cleaning ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],var   capital  =  Map ( &quot;US&quot;   ->   &quot;Washington&quot; ,  &quot;Canada&quot;   ->   &quot;ottawa&quot; ) capital  += ( &quot;Japan&quot;  ->  &quot;Tokyo&quot; ) for  (c <- capital.keys) capital(c) = capital(c).capitalize assert(capital( &quot;Canada&quot; ) ==  &quot;Ottawa&quot; )
… with one major difference ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scalability demands extensibility ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Adding new datatypes - seamlessly ,[object Object],def   factorial ( x :  BigInt ):  BigInt  =    if  ( x   ==  0) 1  else   x   *   factorial ( x   -  1) Compare with using Java's class: import  java.math.BigInteger def   factorial ( x :  BigInteger ):  BigInteger  =   if  ( x   ==  BigInteger.ZERO)   BigInteger . ONE   else   x . multiply (factorial(x.subtract(BigInteger.ONE))) }
Implementing new datatypes - seamlessly ,[object Object],import  java.math.BigInteger class   BigInt ( val   bigInteger :  BigInteger )  extends   java . lang . Number  { def   +  ( that :  BigInt ) =    new   BigInt ( this . bigInteger   add   that . bigInteger ) def   -  ( that :  BigInt ) =    new   BigInt ( this . bigInteger   subtract   that . bigInteger ) …  // other methods implemented analogously } +  is an identifier; can be used as a method name Infix operations are method calls: a + b   is the same as  a.+(b) a add b   is the same as  a.add(b)
Adding new control structures  ,[object Object],[object Object],using  ( new   BufferedReader ( new   FileReader ( path ))) {   f  =>  println ( f . readLine ()) } val   f  =  new   BufferedReader ( new   FileReader ( path )) try  {   println ( f . readLine ()) }  finally  {   if  ( f   !=   null )  f . close () }
Implementing new control structures: ,[object Object],def   using [ T  <: {  def   close () }]   ( resource :  T )   ( block :  T  =>  Unit ) {   try  {   block ( resource )   }  finally  {   if  ( resource   !=   null )  resource . close ()   } } T  is a type parameter... … supporting a  close   method A closure that takes a  T   parameter
Break and continue ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],import  scala.util.control.Breaks._ breakable {   for  (x <- elems) {   println(x * 2)   if (x > 0) break   } }
Getting back break and continue
What makes Scala scalable? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scala is object-oriented ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],scala>  (1).hashCode res8: Int = 1 scala>  (1).+(2) res10: Int = 3
Scala is functional ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],scala>  val matrix = Array(Array(1, 0, 0),     |  Array(0, 1, 0),    |  Array(0, 0, 1)) matrix: Array[Array[Int]] = Array([I@164da25,…  scala>  matrix.exists(row => row.forall(0 ==)) res13: Boolean = false
Functions  are  objects ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],trait   Function1 [ -S ,  +T ] {   def   apply ( x :  S ):  T } new   Function1 [ Int ,  Int ] {   def   apply ( x :  Int ) =    x   +  1 }
Why should I care? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Partial functions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],trait   PartialFunction [- A , + B ] extends  ( A  =>  B ) { def   isDefinedAt ( x :  A ): Boolean }
Developing new paradigms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Erlang-style actors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A pattern matching block of type PartialFunction[ MessageType ,  ActionType ]
A simple actor case   class   Data ( bytes :  Array [ Byte ]) case   class   Sum ( receiver :  Actor ) val   checkSumCalculator  =  actor  { var  sum = 0 loop  { receive  { case   Data ( bs ) =>  sum   +=   hash ( bs ) case   Sum ( receiver ) =>  receiver   !   sum } } } } repeatedly  receive  messages Spawn a new actor
Implementing receive ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Other Approaches to Scalability ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Where are we now? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Scala community ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tool support ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tool support ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Who’s using it? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Learning Scala ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Thank You To try it out: scala-lang.org Thanks also to the (past and present) members of the Scala team: Philippe Altherr, Vincent Cremet, Iulian Dragos, Gilles Dubochet, Burak Emir, Sebastian Hack, Philipp Haller, Sean McDirmid, Ingo Meier, Adriaan Moors, Stéphane Micheloud, Nikolay Mihaylov, Anders Nielssen, Tiark Rompf, Lukas Rytz, Michel Schinz, Lex Spoon, Erik Stenman, Geoffrey Alan Washburn, Matthias Zenger .
Relationship between Scala and other languages ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Scala Talk at FOSDEM 2009

  • 1. A Scalable Language Martin Odersky FOSDEM 2009
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  • 23. Getting back break and continue
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  • 32. A simple actor case class Data ( bytes : Array [ Byte ]) case class Sum ( receiver : Actor ) val checkSumCalculator = actor { var sum = 0 loop { receive { case Data ( bs ) => sum += hash ( bs ) case Sum ( receiver ) => receiver ! sum } } } } repeatedly receive messages Spawn a new actor
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  • 41. Thank You To try it out: scala-lang.org Thanks also to the (past and present) members of the Scala team: Philippe Altherr, Vincent Cremet, Iulian Dragos, Gilles Dubochet, Burak Emir, Sebastian Hack, Philipp Haller, Sean McDirmid, Ingo Meier, Adriaan Moors, Stéphane Micheloud, Nikolay Mihaylov, Anders Nielssen, Tiark Rompf, Lukas Rytz, Michel Schinz, Lex Spoon, Erik Stenman, Geoffrey Alan Washburn, Matthias Zenger .
  • 42.