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Food, Mood and Cognition
Healthy Food, Healthy You
Alzheimer’s Disease
 13%(1 in 8) of those over the age of 65 have





Alzheimer’s Disease(AD)
Almost 50% over the age of 85 have AD
AD triples healthcare costs for each person
AD is linked to such diseases as diabetes and
heart disease
Causes are linked to diet, environment, and
genes
Alzheimer’s Disease
 It was originally thought that functional decline

and memory loss were due to plaques or tangles
in the brain that affect the hippocampus in the
“memory” center.
 Recently, research is suggesting that tangles are
not the cause rather the chemical communication
between the neurons is impaired.
 Either way, a healthy diet plays a role in
prevention and treatment.
Alzheimer’s Disease
 It was originally thought that age related physical

changes in the brain (loss of neurons) resulted in
memory loss.
 It is now known that neurons are not lost with age
which means memory loss is not from age.
 The function of the brain may be more about the
physical changes brought on by other diseases, poor
lifestyle habits like smoking and poor nutrition.
Brain Health
 Twenty-five percent (25%) of oxygen is carried to

the brain from the carotid arteries to oxidize the
glucose in brain cells for the conversion into
energy.
 The brain is highly sensitive to “inflammation” or
what is also referred to as “oxidative stress”
Brain Health
 Chronic diseases cause an inflammatory

response that affects the brain and brain
chemistry.
 Factors that cause chronic inflammation are age,
insufficient sleep, unhealthy gut flora, poor diet,
smoking, excessive alcohol, lack of exercise,
excess caloric intake and obesity.
 Obesity causes a cellular inflammatory response
whereby the cells do not “recognize” insulin to
allow glucose into the cell.
Brain Health and Cognition
 Insulin resistance that is caused by obesity or

from highly processed diets can lead to a form of
brain insulin resistance called “central insulin
resistance” or also referred to as Diabetes Type
III.
 Less insulin gets into the brain to be used by the
brain cells that causes a disruption of the action
of insulin on brain function.
 Insulin plays a role in cognitive function, memory
and satiety.
Brain Health and Mood
 If insulin levels are chronically low in the

brain, the affect is a loss of cognitive
function, loss of memory and loss of appetite
regulation.
 Excessive caloric intake and/or obesity and
abdominal adiposity are linked to insulin
resistance that causes an increase in
triglycerides. The increase in blood triglycerides
negatively affects other bioactive hormones such
as leptin that helps control mood.
Brain Health and Depression
 Therefore, insulin and central insulin resistance

causes depression. It also has the potential to
exacerbate other mental disorders.
Depression
Controllable

• Stress, obesity, poor
diet, sedentary

Diet
relationship

• Inflammation and Insulin
Resistance

Diet
treatment?

• Depression
Brain Health and Diet
 Poor diet quality causes obesity, insulin

resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress and
reduces the production of neurotrophic factors all
of which impairs brain chemistry.
 Altered brain chemistry affects all organ systems
and one’s overall health.
Poor Diet Quality
 A “Poor Diet Quality (PDQ)” is one that is high in

calories, refined foods(simple
carbohydrates), high sugar, high saturated fatty
acids, low fruit and vegetable(low nutrient, low
fiber) and low Omega 3 fatty acid especially
decosahexaenic acid.
PDQ
 PDQ is linked to common mental disorders such

as depression and anxiety.
 PDQ increase inflammation that is associated
with increased depression.
 Diets high in refined starches, sugar, trans fatty
acids and saturated fatty acids are linked to
increases in inflammation.
Oxidative Stress
 As previously mentioned, glucose gets into cells

by the action of insulin.
 Once glucose is in the cell, it is processed by the
organelle known as the mitochondria or power
house of the cell.
 In the presence of oxygen, glucose in the
mitochondria is converted into energy.
Oxidative Stress
 Normal by-products of aerobic energy metabolism

is “free radicals.”
 The body has build in metabolic systems to
counter act these free radicals.
 PDQ however can over tax these systems from
the over production of free radicals.
 Free radicals are also known as charged ions.
Oxidative Stress
 The ionic charge of a free radical damages cell

walls, known as oxidative damage, that damages
cellular proteins, fats and DNA.
 Oxidative stress and damage are also associated
with depression.
Brain Chemistry
 Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is

responsible for the growth and health of neurons.
 Affects learning and memory.
 Protective against oxidative stress.
 BDNF is associated with cognitive
impairment, depression, anxiety, other mental
disorders, energy metabolism and low levels may
be a cause of obesity.
Omega 3

Refined
Foods

Saturated
Fats

BDNF

Anxiety/
Depression

Cognitive
Decline

Metabolic
Disorders
Stress
 It is now well known that chronic stress is a health

hazard.
 Chronic stress increases the release of cortisol
and adrenalin.
 High glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, cause
visceral fat
accumulation, overeating, inflammation, gastroint
estinal disease, cardiovascular
disease, periodontal disease and decreases the
function and production of neurons in the
hippocampus.
GI Health
 Gut health is directly linked to brain health.
 The brain controls the GI tract for muscle

contraction, readiness for a meal and for
elimination.
 The GI tract conversely communicates with the
brain mostly via the vagus nerve.
 Communication between the brain and gut are for
gut fullness(satiety), gut hormones such as leptin
and ghrelin for fuel regulation and immunity.
GI Health
 The GI tract has its own nervous system known

as the enteric nervous system (ENS) referred to
as the second brain.
 The ENS has millions of neurons with over 50
million neurotransmitters. Ninety (90) percent of
the body’s serotonin and over fifty (50) percent of
dopamine is found in the gut. These two
hormones play vital roles in mood and sleep.
GI Health
 The GI tract also to a complex microbial

environment that plays a vital role in immunity.
 The Brian-Gut axis has effects on motivation,
memory, learning and mood. Vagus nerve
stimulation is being studied for chronic resistive
depression.
 An unhealthy gut affects the brain and an
unhealthy brain affects the gut.
GI Health and the Brain
 The lining of the GI tract is affected by

inflammation.
 Chronic inflammation leads to what is referred to
as a “leaky” gut, a gut that has increased
permeability. An example of this is Chron’s
disease whereby gliadin becomes permeable that
stimulates an immune response.
 An unhealthy gut can cause a systemic or whole
body inflammatory response that also affects the
brain.
GI Health and the Brain
 Microbes found in the GI tract are unique to each

person.
 Microbes help ferment indigestible foods, make
vitamins like vitamin K, and increase nutrient
absorption.
 Microbes maintain the health of the intestinal
lining preventing permeability of compounds that
can cause an inflammatory response.
GI Health and the Brain
 Gut flora is dependent on diet. PDQ can reduce

the multiplication of certain microbes while
proliferating others causing an upset to the gut
flora and overall gut function.
 Gut flora is involved in brain neuron and GI tract
neuron synthesis and growth.
 Microbes help regulate the stress response and
pain reception. Healthy gut flora is linked to brain
development in infants.
Diet and Health
 The best diet for overall brain and gut health are

the same. Diets that are low in refined processed
foods, saturate fatty acids, trans fatty
acids, sugars and are high in
fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated
fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids(Omega
3’s), and nutrient dense is the diet to keep the
brain and gut healthy. The Mediterranean diet
pattern is recommended, however further
research is being conducted on the relationship
between brain health and diet.
Brian Health and Older Persons
 Based on the information provided in this

presentation, how could it be applied to older persons
to not just treat disease but prevent it?
 Specific to Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive
function, what specific suggestions would you
recommend for the older persons?
 Is there a place for supplementation based on the
information provided or not? Why or why not.
 Adding this information to the information learned in
the class, how can diet and exercise be used to help
older person have active high quality lives? What plan
would you suggest? Be specific.

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Food, mood and cognition ppt with audio lecture

  • 1. Food, Mood and Cognition Healthy Food, Healthy You
  • 2. Alzheimer’s Disease  13%(1 in 8) of those over the age of 65 have     Alzheimer’s Disease(AD) Almost 50% over the age of 85 have AD AD triples healthcare costs for each person AD is linked to such diseases as diabetes and heart disease Causes are linked to diet, environment, and genes
  • 3. Alzheimer’s Disease  It was originally thought that functional decline and memory loss were due to plaques or tangles in the brain that affect the hippocampus in the “memory” center.  Recently, research is suggesting that tangles are not the cause rather the chemical communication between the neurons is impaired.  Either way, a healthy diet plays a role in prevention and treatment.
  • 4. Alzheimer’s Disease  It was originally thought that age related physical changes in the brain (loss of neurons) resulted in memory loss.  It is now known that neurons are not lost with age which means memory loss is not from age.  The function of the brain may be more about the physical changes brought on by other diseases, poor lifestyle habits like smoking and poor nutrition.
  • 5. Brain Health  Twenty-five percent (25%) of oxygen is carried to the brain from the carotid arteries to oxidize the glucose in brain cells for the conversion into energy.  The brain is highly sensitive to “inflammation” or what is also referred to as “oxidative stress”
  • 6. Brain Health  Chronic diseases cause an inflammatory response that affects the brain and brain chemistry.  Factors that cause chronic inflammation are age, insufficient sleep, unhealthy gut flora, poor diet, smoking, excessive alcohol, lack of exercise, excess caloric intake and obesity.  Obesity causes a cellular inflammatory response whereby the cells do not “recognize” insulin to allow glucose into the cell.
  • 7. Brain Health and Cognition  Insulin resistance that is caused by obesity or from highly processed diets can lead to a form of brain insulin resistance called “central insulin resistance” or also referred to as Diabetes Type III.  Less insulin gets into the brain to be used by the brain cells that causes a disruption of the action of insulin on brain function.  Insulin plays a role in cognitive function, memory and satiety.
  • 8. Brain Health and Mood  If insulin levels are chronically low in the brain, the affect is a loss of cognitive function, loss of memory and loss of appetite regulation.  Excessive caloric intake and/or obesity and abdominal adiposity are linked to insulin resistance that causes an increase in triglycerides. The increase in blood triglycerides negatively affects other bioactive hormones such as leptin that helps control mood.
  • 9. Brain Health and Depression  Therefore, insulin and central insulin resistance causes depression. It also has the potential to exacerbate other mental disorders.
  • 10. Depression Controllable • Stress, obesity, poor diet, sedentary Diet relationship • Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Diet treatment? • Depression
  • 11. Brain Health and Diet  Poor diet quality causes obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress and reduces the production of neurotrophic factors all of which impairs brain chemistry.  Altered brain chemistry affects all organ systems and one’s overall health.
  • 12. Poor Diet Quality  A “Poor Diet Quality (PDQ)” is one that is high in calories, refined foods(simple carbohydrates), high sugar, high saturated fatty acids, low fruit and vegetable(low nutrient, low fiber) and low Omega 3 fatty acid especially decosahexaenic acid.
  • 13. PDQ  PDQ is linked to common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety.  PDQ increase inflammation that is associated with increased depression.  Diets high in refined starches, sugar, trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids are linked to increases in inflammation.
  • 14. Oxidative Stress  As previously mentioned, glucose gets into cells by the action of insulin.  Once glucose is in the cell, it is processed by the organelle known as the mitochondria or power house of the cell.  In the presence of oxygen, glucose in the mitochondria is converted into energy.
  • 15. Oxidative Stress  Normal by-products of aerobic energy metabolism is “free radicals.”  The body has build in metabolic systems to counter act these free radicals.  PDQ however can over tax these systems from the over production of free radicals.  Free radicals are also known as charged ions.
  • 16. Oxidative Stress  The ionic charge of a free radical damages cell walls, known as oxidative damage, that damages cellular proteins, fats and DNA.  Oxidative stress and damage are also associated with depression.
  • 17. Brain Chemistry  Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is responsible for the growth and health of neurons.  Affects learning and memory.  Protective against oxidative stress.  BDNF is associated with cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, other mental disorders, energy metabolism and low levels may be a cause of obesity.
  • 19. Stress  It is now well known that chronic stress is a health hazard.  Chronic stress increases the release of cortisol and adrenalin.  High glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, cause visceral fat accumulation, overeating, inflammation, gastroint estinal disease, cardiovascular disease, periodontal disease and decreases the function and production of neurons in the hippocampus.
  • 20. GI Health  Gut health is directly linked to brain health.  The brain controls the GI tract for muscle contraction, readiness for a meal and for elimination.  The GI tract conversely communicates with the brain mostly via the vagus nerve.  Communication between the brain and gut are for gut fullness(satiety), gut hormones such as leptin and ghrelin for fuel regulation and immunity.
  • 21. GI Health  The GI tract has its own nervous system known as the enteric nervous system (ENS) referred to as the second brain.  The ENS has millions of neurons with over 50 million neurotransmitters. Ninety (90) percent of the body’s serotonin and over fifty (50) percent of dopamine is found in the gut. These two hormones play vital roles in mood and sleep.
  • 22. GI Health  The GI tract also to a complex microbial environment that plays a vital role in immunity.  The Brian-Gut axis has effects on motivation, memory, learning and mood. Vagus nerve stimulation is being studied for chronic resistive depression.  An unhealthy gut affects the brain and an unhealthy brain affects the gut.
  • 23. GI Health and the Brain  The lining of the GI tract is affected by inflammation.  Chronic inflammation leads to what is referred to as a “leaky” gut, a gut that has increased permeability. An example of this is Chron’s disease whereby gliadin becomes permeable that stimulates an immune response.  An unhealthy gut can cause a systemic or whole body inflammatory response that also affects the brain.
  • 24. GI Health and the Brain  Microbes found in the GI tract are unique to each person.  Microbes help ferment indigestible foods, make vitamins like vitamin K, and increase nutrient absorption.  Microbes maintain the health of the intestinal lining preventing permeability of compounds that can cause an inflammatory response.
  • 25. GI Health and the Brain  Gut flora is dependent on diet. PDQ can reduce the multiplication of certain microbes while proliferating others causing an upset to the gut flora and overall gut function.  Gut flora is involved in brain neuron and GI tract neuron synthesis and growth.  Microbes help regulate the stress response and pain reception. Healthy gut flora is linked to brain development in infants.
  • 26. Diet and Health  The best diet for overall brain and gut health are the same. Diets that are low in refined processed foods, saturate fatty acids, trans fatty acids, sugars and are high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids(Omega 3’s), and nutrient dense is the diet to keep the brain and gut healthy. The Mediterranean diet pattern is recommended, however further research is being conducted on the relationship between brain health and diet.
  • 27. Brian Health and Older Persons  Based on the information provided in this presentation, how could it be applied to older persons to not just treat disease but prevent it?  Specific to Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive function, what specific suggestions would you recommend for the older persons?  Is there a place for supplementation based on the information provided or not? Why or why not.  Adding this information to the information learned in the class, how can diet and exercise be used to help older person have active high quality lives? What plan would you suggest? Be specific.