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Effective 2FA
Part 1: the technical stuff
Conor Gilsenan
Editor in Chief, All Things Auth
Founder, Two Factor Buddy (2FB)
Audience participation
to avoid afternoon naps
If you are a
service provider.
Hint: people log into your service/application
If your service
supports 2FA.
If you know your
2FA adoption rate.
Hint: What percentage of users enable 2FA?
If your
2FA adoption rate
is above 1%
If your
2FA adoption rate
is above 10%
If your
2FA adoption rate
is above 28%
If your
2FA adoption rate
is above 40%
Thank you for
participating!
Please, take a seat.
Why do you
support 2FA?
Compliance
https://www.reddit.com/r/CrappyDesign/comments/2ucutv/this_drawer_doesnt_open_because_the_oven_handle/
Business goal
Quick recap:
What is 2FA?
The three authentication factors
1. Knowledge (something you know)
2. Possession (something you have)
3. Inherence (something you are)
The three authentication factors
1. Knowledge (something you know)
2. Possession (something you have)
3. Inherence (something you are)
The three authentication factors
1. Knowledge (something you know)
2. Possession (something you have)
3. Inherence (something you are)
Two factor authentication (2FA)
1. Knowledge (something you know)
2. Possession (something you have)
2FA methods
1. SMS
2. Time-based One-time Passwords
■ e.g. Google Authenticator
3. Push notifications
■ e.g. Google Prompt
4. Universal 2nd Factor (U2F)
■ e.g. USB security keys
My goal: convince you of this tweet
My goal: convince you of this tweet
My goal: convince you of this tweet
My goal: convince you of this tweet
SMS: the most popular and least secure 2FA
SMS: registration flow
SMS: registration flow
SMS: registration flow
SMS: registration flow
SMS: authentication flow
SMS: phone company === problems
SMS: people problems
“People are always the
weakest link in any
security solution”
- Conor, right now
SMS: social engineering
SMS: social engineering
SMS: social engineering
SMS: social engineering
SMS: social engineering
SMS: social engineering
June, 2016
SMS: social engineering
December, 2016
August, 2017
SMS: social engineering
Phone company, do better
at verifying identities!
Yes! But also...
SMS: social engineering
September, 2017
SMS: social engineering
February, 2018
SMS: social engineering
SMS: social engineering
“...our industry is
experiencing a phone
number port out scam
that could impact you…”
“...consider checking with
your bank to see if there is
an alternative to using
text-for-PIN authentication…”
SMS: technical problems
SMS: Signal System 7 (SS7)
SMS: Signal System 7 (SS7)
SMS: Signal System 7 (SS7)
SMS: Signal System 7 (SS7)
SMS: SS7 vulnerabilities
May, 2016
May, 2016
SMS: SS7 vulnerabilities
May, 2017
May, 2017
“Victims of phishing are
400x more likely to be
successfully hijacked
compared to a random
Google user.”
2017 - https://research.google.com/pubs/pub46437.html
SMS: vulnerable to phishing attacks
SMS: vulnerable to phishing attacks
SMS: vulnerable to phishing attacks
SMS: vulnerable to phishing attacks
SMS: vulnerable to phishing attacks
SMS: vulnerable to phishing attacks
SMS: the most popular and least secure 2FA
TOTP: way more secure than SMS, more annoying than Push
TOTP:
First ever
registration flow
TOTP:
First ever
registration flow
TOTP:
First ever
registration flow
TOTP:
First ever
registration flow
TOTP:
First ever
registration flow
TOTP: example authenticator app
TOTP: the same app works for all TOTP sites
TOTP:
registration flow
with app installed
TOTP: authentication is even easier
TOTP:
authentication
flow
TOTP: how is the OTP generated and verified?
HMAC-SHA-1 (shared secret + time) ≈ OTP
TOTP: vulnerabilities
TOTP: service provider compromise
TOTP: trusted device compromise
TOTP: vulnerable to phishing attacks
TOTP: vulnerable to phishing attacks
TOTP: vulnerable to phishing attacks
TOTP: vulnerable to phishing attacks
TOTP: usability challenges
TOTP: what if I lose my trusted device?!
TOTP: what if I lose my trusted device?!
https://unsplash.com/photos/2-1wvS-jZZQ
TOTP: lots of accounts? locating just one sucks
Page 3Page 1 Page 2
scroll scroll
TOTP: the OTP rotates while you are entering it...
TOTP: the OTP rotates while you are entering it...
TOTP: the OTP rotates while you are entering it...
TOTP: the OTP rotates while you are entering it...
TOTP: the OTP rotates while you are entering it...
TOTP: the OTP rotates while you are entering it...
TOTP: way more secure than SMS, more annoying than Push
Push: more secure than TOTP & very convenient
Push: authentication prompt
Push: registration flow
Push: registration flow
Push: registration flow
Push: registration flow
Push: registration flow
Push: authentication flow
Push: authentication flow
Push: authentication flow
Push: authentication flow
Push: authentication flow
Push: vulnerabilities
Push: vulnerable to phishing attacks
Push: vulnerable to phishing attacks
Push: vulnerable to phishing attacks
Push: vulnerable to phishing attacks
Push: usability challenges
Push: need a different app for each service
Push: what if I lose my trusted device?!
Push: more secure than TOTP & very convenient
U2F: Secure? Yup! Realistic for consumers? Nope!
U2F: gotta get that hardware!
U2F: registration flow - user
U2F: registration flow - technical
Key pair generated and
bound to origin
U2F: authentication flow - user
U2F: authentication flow - technical
U2F: authentication flow - technical
U2F: authentication flow - technical
U2F: authentication flow - technical
U2F: authentication flow - technical
U2F: authentication flow - technical
U2F: usability challenges
U2F: what if I lose my security key?!
U2F: what if I lose my security key?!
U2F: Secure? Yup! Realistic for consumers? Nope!
Least
common
denominator
Effective 2FA
Part 2: everything else
Coming soon to a conference near you!
Questions!
Slides: AllThingsAuth.com/talks
conor@allthingsauth.com
@conorgil
linkedin.com/in/conorgilsenan

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Effective 2FA - Part 1: the technical stuff