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Digestive
System
MUHAMMAD MAAYER
5-F
Main function of digestive system
• The main function of the digestive system is to
turn the food into simple sugars, amino acids,
and fatty acids, so absorbed in the blood.
• This is fuel for the human body.
Digestion
• Types
– Mechanical (physical)
• Chew
• Tear
• Grind
• Mash
• Mix
– Chemical
• Enzymatic reactions to improve digestion of
–Carbohydrates----------glucose
–Proteins------------------amino acids
–Fats------------------------fatty acids
Digestive System Organization
• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract
– Tube within a tube
– Direct link/path between organs
–Structures
• Mouth
• Pharynx
• Esophagus
• Stomach
• Small intestine
• Large Intestine
• Rectum
Mouth
• Teeth mechanically break
down food into small
pieces. Tongue mixes food
with saliva (contains
amylase, which helps break
down starch). It moves food
to the back of the mouth
and to the opening of the
esophagus.
• Epiglottis is a flap-like
structure at the back of
the throat that closes
over the trachea
preventing food from
entering it. It is located
in the Pharynx.
Esophagus
• Approximately 20 cm long.
Functions include:
1.Secrete mucus
2.Moves food from the throat
to the stomach using muscle
movement called peristalsis
(an ocean wave moving through
the muscle)
• If acid from the stomach gets
in here that’s heartburn.
Stomach
7
• J-shaped muscular bag that stores the
food you eat, breaks it down into tiny
pieces.
• The stomach churns the food
• Mixes food with Digestive Juices that
contain enzymes to break down
Proteins and Lipids.
• Acid (HCl) in the stomach Kills Bacteria.
• Food found in the stomach is called
Chyme.
Small Intestine
• Small intestines are roughly 7 meters long
• Lining of intestine walls has finger-like
projections called villi, to increase surface
area.
• The villi are covered in microvilli which
further increases surface area for
absorption.
Small Intestine- Coiled tube like organ is 20feet long.
This is when nutrients are taken up by the body.
• Nutrients from the food pass into the
bloodstream through the small intestine
walls.
• Absorbs:
– 80% ingested water
– Vitamins
– Minerals
– Carbohydrates
– Proteins
– Lipids
• Secretes digestive enzymes
Large Intestine
• About 1.5 meters long
• Accepts what small intestines don’t
absorb
• Rectum (short term storage which
holds feces before it is expelled). Solid
waste is stored.
Large Intestine
• Functions
– Bacterial digestion
• Ferment carbohydrates
– Absorbs more water
– Concentrate wastes
Accessory Organs The Glands
• Not part of the path
of food, but play a
critical role.
• Include: Liver,
• gall bladder, and
pancreas
Liver
• Directly affects digestion by
producing bile
–Bile helps digest fat
• filters out toxins and waste
including drugs and poisons.
Gall Bladder
• Stores bile from the
liver, releases it into
the small intestine.
• Fatty diets can cause
gallstones
Pancreas
• Produces digestive
enzymes to digest
fats, carbohydrates
and proteins
• Regulates blood
sugar by producing
insulin
digestive tract -maayer.pptx
On a sheet of paper, write the name of
each colored organ:
• Green:
• Red:
• Pink:
• Brown:
• Purple:
• Dark Green:
• Yellow:
9/21/2023 18
How’d you do?
• Green: Esophagus
• Red: Stomach
• Pink: Small Intestine
• Brown: Large Intestine
• Purple: Liver
• Dark Green: Gall Bladder
• Yellow: Pancreas
Great Job!

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digestive tract -maayer.pptx

  • 2. Main function of digestive system • The main function of the digestive system is to turn the food into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, so absorbed in the blood. • This is fuel for the human body.
  • 3. Digestion • Types – Mechanical (physical) • Chew • Tear • Grind • Mash • Mix – Chemical • Enzymatic reactions to improve digestion of –Carbohydrates----------glucose –Proteins------------------amino acids –Fats------------------------fatty acids
  • 4. Digestive System Organization • Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract – Tube within a tube – Direct link/path between organs –Structures • Mouth • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Small intestine • Large Intestine • Rectum
  • 5. Mouth • Teeth mechanically break down food into small pieces. Tongue mixes food with saliva (contains amylase, which helps break down starch). It moves food to the back of the mouth and to the opening of the esophagus. • Epiglottis is a flap-like structure at the back of the throat that closes over the trachea preventing food from entering it. It is located in the Pharynx.
  • 6. Esophagus • Approximately 20 cm long. Functions include: 1.Secrete mucus 2.Moves food from the throat to the stomach using muscle movement called peristalsis (an ocean wave moving through the muscle) • If acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn.
  • 7. Stomach 7 • J-shaped muscular bag that stores the food you eat, breaks it down into tiny pieces. • The stomach churns the food • Mixes food with Digestive Juices that contain enzymes to break down Proteins and Lipids. • Acid (HCl) in the stomach Kills Bacteria. • Food found in the stomach is called Chyme.
  • 8. Small Intestine • Small intestines are roughly 7 meters long • Lining of intestine walls has finger-like projections called villi, to increase surface area. • The villi are covered in microvilli which further increases surface area for absorption.
  • 9. Small Intestine- Coiled tube like organ is 20feet long. This is when nutrients are taken up by the body. • Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls. • Absorbs: – 80% ingested water – Vitamins – Minerals – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Lipids • Secretes digestive enzymes
  • 10. Large Intestine • About 1.5 meters long • Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb • Rectum (short term storage which holds feces before it is expelled). Solid waste is stored.
  • 11. Large Intestine • Functions – Bacterial digestion • Ferment carbohydrates – Absorbs more water – Concentrate wastes
  • 12. Accessory Organs The Glands • Not part of the path of food, but play a critical role. • Include: Liver, • gall bladder, and pancreas
  • 13. Liver • Directly affects digestion by producing bile –Bile helps digest fat • filters out toxins and waste including drugs and poisons.
  • 14. Gall Bladder • Stores bile from the liver, releases it into the small intestine. • Fatty diets can cause gallstones
  • 15. Pancreas • Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats, carbohydrates and proteins • Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin
  • 17. On a sheet of paper, write the name of each colored organ: • Green: • Red: • Pink: • Brown: • Purple: • Dark Green: • Yellow:
  • 19. How’d you do? • Green: Esophagus • Red: Stomach • Pink: Small Intestine • Brown: Large Intestine • Purple: Liver • Dark Green: Gall Bladder • Yellow: Pancreas Great Job!