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INTRODUCTION TO
BIOTECHNOLOGY
Group 2
Alyzsa Aquino Alicia Maria Layo
Lianne Balanay Charmaine Loveria
Jackilyn Bello
Karen Enclona
Keith Hilamon
WHAT IS A CRIME SCENE?
The place where an offense
has been committed and
forensic evidence may be
gathered.
A car riddled
with bullets is
pictured from
October 10,
1942
Scene shots of
a man who
committed
suicide on
September 4,
1950
A detective
points to a
victim
camouflaged
in brush at a
crime scene
dated
September
28, 1942
Crime Scene Investigation
How It’s Done
Samples That May be Collected
at a Crime Scene
• biological evidence
• latent print evidence
• footwear and tire track evidence
• trace evidence
• digital evidence
• tool and tool mark evidence
• drug evidence
• firearm evidence
The type of
evidence
collected will
vary with the
type of crime.
• Photograph and document the scene
• Collect trace materials (especially
from probable points of entry)
• Collect low-level DNA evidence by
swabbing areas of likely contact
• Collect other items that may contain
biological evidence
• Locate and collect latent fingerprints
A case will be investigated by a
DETECTIVE who is responsible
for interviewing persons of
interest and victims, pursuing
leads and piecing together the
information that is developed
from the materials collected at
the scene.
Investigators can achieve four
levels of certification through
the International Association
for Identification (IAI) that
demonstrate their proficiency:
Certified Crime Scene
Investigator
Certified Crime
Scene Analyst
Certified Crime
Scene
Reconstructionist
Certified Senior
Crime Scene Analyst
How a CrimeSceneInvestigation
is Conducted
1. Establish the scene dimensions and
identify potential safety and health
hazards.
2. Establish security
3. Plan, communicate and coordinate
4. Conduct a primary survey/walkthrough
5. Document and process the scene
6. Conduct a secondary survey/review
7. Record and preserve evidence
How and Where
Tests on the
Evidence are
Conducted
The most probative evidence will be sent to
either a forensic laboratory
To help identify the evidence that is most
valuable, the crime scene personnel may
conduct initial screening tests, called
presumptive tests, at the scene.
DNA Evidence:
Basics of Analyzing
1) the isolation of the DNA
from an evidence sample
containing DNA of unknown
origin, and generally at a
later time, the isolation of
DNA from a sample (e.g.,
blood) from a known
individual;
2) the
processing of the
DNA so that test
results may be
obtained;
3) the determination of the DNA
test results (or types), from
specific regions of the DNA;
4) the comparison and
interpretation of the test results
from the unknown and known samples
to determine whether the known
individual is not the source of
the DNA or is included as a
possible source of the DNA.
Steps in DNA
Sample Processing:
Biology
Technology
Genetics
T
y
p
e
s
D
N
A
E
v
id
e
n
c
e
A
n
a
ly
s
is
Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR)
Short Tandem Repeats (STR)
Y-Chromosome
Mitochondrial DNA
enables researchers to
produce millions of copies
of a specific DNA sequence
in approximately two
hours. This automated
process bypasses the need
to use bacteria for
amplifying DNA.
Polymerase
Chain Reaction
Short Tandem Repeats (STR)
STRs are usually
considered “junk
DNA” because they
are introns and do
not code for
protein.
Mitochondrial DNA
contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for
normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these
genes provide instructions for making enzymes
involved in oxidative phosphorylation. The
remaining genes provide instructions for making
molecules called transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and
ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), which are chemical cousins
of DNA. These types of RNA help assemble protein
building blocks (amino acids) into functioning
teins.
END

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crime scene investigation

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY Group 2 Alyzsa Aquino Alicia Maria Layo Lianne Balanay Charmaine Loveria Jackilyn Bello Karen Enclona Keith Hilamon
  • 2. WHAT IS A CRIME SCENE? The place where an offense has been committed and forensic evidence may be gathered.
  • 3. A car riddled with bullets is pictured from October 10, 1942
  • 4. Scene shots of a man who committed suicide on September 4, 1950
  • 5. A detective points to a victim camouflaged in brush at a crime scene dated September 28, 1942
  • 6. Crime Scene Investigation How It’s Done Samples That May be Collected at a Crime Scene
  • 7. • biological evidence • latent print evidence • footwear and tire track evidence • trace evidence • digital evidence • tool and tool mark evidence • drug evidence • firearm evidence
  • 8. The type of evidence collected will vary with the type of crime.
  • 9. • Photograph and document the scene • Collect trace materials (especially from probable points of entry) • Collect low-level DNA evidence by swabbing areas of likely contact • Collect other items that may contain biological evidence • Locate and collect latent fingerprints
  • 10. A case will be investigated by a DETECTIVE who is responsible for interviewing persons of interest and victims, pursuing leads and piecing together the information that is developed from the materials collected at the scene.
  • 11. Investigators can achieve four levels of certification through the International Association for Identification (IAI) that demonstrate their proficiency: Certified Crime Scene Investigator
  • 12. Certified Crime Scene Analyst Certified Crime Scene Reconstructionist Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst
  • 14. 1. Establish the scene dimensions and identify potential safety and health hazards. 2. Establish security 3. Plan, communicate and coordinate 4. Conduct a primary survey/walkthrough 5. Document and process the scene 6. Conduct a secondary survey/review 7. Record and preserve evidence
  • 15. How and Where Tests on the Evidence are Conducted
  • 16. The most probative evidence will be sent to either a forensic laboratory To help identify the evidence that is most valuable, the crime scene personnel may conduct initial screening tests, called presumptive tests, at the scene.
  • 18. 1) the isolation of the DNA from an evidence sample containing DNA of unknown origin, and generally at a later time, the isolation of DNA from a sample (e.g., blood) from a known individual;
  • 19. 2) the processing of the DNA so that test results may be obtained;
  • 20. 3) the determination of the DNA test results (or types), from specific regions of the DNA; 4) the comparison and interpretation of the test results from the unknown and known samples to determine whether the known individual is not the source of the DNA or is included as a possible source of the DNA.
  • 21. Steps in DNA Sample Processing: Biology Technology Genetics
  • 23. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Short Tandem Repeats (STR) Y-Chromosome Mitochondrial DNA
  • 24. enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in approximately two hours. This automated process bypasses the need to use bacteria for amplifying DNA. Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • 25. Short Tandem Repeats (STR) STRs are usually considered “junk DNA” because they are introns and do not code for protein.
  • 26. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. The remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules called transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), which are chemical cousins of DNA. These types of RNA help assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning teins.
  • 27.
  • 28. END