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Croeso | Welcome to
ABS A Level Business
Lecture Series
Pricing
• Content to support Level 3 Business
Qualifications
• Dr Julie Abbott – jum1@aber.ac.uk
Learning Outcomes
• Understand the terms and approaches around
pricing and different pricing strategies
• Understand cost bases in business
Some Dictionary Definitions…
Price
•The amount of money expected, required or given in payment for something; something
expended or endured in order to achieve an objective.
Quality
•The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind
Value
•The regard that something is held to deserve; importance or worth; material or monetary
worth; the worth of something compared to its price: at £12.50 the book is good value
Some Dictionary Definitions…
Price
•The amount of money expected, required or given in payment for something; something
expended or endured in order to achieve an objective.
Quality
•The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind
Value
•The regard that something is held to deserve; importance or worth; material or monetary
worth; the worth of something compared to its price: at £12.50 the book is good value
What we get for what we pay
Standards to which a product or
service performs as a need-satisfier.
The amount the customer has to pay
or exchange to receive a good or a
service.
Fixed vs Variable Costs
• Fixed Costs
– The expenditure incurred on the factors such as
capital, equipment, plant, factory building which remain
fixed in the short term and cannot be changed.
– Fixed costs are independent of output in the short-term
(i.e. even if no output is produced in the short-term
these costs will remain the same)
Fixed vs Variable Costs
• Variable Costs
– Costs incurred by the firms on the employment of
variable factors such as labour, raw materials etc.,
whose amount can be easily increased or decreased
in the short-term
– Variable costs vary with the level of output in the short-
term
– If the firm decided not to produce any output, variable
costs would not be incurred
Examples
Different Approaches to Pricing
• Cost-based approach
– the original theory
– most important element is the cost of the component
resources.
• Competition-based approaches
– ‘going rate’
• Value-based approaches
– set on buyer’s perceptions of attribute value.
This is content that we test in
the…
• Aberystwyth University Entrance Exam
• Successfully complete an exam (there are
multiple points in the year and you can take it in
the subject you are best at) and earn yourself an
unconditional or reduced offer for the Business
School
– More details here (use short link):
https://www.aber.ac.uk/en/undergrad/before-you-
apply/scholarships/entrance-scholarships-merit-
awards/
Pricing Policies
• List pricing
– an unsophisticated approach to pricing where a single price is set
for a product or service.
• Loss-leader pricing
– occurs where the price is set at a level lower than the actual cost
incurred to produce it.
• Promotional pricing
– occurs when companies temporarily reduce their prices below the
standard price for a period of time to raise awareness of the
product or service to encourage trial, and raise brand awareness
in the short term.
Pricing Policies cont.
• Segmentation pricing
– where varying prices are set for different groups of
customers, e.g. Unilever’s ice cream is offered as
various different ice cream products at differing levels
of quality and price ranging from their super premium
(e.g. Ben & Jerry’s ice cream available in video shops,
cinemas, and elsewhere) to economy offerings (e.g.
standard low-priced vanilla ice cream available in
supermarkets).
Pricing Policies cont.
• Customer-centric pricing
– Cross and Dixit (2005) suggest that companies can
take advantage of customer segments by measuring
their value perceptions, measuring the value created,
and designing a unique bundle of products and
services to cater to the value requirements of each
segment, and continually assess the impact this has
on company profitability, taking advantage of up-
selling.
New Product Pricing Strategies
Market Skimming Pricing – Higher price
initially to recoup R&D costs
Innovative new product + few competitors +
‘innovative’ market segment:
– set high price early in product life-cycle
– set lower price later (to a wider market, when rivals
have imitated the product)
New Product Pricing Strategies
Market Penetration Pricing – Lower price
to generate sales
• Easily-imitated new product + a potential mass
market:
• Set low price early in product life-cycle (to win
high market share & lower costs via economies
of scale) match rivals price later
Summary
• This lecture has enabled you to:
– Understand the terms and approaches around
pricing and different pricing strategies
– Understand cost bases in business
Diolch | Thank you

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Chapter 1 Schools-Marketing-JA-Price.ppt

  • 1. Croeso | Welcome to ABS A Level Business Lecture Series
  • 2. Pricing • Content to support Level 3 Business Qualifications • Dr Julie Abbott – jum1@aber.ac.uk
  • 3. Learning Outcomes • Understand the terms and approaches around pricing and different pricing strategies • Understand cost bases in business
  • 4. Some Dictionary Definitions… Price •The amount of money expected, required or given in payment for something; something expended or endured in order to achieve an objective. Quality •The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind Value •The regard that something is held to deserve; importance or worth; material or monetary worth; the worth of something compared to its price: at £12.50 the book is good value
  • 5. Some Dictionary Definitions… Price •The amount of money expected, required or given in payment for something; something expended or endured in order to achieve an objective. Quality •The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind Value •The regard that something is held to deserve; importance or worth; material or monetary worth; the worth of something compared to its price: at £12.50 the book is good value What we get for what we pay Standards to which a product or service performs as a need-satisfier. The amount the customer has to pay or exchange to receive a good or a service.
  • 6. Fixed vs Variable Costs • Fixed Costs – The expenditure incurred on the factors such as capital, equipment, plant, factory building which remain fixed in the short term and cannot be changed. – Fixed costs are independent of output in the short-term (i.e. even if no output is produced in the short-term these costs will remain the same)
  • 7. Fixed vs Variable Costs • Variable Costs – Costs incurred by the firms on the employment of variable factors such as labour, raw materials etc., whose amount can be easily increased or decreased in the short-term – Variable costs vary with the level of output in the short- term – If the firm decided not to produce any output, variable costs would not be incurred
  • 9. Different Approaches to Pricing • Cost-based approach – the original theory – most important element is the cost of the component resources. • Competition-based approaches – ‘going rate’ • Value-based approaches – set on buyer’s perceptions of attribute value.
  • 10. This is content that we test in the… • Aberystwyth University Entrance Exam • Successfully complete an exam (there are multiple points in the year and you can take it in the subject you are best at) and earn yourself an unconditional or reduced offer for the Business School – More details here (use short link): https://www.aber.ac.uk/en/undergrad/before-you- apply/scholarships/entrance-scholarships-merit- awards/
  • 11. Pricing Policies • List pricing – an unsophisticated approach to pricing where a single price is set for a product or service. • Loss-leader pricing – occurs where the price is set at a level lower than the actual cost incurred to produce it. • Promotional pricing – occurs when companies temporarily reduce their prices below the standard price for a period of time to raise awareness of the product or service to encourage trial, and raise brand awareness in the short term.
  • 12. Pricing Policies cont. • Segmentation pricing – where varying prices are set for different groups of customers, e.g. Unilever’s ice cream is offered as various different ice cream products at differing levels of quality and price ranging from their super premium (e.g. Ben & Jerry’s ice cream available in video shops, cinemas, and elsewhere) to economy offerings (e.g. standard low-priced vanilla ice cream available in supermarkets).
  • 13. Pricing Policies cont. • Customer-centric pricing – Cross and Dixit (2005) suggest that companies can take advantage of customer segments by measuring their value perceptions, measuring the value created, and designing a unique bundle of products and services to cater to the value requirements of each segment, and continually assess the impact this has on company profitability, taking advantage of up- selling.
  • 14. New Product Pricing Strategies Market Skimming Pricing – Higher price initially to recoup R&D costs Innovative new product + few competitors + ‘innovative’ market segment: – set high price early in product life-cycle – set lower price later (to a wider market, when rivals have imitated the product)
  • 15. New Product Pricing Strategies Market Penetration Pricing – Lower price to generate sales • Easily-imitated new product + a potential mass market: • Set low price early in product life-cycle (to win high market share & lower costs via economies of scale) match rivals price later
  • 16. Summary • This lecture has enabled you to: – Understand the terms and approaches around pricing and different pricing strategies – Understand cost bases in business

Editor's Notes

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  2. Based on McCarthy’s 4 P’s or the marketing mix.
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  14. Use skimming for: When companies need to recover their research and development quickly When demand is likely to be price-inelastic Where there is an unknown elasticity of demand as it is safer to offer a higher price then lower it, than offer a lower price and try to increase it Where there are high barriers to entry within the market Where product lifecycles are expected to be short s
  15. Use penetration pricing for: When there is a strong threat of competition When our product/service is likely to exhibit a high price elasticity of demand in the short-term Where there are substantial savings to be made from volume production Where there are low barriers to entry Where product lifecycles are expected to be long Where there are economies of scale and experience to take advantage of
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