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N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
WELCOME TO DISTANCE E-LEARNING
PROGRAMME LAUNCHED BY AEES ,
MUMBAI
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
Content
1.Meaning and Types of business firm
2.Economic events
3.Definition of accounting and concept
4. 0bjectives of accounting information
5.Advantages and limitations of accounting information
6.Types of accounting information
7.Users of accounting information and their needs
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
Let as know first Where the accounting information is used ?
It is used in Profit Trading and not-for- Profit Trading organisation.
Meaning of business
Exchange of goods and services between person to person and from place to
place with money value is known as business.
Definition of business
Business refers to those economic activities, which are connected with the
production or purchase and sale of goods and services with main object of
earning profit
Types of business firm
Business firm can be classified in to two.
i)Profit Trading organisation: It is established only to earn profit.
Ex: Sole Proprietor ship , Partner ship firm, Joint Hindu family business ,
Co operative societies , Company
ii)Not-for- Profit Trading organisation: These organisations are established
only to do welfare oriented services, not to earn profit
Ex: Hospitals , charitable trust, Educational Institution, libraries etc.
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
What is mean by economic events ?
It consists of transactions and which are measurable in terms of money
For example
i) Purchase of Machinery and bringing it through transport and installing,
keeping it for manufacturing all this activities comprises number of
financial transaction
ii) Sale of product to customers
iii)Rendering service to customers
iv)Purchase of material from suppliers
v)Payment of office rent to land lord
Based on above activities departments are made
For example
Accounts &Finance , Purchases, stores, marketing , Advertisement .
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
The American Accounting Association Defined accounting
as “the process of Identifying , measuring and
communicating economic information to permit informed
judgements and decisions by users of information.
i)Identification
It means determining the transaction which are considered
financial character and relate to the organisation
For example purchase, sales on cash as well as on credit,
payment of wages and salaries are recorded because it is
related to financial character
For example. value of human resource, change in
managerial policies, appointment of personal are not
recorded in the books of account
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
ii)Measurement ( Measuring the quantity of product and its value in terms of money)
Measurement means quantification (including estimates) of business unit
For example
Rupees and Paisa as a measuring unit. if any event cannot be quantified in monitory terms it is not
considered for recording in financial transaction
For example
Purchase of machinery, goods on cash or on credit it is related to money. It can be recorded in the
books of accounts.
Appointment of a new managing director, signing of contract agreement , transfer of employees are
not shown in the books of accounts.
iii)Recording ( Accounting Information's are recorded in a separate book )
Once economic events are identified and measured in terms of money in chronological
order . After recording it should be summarised as per well established practice and is
made available as and when required.
For example
journal, ledger, trial balance , final account.
iv)Communication ( Accounting information's are communicated to users)
After the generation of accounting information it should be communicated to
Management, Internal users, External users, through proper accounting report to right
person in time
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
1.To provide useful information to interested group of users , both
external and internal
2. To maintenance of records of business transactions because no
one can remember numerous amount of various transactions
such as purchase, sales, receipts, payments etc.
3.To ascertain the profit and loss of the enter prise
4 Preparation of the financial statement also aims at ascertaining
the financial position of the business concern in the form of its
assets and liabilities at the end of every accounting period.
5.To Provide financial management to the management which help
in decision making budgeting and fore casting
6. To prevent frauds by maintaining regular and systematic
accounting records
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
Advantages
1.It helps to maintain the business records in a systematic manner.
2.It helps in the preparation of financial statements
3.It helps to compare the result of current year with previous years to analyse the changes
4. It helps the managers in the decision making process for future course of action.
Disadvantages
1.Loss of data or service when business firm is reliant on accounting software, any loss of
service due to power failure also possible.
2. It contain only those information's which can be expressed in terms of money. It
ignore qualitative elements such as efficiency of management , quality of staff ,
customer satisfaction
3. System configuration may trouble in between while working on computer
4. It may be affected by window dressing Manipulation and falsification of accounts are
possible
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
Accounting information can be categorised in to the following:
1.Information related to profit & loss i.e., income statement , shows the net profit of
business operations of a firm during a particular accounting period .
Expenses /Losses Rs Incomes/Gains Rs
To Salaries 30000 By Gross profit 100000
To Electricity charges 5000
To Balance c/d 65000
100000 100000
By balance b/d 65000
Profit & Loss account Cr
Dr
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
2. Information relating to financial position i.e., Balance sheet . It shows
assets on one side and capital & liabilities on the other side
Balance Sheet
Liabilities Rs Assets Rs
Share capital 500000 Plant & Machinery 450000
Long term loan 100000 Debtors 50000
Current liabilities 50000 Cash in hand 150000
650000 650000
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
Branches of Accounting
1. Financial Accounting: It records the transactions related to
financial nature in a systematic manner to ascertain profit (or
)loss of the accounting period
2. Cost Accounting : which is concerned with ascertainment of
total cost and per unit cost of goods or services produced or
provided by the business firm.
3. Management Accounting : which is presenting the
accounting information in such a manner that helps the
management in planning and controlling the operation of a
business and in better decision making.
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
Users Classification Information the user want
Internal 1. Owner Return on investment, financial
position of their company
2. Management To evaluate the performance to
take various decisions.
3. Employees Profitability to claim higher
wages and bonus , and also to see
whether the firm able to
(PF, ESI ,etc ) deposit regularly.
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce
Users Classification Information the user want
External 1.Investors and
potential
investors
To know about safety , growth of
investments and future benefits
2. Creditor Assessing the financial capability, ability
of the business to pay its debts.
3. Lenders Repaying capacity , credit worthiness.
4. Tax
Authorities
Assessment of due taxes, true and fair
disclosure of accounting information
5.Government To compile national income and other
information . It helps to take policy
decision
6. Others Customers , researchers etc, may seek
different information and different
reasons.
N. Paranjothi
PGT
(SS)Commerce

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20200909-XI-Accountancy-Introduction of Accounting-1 of 2-Ppt.pptx

  • 1. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce WELCOME TO DISTANCE E-LEARNING PROGRAMME LAUNCHED BY AEES , MUMBAI
  • 2. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce Content 1.Meaning and Types of business firm 2.Economic events 3.Definition of accounting and concept 4. 0bjectives of accounting information 5.Advantages and limitations of accounting information 6.Types of accounting information 7.Users of accounting information and their needs
  • 3. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce Let as know first Where the accounting information is used ? It is used in Profit Trading and not-for- Profit Trading organisation. Meaning of business Exchange of goods and services between person to person and from place to place with money value is known as business. Definition of business Business refers to those economic activities, which are connected with the production or purchase and sale of goods and services with main object of earning profit Types of business firm Business firm can be classified in to two. i)Profit Trading organisation: It is established only to earn profit. Ex: Sole Proprietor ship , Partner ship firm, Joint Hindu family business , Co operative societies , Company ii)Not-for- Profit Trading organisation: These organisations are established only to do welfare oriented services, not to earn profit Ex: Hospitals , charitable trust, Educational Institution, libraries etc.
  • 4. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce What is mean by economic events ? It consists of transactions and which are measurable in terms of money For example i) Purchase of Machinery and bringing it through transport and installing, keeping it for manufacturing all this activities comprises number of financial transaction ii) Sale of product to customers iii)Rendering service to customers iv)Purchase of material from suppliers v)Payment of office rent to land lord Based on above activities departments are made For example Accounts &Finance , Purchases, stores, marketing , Advertisement .
  • 5. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce The American Accounting Association Defined accounting as “the process of Identifying , measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of information. i)Identification It means determining the transaction which are considered financial character and relate to the organisation For example purchase, sales on cash as well as on credit, payment of wages and salaries are recorded because it is related to financial character For example. value of human resource, change in managerial policies, appointment of personal are not recorded in the books of account
  • 6. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce ii)Measurement ( Measuring the quantity of product and its value in terms of money) Measurement means quantification (including estimates) of business unit For example Rupees and Paisa as a measuring unit. if any event cannot be quantified in monitory terms it is not considered for recording in financial transaction For example Purchase of machinery, goods on cash or on credit it is related to money. It can be recorded in the books of accounts. Appointment of a new managing director, signing of contract agreement , transfer of employees are not shown in the books of accounts. iii)Recording ( Accounting Information's are recorded in a separate book ) Once economic events are identified and measured in terms of money in chronological order . After recording it should be summarised as per well established practice and is made available as and when required. For example journal, ledger, trial balance , final account. iv)Communication ( Accounting information's are communicated to users) After the generation of accounting information it should be communicated to Management, Internal users, External users, through proper accounting report to right person in time
  • 7. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce 1.To provide useful information to interested group of users , both external and internal 2. To maintenance of records of business transactions because no one can remember numerous amount of various transactions such as purchase, sales, receipts, payments etc. 3.To ascertain the profit and loss of the enter prise 4 Preparation of the financial statement also aims at ascertaining the financial position of the business concern in the form of its assets and liabilities at the end of every accounting period. 5.To Provide financial management to the management which help in decision making budgeting and fore casting 6. To prevent frauds by maintaining regular and systematic accounting records
  • 8. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce Advantages 1.It helps to maintain the business records in a systematic manner. 2.It helps in the preparation of financial statements 3.It helps to compare the result of current year with previous years to analyse the changes 4. It helps the managers in the decision making process for future course of action. Disadvantages 1.Loss of data or service when business firm is reliant on accounting software, any loss of service due to power failure also possible. 2. It contain only those information's which can be expressed in terms of money. It ignore qualitative elements such as efficiency of management , quality of staff , customer satisfaction 3. System configuration may trouble in between while working on computer 4. It may be affected by window dressing Manipulation and falsification of accounts are possible
  • 9. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce Accounting information can be categorised in to the following: 1.Information related to profit & loss i.e., income statement , shows the net profit of business operations of a firm during a particular accounting period . Expenses /Losses Rs Incomes/Gains Rs To Salaries 30000 By Gross profit 100000 To Electricity charges 5000 To Balance c/d 65000 100000 100000 By balance b/d 65000 Profit & Loss account Cr Dr
  • 10. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce 2. Information relating to financial position i.e., Balance sheet . It shows assets on one side and capital & liabilities on the other side Balance Sheet Liabilities Rs Assets Rs Share capital 500000 Plant & Machinery 450000 Long term loan 100000 Debtors 50000 Current liabilities 50000 Cash in hand 150000 650000 650000
  • 11. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce Branches of Accounting 1. Financial Accounting: It records the transactions related to financial nature in a systematic manner to ascertain profit (or )loss of the accounting period 2. Cost Accounting : which is concerned with ascertainment of total cost and per unit cost of goods or services produced or provided by the business firm. 3. Management Accounting : which is presenting the accounting information in such a manner that helps the management in planning and controlling the operation of a business and in better decision making.
  • 12. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce Users Classification Information the user want Internal 1. Owner Return on investment, financial position of their company 2. Management To evaluate the performance to take various decisions. 3. Employees Profitability to claim higher wages and bonus , and also to see whether the firm able to (PF, ESI ,etc ) deposit regularly.
  • 13. N. Paranjothi PGT (SS)Commerce Users Classification Information the user want External 1.Investors and potential investors To know about safety , growth of investments and future benefits 2. Creditor Assessing the financial capability, ability of the business to pay its debts. 3. Lenders Repaying capacity , credit worthiness. 4. Tax Authorities Assessment of due taxes, true and fair disclosure of accounting information 5.Government To compile national income and other information . It helps to take policy decision 6. Others Customers , researchers etc, may seek different information and different reasons.