SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Catalytic reforming
• Reforming is a process carried out to raise the
octane number to a level required for high octane
motor gasoline. Such octane number boost up is
achieved mainly by the conversion of non
aromatics into aromatic components through the
process of reforming.
• Catalytic reforming is conducted in the presence
of H2 over catalyst. Catalytic reforming helps to
get reformate with octane number of 90 -95
Catalyst for reforming
• Dual function catalyst, metal function, platinum,
promote dehydrogenation and hydrogenation
reaction.
• Acidic sites required for isomerization,
dehydrocyclization, is produced by silica –
alumina.
• Monometallic reforming catalyst- Platinum
• Bimetallic catalyst – Pt-Rh (Rh improve stability of
reforming catalyst)
• Mono metallic catalyst usually contain platinum in the
range 0.25 to 0.8% by weight.
• Pt above this level cause naphthenic rings to open and
demethylation to occur while at Pt less than 0.25% wt the
catalyst become less resistant to the attack of poison.
• Bi metallic catalyst, the Pt requirement has comedown
heavily to the range 0.2 to 0.4% by wt.
• The acid activity is obtained by incorporating halogens or
silica in the alumina base.
• Majority of the catalyst make use of chlorine in the range
0.8 to 1.2% by weight.
Advantage of bimetallic catalysts
• 1. High stable liquid yield
• 2. Higher octane C5 components
• 3. Increased Hydrogen production
• 4. Operation at low pressure
• 5. Operation at low Hydrogen to feed ratio
• 6. Long run between regeneration
• 7. Good temp stability
CCR-continuous catalytic reforming
• Instead of arranging the reactors side by side as
in conventional reformer, they are stacked one on
top of the other to make catalyst flow easier.
•
• In the actual process, the freshly regenerated
catalyst flows by gravity from top to the first
reactor, then to the second and so on until it
reaches the bottom of the reactor.
• The coked catalyst is then lifted to the
regeneration system to burn off the carbon.
• Thus in the CCR techniques, the activity of the
catalyst remain close to that of the fresh one
at all time giving a constant quality reformate
and H2 rich excess gas at high yield.
• Max reformate yield
• Low pre operation
• Low recycle gas rate
• Catalyst requirement is Min
• Min pre drop
Modified Claus Process
• Figure shows the configuration of the multi-step
Modified Claus Process that includes two kinds of
reactors: a burner reactor and a converter reactor.
• In the burner reactor, H2S is burned with compressed air to SO2 and
H2O.
• Two critically important variables of the burner reactor are the
oxygen to H2S ratio and the reactor temperature. The O2/H2S ratio
needs to be one-third of the stoichiometric ratio for complete
combustion of H2S.
• The temperature in the burner reactor must be maintained typically
at 1850°F to make sure that any ammonia present in the feed gas is
completely destroyed to protect the catalysts in the converter
reactor. The effluent gas from the burner reactor is cooled to 450°F
(above the dew point of S) in the waste heat boiler as it enters the
converter reactor for catalytic conversion of H2S and SO2 to
elemental sulfur and water.
• The converter effluent is introduced into a condenser unit to obtain
elemental sulfur as a liquid product. Small quantities of S produced
in the burner reactor may also be recovered after the waste heat
boiler. Typically, three sets of converter-condenser units in series
are needed to achieve 95% recovery of S in the Modified Claus
Process.
• In the burner, H2S is partially oxidized to produce H2O
and SO2.
• In the reactor converter, the burner product SO2 reacts
with the remaining H2S to produce elemental sulfur
(the intended product in the sulfur recovery process)
along with the side product water. Ideally, the final
products should consist only of elemental sulfur and
water with no H2S or SO2 present.
• The side reactions in the burner produce COS and
CS2 which cannot be converted in the catalytic
reactions that take place in the converter reactor.
Therefore, a tail gas clean-up process, or SCOT Process,
is needed to reduce the concentration of these side
products to less than 20 ppm by volume in the outlet.
Chemical reactions in modified claus
process

More Related Content

Similar to Catalytic reforming.pptx

Petroleum 8
Petroleum 8Petroleum 8
Petroleum 8
translateds
 
CATALYTIC REFORMING
CATALYTIC REFORMINGCATALYTIC REFORMING
CATALYTIC REFORMING
translateds
 
Chapter 5a -_cracking
Chapter 5a -_crackingChapter 5a -_cracking
Chapter 5a -_cracking
Helena Francis
 
CATALYTIC ALKYLATION
CATALYTIC ALKYLATIONCATALYTIC ALKYLATION
CATALYTIC ALKYLATION
translateds
 
Hydrocracking basic reactions and processes
Hydrocracking basic reactions and processesHydrocracking basic reactions and processes
Hydrocracking basic reactions and processes
vishnup11
 
Coal liquefaction
Coal liquefactionCoal liquefaction
Coal liquefaction
Diponegoro University
 
IEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi gg
IEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi ggIEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi gg
IEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi gg
Harrypotter333055
 
KRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptx
KRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptxKRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptx
KRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptx
adityaraaj1
 
Manufacture of Hydrogen.pdf
Manufacture of Hydrogen.pdfManufacture of Hydrogen.pdf
Manufacture of Hydrogen.pdf
DiwasGhimire4
 
PRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPL
PRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPLPRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPL
PRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPL
Ankit Devatwal
 
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillationFractional distillation
Fractional distillation
Preethu Sreeprakash
 
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillationFractional distillation
Fractional distillation
Preethu Sreeprakash
 
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillationFractional distillation
Fractional distillation
Preethu Sreeprakash
 
Oil Refinery
Oil Refinery Oil Refinery
Oil Refinery
kifayat shahani
 
refiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdf
refiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdfrefiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdf
refiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdf
AJAYKUMAR801605
 
unit 4.pdf
unit 4.pdfunit 4.pdf
unit 4.pdf
WondererBack
 
emissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdf
emissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdfemissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdf
emissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdf
WondererBack
 
Chapter 5b -_cracking_ffcu
Chapter 5b -_cracking_ffcuChapter 5b -_cracking_ffcu
Chapter 5b -_cracking_ffcu
Helena Francis
 
IC engine emission and control of the emissions
IC engine emission and control of the emissionsIC engine emission and control of the emissions
IC engine emission and control of the emissions
Dr.Ramachandran Thulasiram
 
02 petrochemical processes
02 petrochemical processes02 petrochemical processes
02 petrochemical processes
Naveen Choudhary
 

Similar to Catalytic reforming.pptx (20)

Petroleum 8
Petroleum 8Petroleum 8
Petroleum 8
 
CATALYTIC REFORMING
CATALYTIC REFORMINGCATALYTIC REFORMING
CATALYTIC REFORMING
 
Chapter 5a -_cracking
Chapter 5a -_crackingChapter 5a -_cracking
Chapter 5a -_cracking
 
CATALYTIC ALKYLATION
CATALYTIC ALKYLATIONCATALYTIC ALKYLATION
CATALYTIC ALKYLATION
 
Hydrocracking basic reactions and processes
Hydrocracking basic reactions and processesHydrocracking basic reactions and processes
Hydrocracking basic reactions and processes
 
Coal liquefaction
Coal liquefactionCoal liquefaction
Coal liquefaction
 
IEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi gg
IEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi ggIEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi gg
IEC final presentation ceremony xfb nahi gg
 
KRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptx
KRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptxKRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptx
KRISHNA(200103040)_IR_PPT.pptx
 
Manufacture of Hydrogen.pdf
Manufacture of Hydrogen.pdfManufacture of Hydrogen.pdf
Manufacture of Hydrogen.pdf
 
PRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPL
PRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPLPRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPL
PRESENTATION ON INPLANT TRAINING AT MRPL
 
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillationFractional distillation
Fractional distillation
 
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillationFractional distillation
Fractional distillation
 
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillationFractional distillation
Fractional distillation
 
Oil Refinery
Oil Refinery Oil Refinery
Oil Refinery
 
refiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdf
refiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdfrefiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdf
refiningofpetroleum-171227084209.pdf
 
unit 4.pdf
unit 4.pdfunit 4.pdf
unit 4.pdf
 
emissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdf
emissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdfemissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdf
emissions-feb2016-160722103546.pdf
 
Chapter 5b -_cracking_ffcu
Chapter 5b -_cracking_ffcuChapter 5b -_cracking_ffcu
Chapter 5b -_cracking_ffcu
 
IC engine emission and control of the emissions
IC engine emission and control of the emissionsIC engine emission and control of the emissions
IC engine emission and control of the emissions
 
02 petrochemical processes
02 petrochemical processes02 petrochemical processes
02 petrochemical processes
 

Recently uploaded

Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diplomaBuy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
College diploma
 
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdfRed Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdf
mdfkobir
 
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptxOME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
shanmugamram247
 
The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air
The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The AirThe Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air
The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air
Ashraf Ismail
 
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
How to Formulate A  Good Research QuestionHow to Formulate A  Good Research Question
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
rkpv2002
 
Technical Seminar of Mca computer vision .ppt
Technical Seminar of Mca computer vision .pptTechnical Seminar of Mca computer vision .ppt
Technical Seminar of Mca computer vision .ppt
AnkitaVerma776806
 
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...
Fady M. A Hassouna
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
T.D. Shashikala
 
the potential for the development of autonomous aircraft
the potential for the development of autonomous aircraftthe potential for the development of autonomous aircraft
the potential for the development of autonomous aircraft
huseindihon
 
DPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS
DPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYSDPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS
DPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS
RyanMacayan
 
Indian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdf
Indian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdfIndian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdf
Indian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdf
princeshah76
 
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Robert Pyke
 
1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf
1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf
1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf
AsiimweJulius2
 
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentationDisaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
RajaRamannaTarigoppu
 
Presentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptx
Presentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptxPresentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptx
Presentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptx
Er. Kushal Ghimire
 
The world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptx
The world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptxThe world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptx
The world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptx
engrasjadshahzad
 
charting the development of the autonomous train
charting the development of the autonomous traincharting the development of the autonomous train
charting the development of the autonomous train
huseindihon
 
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
idelewebmestre
 
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdfRed Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf
mdfkobir
 
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Robert Pyke
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diplomaBuy a fake University of Washington diploma
Buy a fake University of Washington diploma
 
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdfRed Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH124 pdf
 
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptxOME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx
 
The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air
The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The AirThe Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air
The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air
 
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
How to Formulate A  Good Research QuestionHow to Formulate A  Good Research Question
How to Formulate A Good Research Question
 
Technical Seminar of Mca computer vision .ppt
Technical Seminar of Mca computer vision .pptTechnical Seminar of Mca computer vision .ppt
Technical Seminar of Mca computer vision .ppt
 
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT IN ...
 
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdfAdv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
Adv. Digital Signal Processing LAB MANUAL.pdf
 
the potential for the development of autonomous aircraft
the potential for the development of autonomous aircraftthe potential for the development of autonomous aircraft
the potential for the development of autonomous aircraft
 
DPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS
DPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYSDPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS
DPWH - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS
 
Indian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdf
Indian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdfIndian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdf
Indian Railway Signalling concepts and basics.pdf
 
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
 
1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf
1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf
1. DEE 1203 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DRAWING.pdf
 
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentationDisaster Management and Mitigation presentation
Disaster Management and Mitigation presentation
 
Presentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptx
Presentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptxPresentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptx
Presentation slide on DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE CONTROLLED DRAINAGE.pptx
 
The world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptx
The world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptxThe world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptx
The world of Technology Management MEM 814.pptx
 
charting the development of the autonomous train
charting the development of the autonomous traincharting the development of the autonomous train
charting the development of the autonomous train
 
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagneEAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne
 
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdfRed Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf
 
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...
 

Catalytic reforming.pptx

  • 1. Catalytic reforming • Reforming is a process carried out to raise the octane number to a level required for high octane motor gasoline. Such octane number boost up is achieved mainly by the conversion of non aromatics into aromatic components through the process of reforming. • Catalytic reforming is conducted in the presence of H2 over catalyst. Catalytic reforming helps to get reformate with octane number of 90 -95
  • 2. Catalyst for reforming • Dual function catalyst, metal function, platinum, promote dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reaction. • Acidic sites required for isomerization, dehydrocyclization, is produced by silica – alumina. • Monometallic reforming catalyst- Platinum • Bimetallic catalyst – Pt-Rh (Rh improve stability of reforming catalyst)
  • 3. • Mono metallic catalyst usually contain platinum in the range 0.25 to 0.8% by weight. • Pt above this level cause naphthenic rings to open and demethylation to occur while at Pt less than 0.25% wt the catalyst become less resistant to the attack of poison. • Bi metallic catalyst, the Pt requirement has comedown heavily to the range 0.2 to 0.4% by wt. • The acid activity is obtained by incorporating halogens or silica in the alumina base. • Majority of the catalyst make use of chlorine in the range 0.8 to 1.2% by weight.
  • 4. Advantage of bimetallic catalysts • 1. High stable liquid yield • 2. Higher octane C5 components • 3. Increased Hydrogen production • 4. Operation at low pressure • 5. Operation at low Hydrogen to feed ratio • 6. Long run between regeneration • 7. Good temp stability
  • 6. • Instead of arranging the reactors side by side as in conventional reformer, they are stacked one on top of the other to make catalyst flow easier. • • In the actual process, the freshly regenerated catalyst flows by gravity from top to the first reactor, then to the second and so on until it reaches the bottom of the reactor. • The coked catalyst is then lifted to the regeneration system to burn off the carbon.
  • 7. • Thus in the CCR techniques, the activity of the catalyst remain close to that of the fresh one at all time giving a constant quality reformate and H2 rich excess gas at high yield. • Max reformate yield • Low pre operation • Low recycle gas rate • Catalyst requirement is Min • Min pre drop
  • 8. Modified Claus Process • Figure shows the configuration of the multi-step Modified Claus Process that includes two kinds of reactors: a burner reactor and a converter reactor.
  • 9. • In the burner reactor, H2S is burned with compressed air to SO2 and H2O. • Two critically important variables of the burner reactor are the oxygen to H2S ratio and the reactor temperature. The O2/H2S ratio needs to be one-third of the stoichiometric ratio for complete combustion of H2S. • The temperature in the burner reactor must be maintained typically at 1850°F to make sure that any ammonia present in the feed gas is completely destroyed to protect the catalysts in the converter reactor. The effluent gas from the burner reactor is cooled to 450°F (above the dew point of S) in the waste heat boiler as it enters the converter reactor for catalytic conversion of H2S and SO2 to elemental sulfur and water. • The converter effluent is introduced into a condenser unit to obtain elemental sulfur as a liquid product. Small quantities of S produced in the burner reactor may also be recovered after the waste heat boiler. Typically, three sets of converter-condenser units in series are needed to achieve 95% recovery of S in the Modified Claus Process.
  • 10. • In the burner, H2S is partially oxidized to produce H2O and SO2. • In the reactor converter, the burner product SO2 reacts with the remaining H2S to produce elemental sulfur (the intended product in the sulfur recovery process) along with the side product water. Ideally, the final products should consist only of elemental sulfur and water with no H2S or SO2 present. • The side reactions in the burner produce COS and CS2 which cannot be converted in the catalytic reactions that take place in the converter reactor. Therefore, a tail gas clean-up process, or SCOT Process, is needed to reduce the concentration of these side products to less than 20 ppm by volume in the outlet.
  • 11. Chemical reactions in modified claus process