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D
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Bread and Pastry
Production
Manual
Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines
We value your feedback and recommendations.
This learning resource was collaboratively developed and
reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or
universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to
email their feedback, comments and recommendations to the
Department of Education at action@deped.gov.ph.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016.
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ii
Bread and Pastry – Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Track
Manual
First Edition 2016
Republic Act 8293. Section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work
of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or
office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.
Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of
royalties.
Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,
Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS
and only within the agreed framework may copy from this Manual. Those who have not
entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and
authors directly.
Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02)
435-5258, respectively.
Published by the Department of Education
Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC
Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD
Printed in the Philippines by Sunshine Interlinks Publishing House, Inc.
3F Maine City Tower, 236 Tomas Morato Avenue,
Brgy. South Triangle, Quezon City
Development Team of the Bread and Pastry Production Manual
Management Team of the Bread and Pastry Production Manual
Bureau of Curriculum Development
Bureau of Learning Resources
Department of Education-Bureau of Learning Resources (DepEd-BLR)
Office Address: Ground Floor Bonifacio Building, DepEd Complex
Meralco Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines 1600
Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072, 631-4985
E-mail Address: blr.lrqad@deped.gov.ph / blr.lrpd@deped.gov.ph
trademarks, etc.) included in this learning resource are owned by their respective
copyright holders. DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society
(FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking permission to use these materials from their respective
copyright owners. All means have been exhausted in seeking permission to use these
materials. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.
Writers: Aniceta S. Kong Anecita P. Domo,
Cristeta M. Arcos Maila A. Dogelio
Reviewers: Prof. Emelita Nuyda Jocelyn de Jesus
Layout Artist: Christian Bjorn R. Cunanan
Illustrator: Eric S. De Guia Fermin Fabella
Cover Artist: Ricardo Jose V. Santillan III Jason Villena
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016.
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iii
Introduction
The Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) for junior high school and Technical-
Livelihood-Vocational Education (TVL) for senior high school is one track in the
implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP). It is composed of four
components, namely: Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts, and Information
and Communication Technology. Learners in Grades 7 and 8 may take an exploratory course
on the subject; tackling common competencies that they would need, should they wish to
have a career in TLE/TVL. Their learnings and competencies are then further enhanced in
Grades 9 and 10, up to Senior High.
This learning resource focuses on the course Bread and Pastry Production (National
Certificate Level II) under Home Economics of the TLE/TVL track. The Department of
Education aims that this learning resource contributes to the attainment of the realization
of the overall goal of the K to 12 Basic Education Program, which is the holistic development
of every Filipino learner: equipped with 21st
century skills, adequately prepared for work,
and has gained the right knowledge, attitude, values and skills to start a business, acquire
middle level skills, and to advance in higher education.
Bread and Pastry Production Manual
This Manual includes information and activities to develop desirable values, skills
and understanding through step-by-step procedures and helpful techniques and guidelines
on how to prepare, present, display, and store bakery products, pastries, petit fours, cakes,
and desserts. Provisions for practical application to real life situation are also included for
lifelong learning.
To the Learner:
This Manual provides varied and relevant activities and opportunities to determine
your understanding of the key concepts and to demonstrate core competencies as
prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation in Bread and Pastry Production.
This manual is specifically crafted to focus on the different activities that will assess
your level in terms of skills and knowledge necessary to get a Certificate of Competency
and/or National Certification (NC II).
Successful completion of this course ensures that you have acquired the essential
skills to be on your way to becoming a certified bread and pastry producer.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016.
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HOW TO USE THIS LEARNER’S MANUAL
Here are some reminders on how to use this material.
1. Answer the pre-assessment before you proceed to the different activities. The
pre-assessment determines how much you know about the lessons and
identifies the areas you ought to learn more. Your teacher will check and
analyze your score to determine your learning needs.
2. This learner’s manual contains relevant information and activities. Go over each
activity carefully. If you encounter difficulties, do not hesitate to consult your
teacher for assistance. Do not skip any topic unless you are told to do so.
REMEMBER that each activity is a preparation for the succeeding activities.
3. For every lesson/learning outcome, answer the self-check and perform the given
activities to enrich your knowledge and skills.
4. After successfully finishing the tasks, answer the post-assessment to be given
by your teacher. Your score will be analyzed and will be used by your teacher
for the computation of your grades.
5. Lastly, DO NOT mark the learner’s manual in any way.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction………………………………………………………................. iii
How to use this Learner’s Material ……………………………................. iv
Quarter I
Definition of Terms................................................................................. 2
Pre-assessment..................................................................................... 4
Lesson 1: Prepare and Produce Bakery Products
LO 1 Prepare Bakery Products................................................... 7
Self Check 1.1.1.............................................................. 10
Activity 1.1.1.................................................................... 10
Self Check 1.1.2.............................................................. 16
Activity 1.1.2.................................................................... 16
Self Check 1.1.3.............................................................. 19
Activity 1.1.3 ................................................................... 20
Self Check 1.1.4.............................................................. 24
Self Check 1.1.5.............................................................. 29
Activity 1.1.4 ................................................................... 30
Activity 1.1.5 ................................................................... 42
LO 2 Decorate and Present Bakery Products............................ 43
Self Check 1.2.1.............................................................. 45
Self Check 1.2.2.............................................................. 48
Activity 1.2.1.................................................................... 48
LO 3 Store Bakery Products....................................................... 50
Self Check 1.3.1.............................................................. 53
Activity 1.3.1.................................................................... 57
Post-assessment.................................................................................... 59
Generalization......................................................................................... 62
Quarter II
Definition of Terms.................................................................................. 64
Pre-assessment...................................................................................... 65
Lesson 2: Prepare and Produce Pastry Products
LO 1 Prepare Pastry Products .................................................... 68
Self Check 2.1.1............................................................... 73
Self Check 2.1.2............................................................... 78
Activity 2.1.1..................................................................... 78
Self Check 2.1.3............................................................... 87
Activity 2.1.2..................................................................... 87
Activity 2.1.3..................................................................... 90
Activity 2.1.4..................................................................... 93
Activity 2.1.5..................................................................... 95
Activity 2.1.6..................................................................... 96
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Activity 2.1.7................................................................... 98
Activity 2.1.8................................................................... 100
Activity 2.1.9................................................................... 101
Self Check 2.1.4............................................................. 104
LO 2 Decorate and Present Pastry ........................................... 104
Self Check 2.2.1............................................................. 107
Self Check 2.2.2............................................................. 110
Self Check 2.2.3............................................................. 111
LO 3 Store Pastry Products....................................................... 111
Activity 2.3.1................................................................... 114
Post-assessment................................................................................... 115
Generalization....................................................................................... 118
Quarter III
Definition of Terms................................................................................ 120
Pre-assessment.................................................................................... 123
Lesson 3: Prepare and Present Gateaux, Tortes and Cakes
LO 1 Prepare Sponge Cake....................................................... 127
Self Check 3.1.1 ............................................................. 127
Activity 3.1.1 ................................................................... 130
Self Check 3.1.2 ............................................................. 133
Self Check 3.1.3 ............................................................. 136
Self Check 3.1.4 ............................................................. 153
Self Check 3.1.5 ............................................................. 155
Self Check 3.1.6 ............................................................. 157
Activity 3.1.2 ................................................................... 157
Activity 3.1.3 ................................................................... 159
Activity 3.1.4 ................................................................... 161
Activity 3.1.5 ................................................................... 163
LO 2 Prepare and Use Fillings................................................... 165
Self Check 3.2.1.............................................................. 168
Self Check 3.2.2.............................................................. 171
Activity 3.2.1 ................................................................... 171
LO 3 Decorate Cakes.................................................................. 172
Self Check 3.3.1.............................................................. 174
Activity 3.3.1 ................................................................... 177
LO 4 Present Cakes.................................................................... 178
Activity 3.4.1 ................................................................... 181
LO 5 Store Cakes..............................................…...........……… 183
Self Check 3.5.1.............................................................. 189
Activity 3.5.1 ................................................................... 189
Post-assessment.................................................................................... 191
Generalization.............................................................………................ 194
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Quarter IV
Definition of Terms................................................................................ 195
Pre-assessment..................................................................................... 199
Lesson 4: Prepare and Display Petit Fours
LO 1 Prepare Iced Petit Fours................................................... 202
Activity 4.1.1................................................................... 204
Activity 4.1.2................................................................... 206
Activity 4.1.3................................................................... 209
LO 2 Prepare Fresh Petit Fours................................................. 211
Activity 4.2.1................................................................... 213
LO 3 Prepare Marzipan Petit Fours........................................... 215
Activity 4.3.1................................................................... 217
Activity 4.3.2................................................................... 218
Activity 4.3.3................................................................... 220
LO 4 Prepare Caramelized Petit Fours...................................... 223
Activity 4.4.1.................................................................... 226
LO 5 Display Petit Fours............................................................. 227
LO 6 Store Petit Fours…………………....................…………… 228
Lesson 5: Present Desserts (PD)
LO 1 Present and Serve Plated Desserts................................... 229
LO 2 Plan, Prepare and Present Dessert Buffet
Selection or Plating............................................................ 235
LO 3 Store and Package Desserts............................................. 237
Activity 5.3.1.................................................................... 243
Post-assessment.................................................................................... 244
Generalization......................................................................................... 247
References.............................................................................................. 248
Answer key.............................................................................................. 251
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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016.
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viii
K
to
12
BASIC
EDUCATION
CURRICULUM
JUNIOR
HIGH
SCHOOL
TECHNICAL
LIVELIHOOD
EDUCATION
AND
SENIOR
HIGH
SCHOOL
–
TECHNICAL
VOCATIONAL-LIVELIHOOD
TRACK
HOME
ECONOMICS
–
BREAD
AND
PASTRY
PRODUCTION
(NC
II)
(160
hours)
Course
Description:
This
curriculum
guide
on
Bread
and
Pastry
Production
course
leads
to
National
Certificate
Level
II
(NCII).
This
course
is
designed
for
high
school
student
to
develop
knowledge,
skills,
and
attitude
to
perform
the
tasks
on
Bread
and
Pastry
Production.
It
covers
core
competencies
namely:
1)
prepare
and
produce
bakery
products;
2)
prepare
and
produce
pastry
products;
3)
prepare
and
present
gateau,
tortes
and
cakes;
4)
prepare
and
display
petit
fours
and
5)
present
deserts.
The
preliminaries
of
this
specialization
course
includes
the
following:
1)
Explain
core
concepts
in
bread
&
pastry
production
;
2)
Discuss
the
relevance
of
the
course
3)
Explore
on
opportunities
for
a
Baker
or
Commis
as
a
career.
CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
Introduction
1.
Basic
concepts
in
bread
and
pastry
production
2.
Relevance
of
the
course
3.
Career
opportunities
The
learners
demonstrate
an
understanding
of
the
core
concepts
and
theories
in
bread
and
pastry
production
The
learners
independently
demonstrate
core
competencies
in
bread
and
pastry
production
as
prescribed
in
the
TESDA
Training
Regulation
The
learners:
1.
explain
core
concepts
in
bread
and
pastry
production
2.
discuss
the
relevance
of
the
course
3.
explore
opportunities
in
bread
and
pastry
production
Quarter
1
Lesson
1:
PREPARE
AND
PRODUCE
BAKERY
PRODUCTS
1.
Accurate
measurement
of
ingredients
2.
Baking
ingredients
and
its
The
learners
demonstrate
an
understanding
of
The
learners
independently
demonstrate
core
LO
1.
Prepare
bakery
products
1.1
Select,
measure
and
weigh
required
ingredients
TLE_HEBP9-
12PB-Ia-f-1
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
substitution
3.
Types,
kinds,
and
classification
of
bakery
products
4.
Mixing
procedures/
formulation/
recipes,
and
desired
product
characteristics
of
various
bakery
products
5.
Baking
techniques,
appropriate
conditions
and
enterprise
requirements
and
standards
6.
Temperature
ranges
in
bakery
products
7.
Suggested
projects:
7.1.
Dinner
roll
7.2.
Pan
de
sal
7.3.
Cinnamon
roll
7.4.
Ensaymada
7.5.
Pan
de
coco
the
core
concepts
and
theories
in
bread
and
pastry
production
competencies
in
preparing
and
producing
bakery
products
according
to
recipe
or
production
requirements
1.2
Prepare
a
variety
of
bakery
products
according
to
standard
mixing
procedures/
formulation/
recipes
and
desired
product
characteristics
1.3
Use
appropriate
equipment
according
to
required
bakery
products
and
standard
operating
procedures
1.4
Bake
bakery
products
according
to
techniques
and
appropriate
conditions
1.5
Select
required
oven
temperature
to
bake
goods
in
accordance
with
the
desired
characteristics,
standards
recipe
specifications
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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016.
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
Quarter
2
LESSON
1:
PREPARE
AND
PRODUCE
PASTRY
PRODUCTS
(PP)
1.
Culinary
and
technical
terms
related
to
pastry
products
2.
Ratio
of
ingredients
required
to
produce
a
balance
formula
3.
Correct
proportion
control,
yields,
weights
and
sizes
for
profitability
4.
Types,
kinds,
and
classification
of
pastry
products
5.
Mixing
procedures/formulation/recipes
and
desired
product
characteristics
of
various
pastry
products
6.
Baking
tools,
equipment,
and
their
uses
and
functions
7.
Baking
techniques
appropriate
conditions,
and
enterprise
requirements
and
standards
The
learner
demonstrates
understanding
of
the
basic
concept
and
underlying
theories
in
preparing
and
producing
pastry
products
The
learner
demonstrate
competencies
in
preparing
and
producing
pastry
products
LO
1.
Prepare
pastry
products
1.1.
Select,
measure
and
weigh
required
ingredients
according
to
recipe
or
production
requirements
and
established
standards
and
procedures
1.2.
Prepare
variety
of
pastry
products
according
to
standard
mixing
procedures/formulation/
recipes
and
desired
product
characteristics
1.3.
Use
appropriate
equipment
according
to
required
pastry
products
and
standard
operating
procedures
1.4.
Bake
pastry
products
according
to
techniques
and
appropriate
conditions;
and
enterprise
requirement
and
standards
TLE_HEBP9-
12PP-IIa-g-4
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
8.
Temperature
ranges
in
baking
pastry
products
9.
Occupational
health
and
safety
10.
Suggested
projects:
10.1
Pies
-
Pineapple
pie
-
Buko
pie
-
Egg
pie
10.2
Pizza
10.3
Empanada
10.4
Tart
10.5
Etc.
1.5.
Select
required
oven
temperature
to
bake
goods
in
accordance
with
the
desired
characteristics,
standards
recipe
specifications
and
enterprise
practices
11.
Types
and
classifications
of
fillings,
coatings/icing
and
glazes
12.
Regular
and
special
fillings
and
coating/icing,
glazes
and
decorations
13.
Decorative
techniques
and
rules
for
garnishing
14.
The
tools
and
materials
in
LO
2.
Decorate
and
present
Pastry
products
2.1
Prepare
a
variety
of
fillings
and
coating/icing,
glazes
and
decorations
for
pastry
products
according
to
standard
recipes,
enterprise
standards
and/or
customer
preferences
TLE_HEBP9-
12PP-IIh-i-5
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
decorating,
finishing
and
presenting
15.
Standards
and
procedures
in
decorating
pastry
products
16.
Occupational
Health
and
Safety
17.
Standards
and
procedures
in
finishing
pastry
products
18.
Plating
and
presenting
pastry
products
2.2
Fill
and
decorate
pastry
products,
where
required
and
appropriate,
in
accordance
with
standard
recipes
and/or
enterprise
standards
and
customer
preferences
2.3
Finish
pastry
products
according
to
desired
product
characteristics
2.4
Present
baked
pastry
products
according
to
established
standards
and
procedures
19.
Shelf-life
of
pastry
products
20.
Standards
and
procedures
in
storing
pastry
products
21.
Different
kinds
of
packaging
materials
to
be
used
22.
Standards
and
procedures
in
packaging
pastry
product
LO
3.
Store
pastry
products
3.1
Store
pastry
products
according
to
established
standards
and
procedures
3.2
Select
packaging
appropriate
for
the
preservation
of
product
freshness
and
eating
characteristics
TLE_HEBP9-
12PP-IIj-6
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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016.
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
Quarter
3
LESSON
1:
PREPARE
AND
PRESENT
GATEAUX,
TORTES
AND
CAKES
(TC)
1.
Culinary
terms
related
to
sponge
and
cakes
2.
How
to
measure
ingredients
3.
Correct
proportion
control,
yields,
weights
and
sizes
for
profitability
4.
Main
ingredients
used
for
variety
of
sponge
and
cakes
5.
Specific
temperature
used
for
different
types
of
sponge
and
cakes
6.
Pre-heating
the
oven
7.
Classification
of
the
different
types
of
sponge
and
cakes
8.
Mixing
methods
used
for
variety
of
sponge
and
cakes
9.
Required
equipment
and
materials
for
sponge
and
cakes
The
learner
demonstrates
understanding
of
the
core
concept
and
underlying
theories
in
preparing
and
presenting
gateaux,
tortes
and
cakes
The
learner
demonstrate
competencies
in
preparing
and
presenting
gateaux,
tortes
and
cakes
LO
1.
Prepare
sponge
and
cakes
1.1
Select,
measure
and
weigh
ingredients
according
to
recipe
requirements,
enterprise
practices
and
customer
practices
1.2
Select
required
oven
temperature
to
bake
goods
in
accordance
with
desired
characteristics,
standard
recipe
specifications
and
enterprise
practices
1.3
Prepare
sponges
and
cakes
according
to
recipe
specifications,
techniques
and
conditions
and
desired
product
characteristics
1.4
Use
appropriate
equipment
according
to
required
pastry
and
bakery
TLE_HEBP9-
12TC-IIIa-f-7
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
10.
Recipe
specifications,
techniques
and
conditions
and
desired
product
characteristics
11.
Cooling
temperature
of
sponge
and
cakes
12.
Suggested
projects:
13.
Batter
cake
with
butter
icing
14.
Sponge
cake
with
butter
cream
filling
and
icing
15.
Chiffon
cake
with
boiled
icing
or
fondant
icing
16.
Chocolate
cake
products
and
standard
operating
procedures
1.6
Cool
sponges
and
cakes
according
to
established
standards
and
procedures
17.
Identification
of
fillings
appropriate
in
a
specific
cakes
18.
Identification
of
the
required
consistency
and
appropriate
flavor
of
fillings
19.
Filling
and
assembling
cakes
according
to
the
standard
recipe
LO
2.
Prepare
and
use
fillings
2.1
Prepare
and
select
fillings
in
accordance
with
required
consistency
and
appropriate
flavors
2.2
Fill
and
assemble
slice
or
layer
sponges
and
TLE_HEBP9-
12TC-IIIg-8
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
specifications
20.
Classification
of
coatings
and
sidings
based
on
the
required
recipe
specifications
and
product
characteristics
cakes
according
to
standard
recipe
specifications,
enterprise
practice
and
customer
preferences
2.3
Select
coatings
and
sidings
according
to
the
product
characteristics
and
required
recipe
specification
21.
Identification
of
specific
decorations
appropriate
for
sponge
and
cakes
22.
Identification
of
standard
recipes
of
icings
and
decorations
for
sponge
and
cakes
23.
Identification
and
application
of
steps
and
procedure
in
icing
a
cake.
24.
Types
of
icing/frosting
and
their
uses
LO
3.
Decorate
cakes
3.1
Decorate
sponges
and
cakes
suited
to
the
product
and
occasion
and
in
accordance
with
standard
recipes
and
enterprise
practices
3.2
Use
suitable
icings
and
decorations
according
to
standard
recipes
and/or
enterprise
standards
and
customer
preferences
TLE_HEBP9-
12TC-IIIh-i-9
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
25.
Presenting
and
plating
sponge
and
cakes
LO
4.
Present
cakes
4.1.
Present
cakes
in
accordance
with
customer’s
expectations
and
TLE_HEBP9-
12TC-IIIj-10
26.
Selection
and
usage
of
equipment
in
accordance
with
service
requirements
27.
Identification
of
the
product
freshness,
appearance,
characteristics
of
prepared
cakes
28.
Cutting
portion-controlled
to
minimize
the
wastage
of
cake
29.
Standard
size
and
weight
per
serving
4.2.
established
standards
and
procedures
4.3.
Select
and
use
equipment
in
accordance
with
service
requirements
4.4.
Maintain
product
freshness,
appearances
and
eating
qualities
in
accordance
with
the
established
standards
and
procedures
4.5.
Marked
cakes
or
cut
portion-controlled
to
minimize
wastage
and
in
accordance
with
enterprise
specifications
and
customer
preferences
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
30.
Standards
and
procedures
of
storing
cake
products
31.
Factors
to
consider
in
storing
cakes
32.
Storage
methods
for
cakes
33.
Storage
temperature
for
cakes
LO
5.
Store
cakes
5.1.
Store
cakes
in
accordance
with
establishment’s
standards
and
procedures
5.2.
Identify
storage
methods
in
accordance
with
product
specifications
and
established
standards
and
procedures
TLE_HEBP9-
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Quarter
4
LESSON
1:
PREPARE
AND
DISPLAY
PETIT
FOURS
(PF)
1.
Characteristics
of
classical
and
contemporary
petit
fours
2.
Underlying
principles
in
preparing
petit
fours
3.
Types
and
kinds
of
sponge
and
bases
4.
Different
kinds
of
fillings
5.
Procedure
in
making
fondant
icing
The
learner
demonstrates
understanding
of
the
basic
concept
and
underlying
theories
in
preparing
and
displaying
petit
fours
The
learner
demonstrate
competencies
in
preparing
and
displaying
petit
fours
LO
1.
Prepare
iced
petit
fours
1.1
Prepare,
cut
and
assemble
sponges
and
bases
according
to
standard
recipes
and
enterprise
requirements
and
practices
1.2
Prepare
fillings
with
the
required
flavors
and
consistency
1.3
Prepare
fondant
icing
TLE_HEBP9-
12PF-IVa-b-
12
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
following
required
temperature
and
standard
procedure
6.
Decorations
and
designs
1.4
Design
and
use
decorations
in
accordance
with
establishment
standards
and
procedures
7.
Kinds
of
small
choux
paste
8.
Types
of
sweet
paste
and
fillings
9.
Different
garnishes,
glazes
and
finishes
10.
Standards
and
operating
procedures
in
preparing
fresh
petit
fours
LO
2.
Prepare
fresh
petit
fours
2.1
Bake
and
decorate
a
selection
of
small
choux
paste
shapes
in
accordance
with
established
standards
and
procedures
2.2
Prepare
and
blend
baked
sweet
paste
in
accordance
with
establishment
standards
and
procedures
2.3
Prepare
and
use
fillings
the
required
flavors
TLE_HEBP9-
12PF-IVc-d-
13
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
and
correct
consistency
2.4
Use
garnishes,
glazes
and
finished
in
accordance
with
established
standards
and
procedures
11.
Flavor
and
shape
specifications
and
enterprise
standards
of
quality
marzipan
12.
Standards
and
operating
procedures
in
coating
marzipan
fruits
LO
3.
Prepare
marzipan
petit
fours
Quality
marzipan
to
produce
mini-sized
fruits
in
accordance
with
enterprise
and
client
requirements
preserve
desired
eating
characteristics
and
softened
with
egg
whites,
piped
into
shapes
and
sealed/browned
with
applied
heat,
according
to
enterprise
practice
TLE_HEBP9-
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14
13.
Specifications
of
fresh
fruits
needed
to
caramelized
LO
4.
Prepare
caramelized
petit
fours
4.1.
Select
and
coat
fresh
fruits/fruit
segments
with
TLE_HEBP9-
12PF-IVg-h-
15
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
14.
Specifications
of
dried
fruits
needed.
15.
Kinds
of
sugar
to
caramelized
pale
amber-colored
caramel
or
glazed
or
any
coating
specified
by
the
enterprise
4.2.
Fill
sandwich
dried
fruits
or
nuts
with
flavored
marzipan
and
coated
with
pale
amber-colored
caramel
according
to
specifications
and
enterprise
standards
16.
Kinds
and
uses
of
receptacles
for
petit
fours
17.
Tips
on
how
to
display
petit
fours
18.
Standards
and
procedures
in
displaying
petit
fours
LO
5.
Display
petit
fours
5.1.
Select
and
prepare
appropriate
receptacles
for
petit
fours
5.2.
Display
petit
fours
creatively
to
enhance
customer
appeal
TLE_HEBP9-
12PF-IVi-16
19.
Tips
on
storing
petit
fours
20.
Temperature
requirements
in
storing
petit
fours
LO
6.
Store
petit
fours
6.1
Store
petit
fours
in
proper
temperatures
and
conditions
to
maintain
maximum
eating
qualities,
appearance
and
freshness
TLE_HEBP9-
12PF-IVi-17
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
21.
Standards
and
procedures
in
storing
and
packaging
petit
fours
6.2
Package
petit
fours
in
accordance
with
established
standards
and
procedures
Quarter
4
LESSON
2:
PRESENT
DESSERTS
(PD)
1.
Varieties
and
characteristics
of
specialized
cakes,
both
classical
and
contemporary
and
other
types
of
desserts
2.
Commodity
knowledge,
including
quality
indicators
of
specialized
cakes
and
other
types
of
desserts
3.
Culinary
terms
related
to
specialized
cakes
and
other
types
of
desserts
4.
Portion
control
and
yield
5.
Standard
recipe
specifications
of
specialized
cakes
and
other
types
of
desserts
6.
Standard
Operating
Procedures
in
preparing
other
types
of
desserts
The
learner
demonstrates
understanding
of
the
basic
concept
and
underlying
theories
in
presenting
desserts
The
learner
demonstrate
competencies
in
presenting
desserts
LO
1.
Present
and
serve
plated
desserts
1.1.
Portion
and
present
desserts
according
to
product
items,
occasion
and
enterprise
standards
and
procedures
1.2.
Plate
and
decorate
desserts
in
accordance
with
enterprise
standards
and
procedures
TLE_HEBP9-
12PD-IVj-18
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CONTENT
CONTENT
STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARD
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
CODE
7.
Planning,
preparing
and
presenting
trolley
services
8.
Arranging
and
preparing
variety
of
desserts
LO
2.
Plan,
prepare
and
present
dessert
buffet
selection
or
plating
2.1
Plan
and
utilize
dessert
buffet
services
according
to
available
facilities,
equipment
and
customer/enterprise
requirements
2.2
Prepare
and
arrange
variety
of
desserts
in
accordance
with
enterprise
standards
and
procedures
TLE-HEBP9-
12PD-IVj-19
9.
Temperature
range
in
storing
desserts
10.
Packaging
design
techniques
11.
Standards
and
procedures
in
storing
and
packaging
desserts
LO
3.
Store
and
package
desserts
3.1
Store
desserts
in
accordance
with
the
required
temperature
and
customer’s
specifications.
3.2
Package
desserts
in
accordance
with
established
standards
and
procedures
TLE_HEBP9-
12PD-IVj-20
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Quarter 1
Overview
Baking is cooking by dry heat in an oven or oven-type
appliance. It is a method of cooking used in making breads,
cakes, pies, pastries, and biscuits which everybody enjoys
eating. Baking is an enjoyable activity which you can learn
either as a hobby or as an income-generating project.
This module will give you knowledge of the different
bakery products and provide you hands-on experience in
baking, from the basic biscuits to the more complex cookies,
muffins, and breads.
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Baking Terminologies
As you wish to pursue baking as a career, you should familiarize yourself with
the common preparation and baking terminologies that come across in the process.
Acid a substance having a sour or sharp flavor
Bake to cook food in a dry heat method inside an oven
Batter a mixture of flours with liquids such as water, milk, or eggs
used to prepare various foods
Blend to combine ingredients and produce a homogenous mixture
Coat to cover with a thin layer of flour, sugar, nuts, batter, etc.
Contamination the state of being contaminated
Chill to refrigerate, to reduce the temperature of food
Dough a soft, thick mass or mixture of dry ingredients (e.g., flour or
meal), and liquid (e.g., water) that is kneaded, shaped, and
baked into bread or pastry
Dust sprinkle the surface with flour to avoid mixture to stick to it
Egg wash consists of beaten eggs sometimes mixed with a liquid, usually
water or milk, which is brushed onto the bread or pastry
Fermentation the process of converting sugar into alcohol to produce carbon
dioxide
Foaming to continuously beat egg white to incorporate air until it
becomes light and fluffy
Gluten a substance responsible for the elastic and sticky
characteristics of dough
Grease to brush pan with shortening
Knead to press, stretch, and fold the dough until gluten is developed
Line to put a grease proof paper on the baking pans or sheets
Definition of Terms
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Meringue a mixture used as a dessert or a topping made of beaten egg
whites and sugar until smooth, light and fluffy, usually added
with cream of tartar to make it stable
Mise En Place French term means “put in place” that includes assembling all
the necessary ingredients, equipment, and tools and serving
pieces needed to prepare food
Mix to combine ingredients in any way that make distribution of
ingredients evenly
Pre-heat to heat the oven prior to baking to achieve the required heat
Punch down to deflate the dough to expel carbon dioxide produced during
the fermentation process to give it a second chance to rise
Scrape to remove sticky ingredients from the side of the mixing bowl
Stir in to add another ingredient into the mixture
Syrup a thick sticky solution of sugar and water
Whip to beat rapidly and continuously to aid incorporation of air as in
whipping egg whites to make meringue and cream
Work simplification performance of a task in the most efficient way possible
Yeast microorganisms that produce carbon dioxide gas when it
mixes with carbohydrates, causing the dough to rise
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4
Pre-assessment
Read and analyze the statement carefully. Choose the best answer and write the
letter only in your answer sheet.
1. Which of the following ingredients is usually used in dough that gives better
taste and flavor?
A. butter
B. compound lard
C. edible tallow
D. vegetables oil
2. What kind of sugar is primarily used in preparing icing?
A. brown sugar
B. confectioner’s sugar
C. granulated sugar
D. refined sugar
3. What is the basic ingredient in baking that improves aroma, flavor, and
nutrition in baked products?
A. baking powder
B. flour
C. shortening
D. sugar
4. Which of the ingredients is an example of a physical leavening agent?
A. air
B. baking powder
C. baking soda
D. yeast
5. Which kind of flour contains more gluten and less starch?
A. all-purpose flour
B. bread flour
C. cake flour
D. soft-flour
What do you already know?
Let us determine how much you already know about Bread and
Pastry Production. Take this test.
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5
6. Which among the choices is a personal cleanliness practice in baking?
A. combing the hair in the working area
B. keeping fingernails long
C. washing the hands after work
D. wearing an apron during working hours
7. What is the first step to have better results in baking?
A. keeping oneself clean
B. keeping the food and equipment clean
C. keeping the utensils and work area clean
D. all of the above
8. What is the best step to have better results in baking?
A. Measure ingredients accurately.
B. Memorize the recipe very well.
C. Use modern equipment.
D. Use only imported ingredients.
9. How many cups is equivalent to one gallon?
A. 3
B. 5
C. 10
D. 16
10. What is the proper way to measure flour accurately?
A. level off with the use of the tines of a fork
B. shakes the measuring cup before levelling
C. shovel the flour
D. sift it before measuring
11. Which of the following is the best substitute for sour milk?
A. 1 C sweet milk plus 1 tbsp. vinegar
B. 1¾ C sweet milk plus 1 tbsp. vinegar
C. 2 C sweet milk plus ½ tbsp. vinegar
D. 2/3 C sweet milk plus 1 tbsp. vinegar
12. What is the best substitute for one cup sifted flour?
A. 1 C minus 1 tbsp. sifted all = purpose flour
B. 1 C minus 2 tbsp. sifted all = purpose flour
C. 1 C plus 2 tbsp. sifted all = purpose flour
D. 1 C sifted all-purpose flour
13. Which of the following flour mixture is thick enough to be rolled and kneaded?
A. batter
B. cream
C. crust
D. dough
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6
14. It refers to the procedure of rubbing one or two ingredients against a bowl
with the tip of a wooden spoon or electric mixer.
A. beating
B. creaming
C. folding
D. stirring
15. Which of the following pastries refer to small, flat, and sweet cakes?
A. biscuits
B. cookies
C. muffins
D. pies
16. Which among the following cookies needs freezing before it is cut into
desired shapes before baking?
A. cookie bar
B. pressed cookie
C. refrigerated cookie
D. rolled cookie
17. Which type of mixing technique is done only in baking bread?
A. blending
B. creaming
C. folding
D. kneading
18. It refers to the process of putting your product into containers for easy
distribution?
A. labeling
B. packaging
C. storing
D. wrapping
19. It is one of the more innovative methods used in commercial food packaging.
A. canned package
B. chill packaging
C. foil packaging
D. freezing packaging
20. What storing technique is used to draw, fold and cover the bakery product?
A. chilling
B. folding
C. refrigerate
D. wrapping
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7
Lesson 1: PREPARE AND PRODUCE BAKERY PRODUCTS
LO 1. Prepare bakery products
 Select, measure, and weigh required ingredients according to recipe or
production requirements.
 Prepare a variety of bakery products according to standard. Mixing
procedures/ formulation/ recipes and desired product characteristics
 Use appropriate equipment according to required bakery products and
standard operating procedures.
 Bake bakery products according to techniques and appropriate conditions
 Select required oven temperature to bake goods in accordance with the
desired characteristics, standards recipe specifications.
What do you need to know?
Read Lesson Information closely and find out how much you can
remember. Then do Self-check 1.1.1 to know how much you have
learned.
LO 1. Prepare bakery products
LO 2. Decorate and present bakery products
LO 3. Store bakery products
EXPECTED OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson, you should be able to:
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Techniques in Measuring and Weighing Ingredients Used in Baking
It is important to measure the ingredients accurately to get standard products
and efficient use of materials. Different flour in different localities need varying
amounts of liquid and this should be considered in baking.
Keep a record of the quantity of flour used each time you bake to find out
which measurement produces the best result from the flour available in your area.
You will soon learn to judge the correct amount of liquid to add by the
consistency of the dough and the way it handles.
A. Measurement of Dry and Liquid Ingredients
1. Dry Ingredients
A. Flour
a. Sift the flour to remove lumps.
b. Spoon sifted flour lightly into a measuring cup heaping it well over
the top of the cup. Do not shake the cup.
c. Level off the cup with a straight-edged utensils or spatula.
d. For fractions of a cup, use the lines indicating ¼, ⅓, and ½ of the
standard measuring cup.
B. Sugar
a. White sugar needs sifting only if lumpy. Proceed as in the
measurement of flour.
b. Brown sugar, if lumpy, press through a coarse sieve to crush the
lumps. Pack into measuring cup just enough to hold its shape. Level
off.
c. Sift confectioner’s sugar through a sieve to remove lumps. Spoon
lightly into measuring cup. Level off with spatula or any straight-
edged utensil. Do not shake the cup.
C. Baking Powder, Soda, Salt and Spices
a. Fill measuring spoon with the desired ingredients. Level off with a
spatula or any straight-edged utensils. If baking powder has caked,
stir lightly before measuring.
Lesson Information
measuring cup, taking care not to have air pockets. Level off with a
spatula or any straight – edged utensils. Use standard
measuring spoon for less than ¼ cup shortening.
D. Shortening
a. With the use of measuring cup
Have shortening at room temperature. Pack firmly into the
desired and add shortening enough to cause the water to rise up
to the 1 cup mark. To measure ¼ cup, fill with cold water up to ¾
cup level and add shortening enough to raise the water up to the1
cup mark. Drain well.
b. Water Displacement Method
Fill the cup with cold water up to ¼ cup level if ½ cup of fat is
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2. Liquid Ingredients
Water and Milk
A liquid measuring cup is best to use for liquid ingredients because it is clear
and see through. It also has a spout that makes pouring of liquids easy.
To get the exact amount, follow these steps when measuring liquids.
1. Set up the liquid measuring cup. Place the measuring cup on a flat, even
surface.
2. Pour the liquid carefully and slowly into the cup. Stop pouring when the liquid
reaches the marker line for the desired amount.
3. Check your measurement. Bend down so that your eyes level with the marker
line. Look at the top of the liquid.
Frequently Used Substitutions and Equivalents
Equivalent Weights and Measurement
Given Measurement Equivalents Abbreviations
1 gallon (gal.) 4 quarts gallon gal.
1 quart (qt.) 2 pints quart qt.
1 pint (pt.) 2 cups pint pt.
1 cup (c) 8 fluid ounces cup c.
½ cup 4 ounces tablespoon tbsp. or T
¼ cup 2 ounces teaspoon tsp. or t
⅛ cup 1 fluid ounce fluid ounce fl. oz.
1 tablespoon 3 teaspoons ounce oz.
1 pound 16 ounces pound lb.
2.2 pounds 35.2 ounces gram g.
1 kilogram 1000 grams kilogram kg.
1 cup butter = 1 cup margarine
1 oz baking chocolate (unsweetened) = 1 square
1 oz sweetened chocolate = ¼ cup cocoa + 1 ½ to 2 tsp shortening
8 – 10 pcs graham crackers = 1 cup graham crumbs
4 oz bread = 3 cups soft crumbs
1 cup milk = ½ cup evaporated milk ½ cup water
1 cup cake flour = 1 cup all-purpose flour – 2T + 2T cornstarch
(both sifted before measuring)
1 tablespoon cornstarch = 2 tablespoon flour
1 cup sour milk = 1 cup evaporated milk +
1 T vinegar or lemon juice
1 cup whipping cream = ¾ cup whole milk + ¼ cup butter
1 whole egg = 2 egg yolks
1 cup molasses = 1 cup honey
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Something to do
Listed below are the ingredients for brownies.
 2 oz. chocolate, melted 2 eggs, beaten
 1/3 c butter 1 c butter
 1 c cake flour ½ tsp vanilla
 ¼ tsp salt 1 c nuts, chopped
 ½ tsp baking powder
A. Assume that you do not have a measuring cup. Give the required
measurement for every ingredient that is equivalent to the cup
measurement.
B. Give the substitute for every ingredients marked with bullet (•)
Demonstrate in class on the proper way of measuring ingredients for brownies.
Check the accuracy of your answers. Review the table of equivalents and
substitution of ingredients before submitting your work. Master the procedure in
measuring ingredients before proceeding to the actual demonstration. You will be
evaluated in this task on the basis of the following criteria:
Correctness of procedure - 40%
Accuracy of measurement - 40 %
Sanitation - 20 %
Total 100 %
Activity 1.1.1
Self-Check 1.1
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Major Ingredients in Baking
I. FLOUR
Flour is a finely ground meal obtained by grinding and milling cereal grains or
other root crops. Flour is most commonly made from wheat and when the
word "flour" is used without qualification, it usually implies wheat flour.
However, flour also can be made from many other grasses and non-grain
plants, such as rye, barley, maize (corn), rice, potatoes, and other foods.
Wheat contains protein. When mixed with water, these proteins form as
gluten. The more protein a flour has, the stronger the gluten strength.
A. Types of Flour
Flour can be classified as to hard flour or soft flour.
1. Hard flour or bread flour is high in gluten, with 12-14% protein content,
and has strongest gluten strength.
2. Bread flour has 12-14% protein content and is made from hard wheat
flour. The high gluten content causes the bread to rise and gives its
shape and structure.
3. All-purpose flour has 10-11% protein content and is made from a blend of
hard and soft wheat flours, also called the General Purpose Flour or
family flour.
4. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and so results in a finer texture.
Soft flour is usually made into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten
content, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.
5. Cake flour has 7-9% protein content and is made from soft wheat flour. It
is good for making cakes and cookies where a tender and delicate texture
is desired.
B. Uses of Flour
1. Provides structure, texture and color to baked products
2. Provides nutritive value to baked products
3. Used as thickening agent
4. Used as binder of food
5. Used as stiffening agent in laundry
What do you need to know?
Lesson Information
Read Lesson Information closely and then find how much you can
remember. Then do Self-Check 1.1.2 to see how much you have
learned.
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C. Storage of Flour
Most types of flour keep well in a sealed container in a cool, dry
location. The original paper packaging used for many types of flour is good
for long term storage as long as the package has not been opened. Once
opened, the shelf life decreases. Many types of flour are now marketed in
resealable plastic bags that increase shelf life.
D. Properties/Characteristics of flour
1. whitish color
2. tolerance
3. strength
4. uniformity
5. high absorption
II. SUGAR
Sugar is a sweet, soluble organic compound that belongs to the
carbohydrate group of food. They are the simplest to digest among all
carbohydrates.
A. Types of Sugar
1. Regular granulated sugar or white sugar - also known as table sugar or
as refined sugar.
2. Confectioner’s sugar or powdered sugar - granulated sugar that has been
pulverized. To prevent lumping and caking, about 3% cornstarch is
added.
3. Brown sugar - contains caramel, mineral matter and moisture. It also
contains a small amount of molasses. It comes in three colors.
B. Effects of Sugar in Baking
o increases dough development
o makes the color of the crust richer
o improves the nutritive value, flavor and aroma of the product
o makes the bread more tender
o increase the volume of the loaf
o serves as food for the yeast
o contributes to moisture content of baked products, increasing its
storing quality
o acts as creaming agent
III. EGGS
Eggs are considered a complete protein, containing all the essential
amino acids humans use to build other proteins needed by the body. Both the
yolk and the egg white contain protein, so whole eggs or their separated
components may be used to set liquids.
They represent almost 50% of the total cost of any baked product,
thus considered the baking ingredient with the highest cost or expense.
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A. Uses of Eggs in Baking
1. Eggs, as well as flour, are the structural ingredients in baking.
2. Eggs provide leavening; add color, texture, flavor and richness to the
batter; and act as stabilizer in mixture that inherently wants to separate
into its two parts, like oil and water. They are very important in helping to
bind all the other ingredients together.
3. Beaten eggs are used as leavening agents as they incorporate air into the
batter, which will expand in the oven and cause the cake to rise.
4. Eggs are used as thickening agent.
5. Egg washes are brushed on many baked goods to create a golden shiny
top. The egg white provides luster and the egg yolk color.
6. Egg whites are used to make meringues.
B. Composition of Egg
1. Mucin - protein which is found in egg whites and responsible for its gel
characteristic.
2. Ovalbumin - another protein found in egg whites which coagulates and
involve both in heat coagulation and whipping.
3. Lecithin- present in egg yolk which is responsible for its emulsifying
property. It is the portion of the egg yolk that causes spoilage when eggs
are stored at warm temperature.
IV. SHORTENING
Shortening is any fat, which, when added to flour mixtures increases
tenderness. This is done by preventing the sticking of gluten strands while
mixing so that gluten is shortened and makes the product tender.
A. Examples of Shortening
1. Oil – made from plant products such as corn, cottonseeds, soybeans,
peanuts, and other sources. As a rule, you can substitute oil for melted
shortening. Among produced oils, corn oil and vegetable oils are
commonly used in baking. Unless specified in the recipe, olive oil should
not be used in baking.
2. Butter – made of fatty milk proteins. It contains 80-85 % fat; 10-15 %
water and 5% milk solids. When used in baking, it contributes flavor and
tenderness. Butter remains solid when refrigerated, but softens to a
spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid
consistency at 32-35°C (90-95 °F).
3. Margarine – made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. It contains 80-85
percent fat, 10-15 percent water and 5 percent salt. The hydrogenation
process makes oil a solid.
4. Lard – made of fat from pork. Some people prefer lard to other fats for
making pie crust and biscuits because it gives a flakier texture.
5. Cocoa Butter – the ivory-colored natural fat of the cocoa beans extracted
during the manufacturing of chocolate and cocoa powder. It gives
chocolate its creamy, smooth, melt-in-your-mouth texture.
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B. Uses of Shortening in Baking
1. Makes bread products tender and improve flavor.
2. Assist in gas retention giving better volume and crust.
3. Prevent the cohesion of gluten.
4. Improve the aroma, color and texture of baked products.
5. Improve the shelf life of baked products because of its moisture.
V. LEAVENING AGENT
Leavening agents are gases that cause the dough to rise. In the
presence of moisture, heat, and others, the leavening agent reacts to
produce gas (often carbon dioxide) that becomes trapped as bubbles within
the dough. When a dough or batter is baked, it "sets" and the holes left by the
gas bubbles remain. This is what gives breads, cakes, and other baked
goods to rise and increase in volume.
A. Classification of Leavening Agents
1. Chemical Leaveners. Chemical leaveners are chemical mixtures or
compounds that release gases, usually carbon dioxide. Chemical
leaveners are used in quick breads and cakes, as well as cookies.
Examples of chemical leaveners is
a. Baking Soda - otherwise known as bicarbonate of soda, or Sodium
Bicarbonate. It is a chemical salt with diverse practical uses. It is a
powerful leavener that readily reacts as soon as it comes in contact
with batter or dough.
b. Baking Powder – is a combination of baking soda and acid salt.
c. Cream of tartar - is tartaric acid and is a fine white crystalline acid
salt which is a by-product of the wine-making industry. It is used in
the whipping of egg whites to stabilize them and allow them to reach
maximum volume.
2. Biological Leaveners. Yeast is a living organism, neither plant nor
animal. Yeasts belong to a separate kingdom in taxonomy, the fungus
kingdom. Leavening with yeast is a process based on fermentation, the
process of converting sugar to alcohol and to carbon dioxide.
Types of Yeast
 Dry or granular
 Compressed or cake type
 Instant
VI. LIQUID INGREDIENTS
Liquid ingredients provide moisture to rehydrate and activate the
yeast and bring together the flour and any other dry ingredients to make the
dough. It also improves the formation of gluten strands during the kneading of
dough.
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The following are some types of the liquid ingredients used in baking:
A. Water
It is the cheapest liquid used in baking. It performs vital role in baking
making ingredients rehydrated. The right amount of water helps dissolve all
other ingredients in batter and in dough to form smooth, workable mixture. In
that way, water acts as a binding agent for any baked products.
B. Milk and Other Dairy Products
Milk and cream, like water, moisten dough and batters. Unlike water,
they add a slight flavor to the final baked good and increase its richness. Milk
and cream also create a fuller, moister texture in baked goods and help them
brown on the surface. They also contribute to the nutritive value of baked
goods.
1. Types of Milk Used in Baking
• fresh milk or whole milk
• evaporated milk
• condensed milk
• skimmed milk
• powder or dry milk
2. Uses of Milk in Baking
• increases nutritive value of baked products
• enhances texture and increase softness of baked goods
• acts as a strengthener when mixed with flour, because it helps in the
formation of gluten, which gives a baked item structure
• provides moisture and tenderness to baked goods
• enhances flavor
• extends the shelf life of a cake
• boosts crust color
Minor Ingredients in Baking
They are not as important as the major ingredients in baking but they are
essential in attaining the sensory qualities of baked products. They are used in small
quantity, but contribute to the enhancement of flavor and texture of the baked
products. These are the ingredients that add distinction and character to baked
goods.
1. Flavoring
2. Vanilla
3. Salt
4. Spices (cloves, cinnamon, mace, nutmeg)
5. Wines
6. Coffee
7. Chocolate and Cocoa
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Types of Chocolate
1. Unsweetened Chocolate
2. Bittersweet and Semisweet Chocolate
3. Milk Chocolate
Something to do
1. Have a tasting exercise. Taste a pan de sal, hotcake,
and siopao. Identify the ingredients used for each item.
Write your answers in your notebook.
2. Prepare a basic recipe of griddle bread. Divide the mixture
into four cups: to the first cup, add vanilla; to the second
cup, add lemon; to the third cup, add cinnamon; and leave
the fourth cup plain.
 Evaluate your product according to texture, flavor, and
smell. Which bread has the best texture, flavor, and smell?
Use the following criteria:
Correctness of procedure------ 40 %
Accuracy of measurement----- 40 %
Sanitation -------------------------- 20 %
TOTAL 100 %
Give what is asked for in the following.
A. Six major ingredients in baking.
B. Minor ingredients used in baking (4)
C. Effects of sugar in baking (5)
Activity 1.1.2
Self-check 1.1.2
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SANITATION
Sanitation means keeping bacteria down to a small number as possible
through personal hygiene and proper food handling. It also means keeping the food
at the appropriate temperature so bacteria already present do not have a chance to
multiply.
Sanitary measures include personal hygiene, keeping food, equipment and
the work area clean. Unsanitary practices and improper handling of food may result
to food contamination or infection, poisoning and death.
Workers Personal Hygiene
 Remove jewelries and accessories before starting to work.
 Hands should be clean and nails cut short.
 Use the appropriate work outfit. People who work in the kitchen should wear
suitable, clean and freshly ironed aprons. Aprons protect the body from burns
and scalds and from food stain. Headbands are used to prevent loose hair
from dropping into the food and also absorb sweat on head.
 Keep sick persons out of the kitchen.
Facilities
 Sanitize all laboratory equipment, tools and utensils thoroughly before and
after use.
 Air dry all equipment, tools and utensils to avoid build up of dust and rust
corrosion.
 Dispose of garbage properly everyday so as not to invite rodents and insects.
What do you need to know?
Read Lesson Information closely and then find out how much you
can remember. Then do Self-check 1.1.3 to know how much you
have learned.
Lesson Information
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Practical Ways of Keeping Food Clean
 Food should be handled with clean hands.
 Avoid sneezing and coughing when handling food.
 Utensils that fall on the floor should be washed well before using them again.
 Store food supplies in a clean, dry place to maintain its freshness.
 Clean cans, bottles and bags containing ingredients before opening.
 Keep dry and liquid ingredients in a sealed container. Check for its safety
from time to time.
 Separate fresh vegetables from old ones before storing.
 Keep food at a suitable temperature. Bacteria multiply fastest between 15°C
and 52°C (60°F and 125°F). Keep hot food hot until served. "Hot" means
above 60°C (140°F), where bacteria can no longer grow. Keep cold food cold
until served. "Cold" means below 4°C (40°F), at refrigerator temperature or
below.
Keeping the Work Laboratory Area Clean
 Keep the floor area clean and free from waste, water and grease.
 Keep cabinets dry, clean and closed tightly to keep away rodents and insects.
 Check and clean the dishwashing area whenever needed.
 Clean the tables after using them.
Safety Precautions in the Kitchen
Observance of safety precautions promote work efficiency and prevent
accidents. Occasionally, accidents do happen. It is important that you keep calm so
you can take proper actions. Accidents are caused either by people themselves or by
hazardous environment or defective equipment.
Factors that Contribute to Successful Baking
Baking requires accuracy. Any deviation from the measurement, procedure,
and type of ingredient may greatly affect the baked products. Beginners in baking
should observe the correct practices in preparation to achieve the desired results.
The Use of Quality Ingredients
Always use high quality dry and liquid ingredients, minor baking ingredients,
shortening and fresh eggs. Use ingredients indicated in the recipe. Refrain from
substituting ingredients.
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The Use of Appropriate Tools and Utensils
Utilize standard measuring cups, glass and spoons for best results. Mixing
bowls should be large enough to allow proper mixing of ingredients to produce dough
and batter. Use a pastry blender or two knives when cutting shortening into flour.
Appropriate use of tools and utensils promote work efficiency and
effectiveness.
Following Correct Procedures
 Study and follow the recipe accurately. It is important to understand the
recipe first then to assemble all the needed ingredients, tools and utensils
before starting to bake. Follow the step-by-step procedure accurately.
 Pre-heat the oven. If a thermostat is defective or not available use an oven
thermometer to check the baking temperature.
 Measure ingredients accurately. Do not change the specified amount of
ingredients. Any change in the amount of ingredients may result in failure to
achieve the desired effect or expected consistency of the mixture.
 Observe correct hand and mixing techniques. Wrong mixing techniques such
as over-mixing, under-mixing, under-beating, or overbeating of eggs, and
insufficient creaming will result in poorly baked goods.
 Make use of the type of pan specified in the recipe. Measure its length, width,
and inside depth. Find out in the recipe if the pan(s) should or should not be
greased or lined with wax paper.
 Follow the specified baking time and temperature stated in the recipe. Place
the baking pan at the center of the oven and avoid opening the oven door
until baking is done.
Arrange the following procedures in baking. Use A for the first step, B for
second and so on. Write your answer in your test notebook.
______1. Pre-heat the oven.
______2. Follow the specified baking time and temperature.
______3. Make use of the type of pan specified in the recipe.
______4. Observe correct hand and mixing techniques.
______5. Study and follow the recipe accurately.
______6. Measure ingredients accurately.
Self-check 1.1.3
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Something to Do
Field Trip to a Bake Shop
In a field trip to a baking shop, observe the following:
1. How do the bakers work?
2. Do they practice cleanliness and sanitation?
3. Write a narrative report of your observation.
4. You will present your output in class. You will be rated on the following criteria:
CRITERIA 4 3 2 1
Clarity Exceptionally
clear and easy
to understand
Generally clear
and quite easy
to understand
Lacks clarity
and difficult to
understand
Unclear cannot
be understand
Comprehensiveness Thorough and
comprehensive
explanation
Substantial
Explanation
Partial or not
comprehensive
Explanation
Misunderstanding
or serious
misconception on
the explanation
Relevance Highly relevant Generally
relevant
Somewhat
relevant
Irrelevant
What do you need to know?
Activity 1.1.3
Read Lesson Information closely and find out how much you can
remember. Then do the Self-check 1.1.4 to know how much you have
learned.
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Baking Tools, Utensils and Equipment in Making Bread,
Cookies, Muffins and Biscuits
Baking is a sophisticated method of cooking food. It requires special tools
and equipment in order to bring out the best results.
To prepare for baking, familiarize yourself with the following baking tools,
utensils and equipment classified according to their use.
MEASURING UTENSILS
LIQUID-MEASURING CUP - a
transparent cup calibrated to indicate
the amount of liquid.
DRY-MEASURING CUP - is a set of
marked cups used to measure dry
ingredients such as flour and sugar.
They are either made of plastic,
aluminum, or stainless steel.
MEASURING SPOONS - a set of
spoons used to measure small
amounts of ingredients.
DIETETIC SCALE - is an instrument
used to measure the weight of the
items or ingredients.
Lesson Information
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MIXING, BLENDING, and CUTTING UTENSILS
DOUGH CUTTER - a tool with a sharp
edge used to cut dough.
FLOUR SIFTER - used in sifting
coarse or dry ingredients such as flour
and sugar.
ELECTRIC MIXER - a motor powered
device used to stir and blend mixtures
used in baking.
Grater - tool used to grate food into
finer form.
MIXING BOWL - a hollow dish where
ingredients for baking are mixed.
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ROLLING PIN - a solid elongated
wood with handles at both ends that is
used to flatten dough or pastry.
ROTARY EGG BEATER - a hand-
held device for beating eggs, cream,
and other liquids.
RUBBER SCRAPER - a tool used, for
mixing and scraping mixture on the
side of a bowl.
SPATULA - a flat, thin and blunt metal
used for leveling-off dry ingredients
and spreading icing and frosting on
cakes.
WOODEN SPOON - a tool used for
mixing and stirring flour mixtures.
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BAKING UTENSILS
OVEN - an equipment used for
baking, heating, or drying foods
BAKING PAN- an aluminum or
tempered glass dish, rectangular or
square in form used for baking cakes
MUFFIN PAN - an aluminum
rectangular or square pan with hallow
rounded
COOKIE or BAKING SHEET - is a
flat aluminum sheet used for baking
cookies
Something to do
1. Your teacher will put a number on each of the baking tools, utensils and
equipment. Your task is to identify and classify them.
2. Select one tool and/or equipment. Demonstrate in class its proper use and
care.
Self-Check 1.1.4
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Rubrics for scoring
Point
5 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and
equipment with no mistake.
4 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and
equipment with 1 mistake.
3 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and
equipment with 2 mistakes.
2 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and
equipment with 3 mistakes.
1 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and
equipment with 4 mistakes.
Types, Kinds and Classification of Bakery Products
Preparing bakery products requires no trick but adequate mastery of the
processes in baking. This module will provide you hands-on experience in baking.
Baking has become not just a favorite past time or hobby but a highly profitable
business.
Bread is one of the most popular and best sold baked products, not only in our
country but in other countries as well. Many countries have bread as their staple
food.
There are different kinds of bread. Whatever kind of bread is eaten, people
remember it for its quality. It is by maintaining good quality that popular bakeries or
bread houses keep their customers.
What do you need to know?
Lesson Information
Read Lesson Information closely and find out how much can you
remember. Then do Self-check 1.1.5 to know how much you have
learned.
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The quality of bread is affected by the type of ingredients used, the manner the
dough is mixed or prepared, and the temperature maintained during baking.
Kinds of Dough in Baking Bread
Dough used in baking bread is classified into two:
 Lean dough. The Basic ingredients for bread which include flour, yeast, salts,
a little sugar, and shortening make up the lean dough. This dough is made up
into Pan de sal, Pan Amerikano, French bread, and other crusty bread
varieties.
 Rich dough. Aside from the basic ingredients for bread, rich dough has butter,
nuts, fruits, eggs, and condiments. Milk is often used, too. Rich dough also
uses more sugar. This dough is used in making rolls, coffee cakes, and the
sweet bread varieties.
Methods of Mixing Dough
Straight method - This method combines all the ingredients together at one time to
make the dough. The dough is kneaded and set aside to rise.
Sponge and dough method - This method mixes part of the liquid, flour, and all of
the yeast to make a soft mixture which is set aside to rise until bubbly. Then,
the remaining ingredients are added and the mixture is treated as straight
dough.
Bread products can also be prepared using batter instead of dough. Preparation of
this type of bread is faster since there is no dough to knead and shape. However, the
texture of the finished product is not as fine as that of kneaded dough.
Characteristics of a Well-Made Bread
Bread of high quality is characterized by the following:
1. It is large for its weight, well-rounded top, and free from cracks and bulges.
2. The crust is thin with an even golden brown color.
3. It has fine and even grain, elongated cells, and thin cell wall making the crumb
smooth, soft, elastic, and creamy white with a silken sheen.
4. It does not crumble easily.
5. It has a sweet and nutty odor, not sour.
Cookies
Cookies are always popular. They are really “little cakes, flat, sweet and
small. They can be made in a variety of shapes and flavors, and can be served in
just as many different ways.
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Kinds of Cookies
 Drop cookies - are irregular and unevenly shaped. They are made simply by
dropping the cookie batter from a teaspoon to a baking sheet to get the popular
tongue-shaped cookies.
 Rolled cookies - are made from dough which have been rolled out and cut with
cutters to form shapes that fit special occasions such as Christmas, Valentine’s
Day and Easter.
 Pressed or Bagged Cookies – are made with more butter which makes the
finished product richer in taste than the other types of cookies. They are made by
pressing the mixture out of a cookie presser or pastry tube onto the baking sheet,
and at the same time forming it into varied shapes like rings or ribbons.
 Cookie bar- this type of cookie is cut into bars after baking. They are usually
small and square in shape.
 Refrigerated cookies – this type of cookie is frozen and cut into desired shapes
before baking.
Mixing Techniques
Mixing methods greatly affect flour mixtures and its resulting product. Various
techniques have been developed for efficiency and convenience. Some of them are
as follows:
 Creaming - Rubbing one or two ingredients in a bowl with the help of a
wooden spoon or electric mixer to make a soft fluffy mixture. The creamed
mixture should have both smooth and grainy particles.
 Cutting in - Mixing fat and flour with the use of a pastry blender or two knives
in a scissor-like manner. This method cuts fat into small pieces, coating them
with flour to form coarse, granular mixtures for pastries and biscuits.
 Folding - This is working with two ingredients very gently to retain air in the
mixture. It often involves one delicately textured ingredient such as beaten
egg white or whipped cream, which would be reduced to nothing if handled
crudely, and a batter type mix.
 Cut and Fold - A combination of two motions cutting vertically through the
mixture and turning over and over by gliding the spoon or rubber scraper
across the bottom of the mixing bowl at each turn.
 Beating - It is done to incorporate air in a mixture by mechanical agitation. It
could be done with the aid of special gadgets like wire whips, egg beaters or
electric food mixers or with a fork.
 Stirring – It is often done with a wooden spoon, rotating it through a mixture
as long as necessary usually until the ingredients are combined.
 Whipping – It is a process of beating eggs and cream to fill them with air and
make them thick and fluffy.
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 Sifting – It is the process of separating coarse particles in the ingredients by
passing through a sieve. Air is incorporated through this method.
Muffin
Muffins are simple cup breads leavened and are considered a member of
the quick bread family. A variety of quick loaf breads and coffee cakes can be
derived from the basic muffin recipe.
Outside Characteristics of Muffin and Quick Breads
 Shape: Uniform; well-rounded top; free from peaks; no cracks.
 Size: Uniform; large in proportion to weight.
 Color: Uniform golden brown.
 Crust: Tender; pebbled or slightly rough; shiny
Inside Characteristics of Muffin and Quick Breads
 Color: Creamy white or slightly yellow; free from streaks.
 Grain: Round, even cells; free from tunnels.
 Texture: Tender; moist; light.
 Flavor: Pleasing; well-blended with no bitterness.
Biscuits
Biscuits are small flaky quick breads. They are leavened with fast-acting
leaveners which make preparation time shorter than any yeast leavened bread.
Two Ways to Make Biscuits:
 Using solid fats
Solid fats are cut into the flour with a fork, a pair of knives or a pastry
blender until it coats the flour and is fairly crumbly and mealy.
Liquid is added to make a soft dough and then the mixture is rapidly but
lightly kneaded to evenly distribute the mixture and sufficiently develop the gluten
for flaky product.
 Using liquid shortening or “Wet to Dry Method”
Liquid shortening or oil is added to the liquid ingredients and mixed with the dry
ingredients to make soft dough. It is kneaded rapidly but lightly and treated like
the solid fat dough.
Outside Characteristics of Biscuits
 Shape: Uniform; straight sides and level tops on rolled biscuits
 Size: Uniform; twice the size of unbaked biscuits
 Color: Uniform golden brown tops and bottoms—sides lighter; free from
yellow or brown
 Crust: Tender; moderately smooth; free form excess flour
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Inside Characteristics of Biscuits
 Color: Creamy white; free from yellow or brown spots.
 Grain: Flaky, pulling off in thin sheets; medium fine, even cells.
 Texture: Tender; slightly moist; light.
 Flavor: Pleasing, well-blended with no bitterness.
NOTE: Drop biscuits will be nicely rounded with rough and crisper crust. They
will not be as flaky.
RECOGNIZE ME?
Below are statements describing the different mixing techniques used in
producing bakery products. Choose the correct word/term from the box and
write your answer in your test notebook.
Creaming Cutting-in Stirring
Beating Whipping Sifting
Folding Cut and Fold
_______________ 1. Separating coarse particles in the ingredients by
passing through a sieve.
_______________ 2. Rubbing one or two ingredients in a bowl with the tip
of a wooden spoon or electric mixer.
_______________ 3. Mixing fat and flour using a pastry blender or two
knives in a scissors-like manner.
_______________ 4. Working with two ingredients very gently to retain air
in the mixture.
_______________ 5. Beating egg and creaming to fill with air and make
them thick and fluffy.
Self-Check 1.1.5
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Below is the table which indicates the type of baking products with corresponding
oven temperature and baking time.
Types of Product Oven Temperature Baking Time
BREADS
Biscuits 425°F to 450°F 10 to 15 min
Corn bread 400°F to 425°F 30 to 40 min
Muffins 400°F to 425°F 20 to 25 min
Quick loaf breads 350°F to 375°F 1 to 1 ¼ hr
Yeast bread 400°F 30 to 40 min
COOKIES
Drop 350°F to 400°F 8 to 15 min
Rolled 375°F 8 to 10 min
The succeeding pages provide recipes for the different types of bakery
products. Divide the class into five groups. Choose a recipe to follow. Each group
should be assigned to bake a particular type of bread, cookies, muffin & biscuits.
No two groups should do the same recipe. There are enough recipes for all the
groups.
What do you need to know?
Activity 1.1.4
Lesson Information
Read Lesson Information and find out how much you can remember.
Then do the Self-Check 1.1.6 to know how much you have learned.
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Suggested projects
DINNER ROLL
Ingredients
Mixture 1
 1 ¼ cup bread flour
 1
∕8 bar butter (softened)
Mixture 2
 3 tablespoon sugar
 ½ tablespoon yeast
Mixture 3
 ¼ cup beaten egg
 1
∕8 tsp iodized salt
Mixture 4
 Egg wash
PROCEDURE:
1. In a large mixing bowl, combine bread flour and butter. Mix well. Add the
sugar and yeast. Rub the dry ingredients with your hands until all ingredients
were distributed equally.
2. Beat egg and combine to water and salt.
3. Pour all liquid ingredients to dry ingredients and mix well. Knead for 15-20
minutes.
4. When the dough is already smooth and elastic and blisters are showing, form
a ball and set aside for 20-25 minutes or until it doubles in size.
5. Punch the dough. Flatten and weigh for 45 grams or make it to 7 pieces.
6. Arrange in baking sheet and set aside for 30 minutes or until it increases its
size.
7. Bake for 10-15 minutes in 375°F.
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PAN DE SAL
INGREDIENTS:
 1 k bread flour
 1 ½ tbsp. instant yeast
 ¼ cup lukewarm water
 200 g brown sugar
 2 tbsp.oil
 2 tsp rock salt
 1 tsp vanilla
 150 grams lard
 2 cups water
PROCEDURE:
1. Dissolve yeast in ¼ cup lukewarm water. Sprinkle with 1 tbsp. sugar. Allow to
stand for 8-10 minutes.
2. Combine water, oil, salt and sugar. Stir until salt and sugar are dissolved. Set
aside.
3. In a separate bowl, place bread flour and make a well at the center and then
add yeast mixture, and follow the liquid mixture. Mix thoroughly.
4. Transfer dough on a floured board and start kneading. Continue kneading
until dough is smooth. (Approximately 25 minutes).
5. Shape into smooth ball and grease all sides with lard. Place in slightly
greased bowl. Cover with damp clean cloth. Allow to rise until double in size,
approximately 1 ½ hours, then punch down dough.
6. Cut dough into two, then roll each half into a round log about 30 cm x 2 ½ cm.
7. Cut into 12 equal pieces. Dredge with bread crumbs.
8. Place on greased baking sheets with one side of each piece facing up, about
2½ cm apart. Let it rise until double its size. Bake in a pre-heated oven at
350°F for 15-20 minutes.
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CINNAMON ROLL
Ingredients
 1 TB yeast
 1 tsp sugar
 ½ cup water
 2 cups milk
 3 TB butter
 ¼ cup sugar
 1 tsp salt
 ½ tsp vanilla
 3 cups all-purpose flour
Filling
 ¼ cup softened butter
 ⅓ cup brown sugar
 2 tsp cinnamon
 ¼ cup chopped cashew nuts
 ½ cup raisins
Greasing mixture on pan
 ¼ cup maple syrup, optional
 ¼ cup brown sugar
 ¼ cup white sugar
 ¼ cup butter
Procedure:
1. Mix together yeast, sugar, water and milk. Cover for 5 minutes.
2. Add in butter, sugar, salt, vanilla and flour. Let it rise for 25 minutes.
3. Roll on floured table.
4. Spread filling, roll and cut to 1” thick.
5. Place on greased pans and let it rise for 30 minutes.
6. Preheat 350°F, bake for 20 minutes.
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SPANISH BREAD/PAN DE COCO/CHEESE BREAD
Ingredients
 1 k bread flour
 2 tbsp. instant yeast
 ¼ cup lukewarm water
 2 cups water
 100 grams brown sugar
 2 tbsp.oil
 2 tsp rock salt
 1 tsp vanilla
 75 grams lard
SPANISH BREAD FILLING
Ingredients
 ½ bar butter
 1
∕3 cup brown sugar
 ½ c bread crumbs
 ½ t vanilla
Mix and cook together.
PAN DE COCO FILLING
Ingredients
 1 pc young coconut (grated)
 1 cup brown sugar
 1 tsp vanilla
Mix and cook together.
CHEESE BREAD TOPPINGS
Ingredients
 ¼ cup butter
 1 cup powdered milk
Cut in butter and milk then add sugar.
Procedure
1. Prepare the desired filling and/or topping. Set aside.
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2. Dissolve yeast in ¼ cup lukewarm water. Sprinkle with 1 tbsp. sugar. Allow
to stand for 8-10 minutes.
3. Combine water, oil, salt and sugar. Stir until salt and sugar is dissolved. Set
aside.
4. In a separate bowl, place bread flour and make a well at the center. Then add
yeast mixture, follow by the liquid mixture. Mix thoroughly.
5. Transfer dough on a floured board and start kneading. Continue kneading
until dough is smooth. (Approximately 20-25 minutes)
6. Shape into smooth ball and grease all sides with lard. Place in slightly
grease bowl. Cover with damp clean cloth. Allow to rise until double in size
approximately 1 ½ hours. Then punch down dough.
7. Shape and add fillings and/or topping
8. Arrange in grease cookie sheet.
9. Allow to rise for the second time until double in size.
10. Bake until done (10-15 min at 350°F).
CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIES
Ingredients
 11
∕8 cup flour
 ¼ tsp baking soda
 ½ tsp salt
 ¼ cup shortening
 ¼ cup sugar
 1 egg, beaten
 1 tsp vanilla
 ½ pound semi-sweet chocolate or chocolate chips
Procedure
1. Sift flour, baking soda and salt together.
2. Cream shortening, brown sugar and granulated sugar together.
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3. Add egg and vanilla. Beat thoroughly.
4. Add sifted dry ingredients.
5. Fold in chocolate / chocolate chips cut into small pieces.
6. Drop from teaspoon onto greased cookie sheet.
7. Bake in moderate oven (350°F) about 10 minutes. Make 50 cookies.
BUTTERMILK NUT BREAD
Ingredients
 2 eggs, well beaten
 1 ½ cups brown sugar
 3 ¼ cups sifted flour
 2 tsp baking soda
 ½ tsp salt
 2 cups butter milk
 1 cup chopped nuts
Procedure
1. Beat eggs, add sugar and mix well.
2. Sift flour, baking soda and salt together. Alternately add buttermilk and egg
mixture to dry mixture.
3. Add nuts. Pour into 2 greased loaf pans.
4. Bake in slow oven (325°F) 1 hour. Makes 2 (8 x 4 inch) loaves.
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CHEESE BISCUITS
Ingredients:
 2 cup all-purpose flour
 1 Tbsp baking powder
 5 Tbsp butter or margarine
 ¼ cup grated cheddar cheese
 1 egg, beaten
Procedure
1. Sift flour and baking powder together.
2. Cut in butter until mixture resembles cornmeal.
3. Add cheese and milk to form soft dough.
4. Turn dough out on a lightly floured board and knead for 30 seconds.
5. Roll the dough out ¼ inch thick, and with a biscuit cutter cut out rounds.
6. Put half of the rounds on a baking sheet and top each with grated cheese.
7. Brush the biscuits with the lightly beaten egg.
8. Bake in a hot oven (375°F) for 15 minutes or until they are golden.
BANANA MUFFIN
Ingredients
 1 ½ c all-purpose flour
 1 tsp baking powder
 1 tsp baking soda
 ½ tsp salt
 3 large bananas, mashed
 ¾ cup white sugar
 1 egg
 1
∕3 cup butter, melted
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Procedure
1. Pre heat oven to 350°F. Coat muffin pans with non-stick or use paper liner.
Sift together the flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt. Set aside.
2. Combine bananas, sugar, egg, and melted butter in a large mixing bowl. Fold
in flour mixture, and mix until smooth. Scoop into muffin pans.
3. Bake in preheated oven. Bake mini muffins for 10 to 15 minutes, and large
muffins for 25 to 30 minutes. Muffin will spring back when lightly topped.
STANDARD SCORE SHEET for BREAD/ MUFFIN
Rate your product using this Score Sheet.
Characteristics Excellent
5
Very
Good
4
Good
3
Fair
2
Poor
1
External Characteristics
1. Shape: well-proportioned;
Symmetrical; rounded top
2. Size: large but not airy;
proportional to weight
3. Color: even, rich golden brown
4. Crust: tender; crisp; even
thickness; free from cracks
Internal Characteristics
1. Color: creamy white; free from
streaks
2. Grain: fine; thin-walled cells,
evenly distributed
3. Texture: tender; soft; slightly
moist
4. Flavor: “wheaty” sweet
Comments:
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HONEY RAISIN BARS
Ingredients
 ¼ cup shortening
 ½ cup sugar
 ½ cup honey
 1 egg
 1 ½ cup cereal flakes
 1 ½ cup cake flour
 1 ½ tsp baking powder
 ¼ tsp baking soda
 ¼ tsp salt
 ½ cup milk
 1 cup seedless raisins
Procedure
1. Blend shortening, sugar, and honey thoroughly.
2. Add egg and beat well.
3. Crush cereal flakes into fine crumbs, mix with sifted dry ingredients and add to
shortening mixture alternately with milk.
4. Stir in raisins.
5. Spread batter ½ inch thick in well-greased 10 x 15 inch pan.
6. Bake 15 to 20 minutes at 350°F.
7. Cool and cut into 35 2-inch squares.
CARAMEL SUGAR COOKIES
Ingredients
 1 cup shortening
 1 c sugar
 ½ c brown sugar
 3 eggs, beaten
 2 t vanilla
 3 ¾ c cake flour
 ½ c brown sugar
 1 t salts
 ½ baking soda
 brown sugar
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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf
Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf

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Bread and Pastry Production Manual.pdf

  • 1. D E P E D C O P Y Bread and Pastry Production Manual Department of Education Republic of the Philippines We value your feedback and recommendations. This learning resource was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@deped.gov.ph. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 2. D E P E D C O P Y ii Bread and Pastry – Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Track Manual First Edition 2016 Republic Act 8293. Section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS and only within the agreed framework may copy from this Manual. Those who have not entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and authors directly. Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02) 435-5258, respectively. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD Printed in the Philippines by Sunshine Interlinks Publishing House, Inc. 3F Maine City Tower, 236 Tomas Morato Avenue, Brgy. South Triangle, Quezon City Development Team of the Bread and Pastry Production Manual Management Team of the Bread and Pastry Production Manual Bureau of Curriculum Development Bureau of Learning Resources Department of Education-Bureau of Learning Resources (DepEd-BLR) Office Address: Ground Floor Bonifacio Building, DepEd Complex Meralco Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines 1600 Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072, 631-4985 E-mail Address: blr.lrqad@deped.gov.ph / blr.lrpd@deped.gov.ph trademarks, etc.) included in this learning resource are owned by their respective copyright holders. DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. All means have been exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Writers: Aniceta S. Kong Anecita P. Domo, Cristeta M. Arcos Maila A. Dogelio Reviewers: Prof. Emelita Nuyda Jocelyn de Jesus Layout Artist: Christian Bjorn R. Cunanan Illustrator: Eric S. De Guia Fermin Fabella Cover Artist: Ricardo Jose V. Santillan III Jason Villena All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 3. D E P E D C O P Y iii Introduction The Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) for junior high school and Technical- Livelihood-Vocational Education (TVL) for senior high school is one track in the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP). It is composed of four components, namely: Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts, and Information and Communication Technology. Learners in Grades 7 and 8 may take an exploratory course on the subject; tackling common competencies that they would need, should they wish to have a career in TLE/TVL. Their learnings and competencies are then further enhanced in Grades 9 and 10, up to Senior High. This learning resource focuses on the course Bread and Pastry Production (National Certificate Level II) under Home Economics of the TLE/TVL track. The Department of Education aims that this learning resource contributes to the attainment of the realization of the overall goal of the K to 12 Basic Education Program, which is the holistic development of every Filipino learner: equipped with 21st century skills, adequately prepared for work, and has gained the right knowledge, attitude, values and skills to start a business, acquire middle level skills, and to advance in higher education. Bread and Pastry Production Manual This Manual includes information and activities to develop desirable values, skills and understanding through step-by-step procedures and helpful techniques and guidelines on how to prepare, present, display, and store bakery products, pastries, petit fours, cakes, and desserts. Provisions for practical application to real life situation are also included for lifelong learning. To the Learner: This Manual provides varied and relevant activities and opportunities to determine your understanding of the key concepts and to demonstrate core competencies as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation in Bread and Pastry Production. This manual is specifically crafted to focus on the different activities that will assess your level in terms of skills and knowledge necessary to get a Certificate of Competency and/or National Certification (NC II). Successful completion of this course ensures that you have acquired the essential skills to be on your way to becoming a certified bread and pastry producer. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 4. D E P E D C O P Y iv HOW TO USE THIS LEARNER’S MANUAL Here are some reminders on how to use this material. 1. Answer the pre-assessment before you proceed to the different activities. The pre-assessment determines how much you know about the lessons and identifies the areas you ought to learn more. Your teacher will check and analyze your score to determine your learning needs. 2. This learner’s manual contains relevant information and activities. Go over each activity carefully. If you encounter difficulties, do not hesitate to consult your teacher for assistance. Do not skip any topic unless you are told to do so. REMEMBER that each activity is a preparation for the succeeding activities. 3. For every lesson/learning outcome, answer the self-check and perform the given activities to enrich your knowledge and skills. 4. After successfully finishing the tasks, answer the post-assessment to be given by your teacher. Your score will be analyzed and will be used by your teacher for the computation of your grades. 5. Lastly, DO NOT mark the learner’s manual in any way. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 5. D E P E D C O P Y v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction………………………………………………………................. iii How to use this Learner’s Material ……………………………................. iv Quarter I Definition of Terms................................................................................. 2 Pre-assessment..................................................................................... 4 Lesson 1: Prepare and Produce Bakery Products LO 1 Prepare Bakery Products................................................... 7 Self Check 1.1.1.............................................................. 10 Activity 1.1.1.................................................................... 10 Self Check 1.1.2.............................................................. 16 Activity 1.1.2.................................................................... 16 Self Check 1.1.3.............................................................. 19 Activity 1.1.3 ................................................................... 20 Self Check 1.1.4.............................................................. 24 Self Check 1.1.5.............................................................. 29 Activity 1.1.4 ................................................................... 30 Activity 1.1.5 ................................................................... 42 LO 2 Decorate and Present Bakery Products............................ 43 Self Check 1.2.1.............................................................. 45 Self Check 1.2.2.............................................................. 48 Activity 1.2.1.................................................................... 48 LO 3 Store Bakery Products....................................................... 50 Self Check 1.3.1.............................................................. 53 Activity 1.3.1.................................................................... 57 Post-assessment.................................................................................... 59 Generalization......................................................................................... 62 Quarter II Definition of Terms.................................................................................. 64 Pre-assessment...................................................................................... 65 Lesson 2: Prepare and Produce Pastry Products LO 1 Prepare Pastry Products .................................................... 68 Self Check 2.1.1............................................................... 73 Self Check 2.1.2............................................................... 78 Activity 2.1.1..................................................................... 78 Self Check 2.1.3............................................................... 87 Activity 2.1.2..................................................................... 87 Activity 2.1.3..................................................................... 90 Activity 2.1.4..................................................................... 93 Activity 2.1.5..................................................................... 95 Activity 2.1.6..................................................................... 96 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 6. D E P E D C O P Y vi Activity 2.1.7................................................................... 98 Activity 2.1.8................................................................... 100 Activity 2.1.9................................................................... 101 Self Check 2.1.4............................................................. 104 LO 2 Decorate and Present Pastry ........................................... 104 Self Check 2.2.1............................................................. 107 Self Check 2.2.2............................................................. 110 Self Check 2.2.3............................................................. 111 LO 3 Store Pastry Products....................................................... 111 Activity 2.3.1................................................................... 114 Post-assessment................................................................................... 115 Generalization....................................................................................... 118 Quarter III Definition of Terms................................................................................ 120 Pre-assessment.................................................................................... 123 Lesson 3: Prepare and Present Gateaux, Tortes and Cakes LO 1 Prepare Sponge Cake....................................................... 127 Self Check 3.1.1 ............................................................. 127 Activity 3.1.1 ................................................................... 130 Self Check 3.1.2 ............................................................. 133 Self Check 3.1.3 ............................................................. 136 Self Check 3.1.4 ............................................................. 153 Self Check 3.1.5 ............................................................. 155 Self Check 3.1.6 ............................................................. 157 Activity 3.1.2 ................................................................... 157 Activity 3.1.3 ................................................................... 159 Activity 3.1.4 ................................................................... 161 Activity 3.1.5 ................................................................... 163 LO 2 Prepare and Use Fillings................................................... 165 Self Check 3.2.1.............................................................. 168 Self Check 3.2.2.............................................................. 171 Activity 3.2.1 ................................................................... 171 LO 3 Decorate Cakes.................................................................. 172 Self Check 3.3.1.............................................................. 174 Activity 3.3.1 ................................................................... 177 LO 4 Present Cakes.................................................................... 178 Activity 3.4.1 ................................................................... 181 LO 5 Store Cakes..............................................…...........……… 183 Self Check 3.5.1.............................................................. 189 Activity 3.5.1 ................................................................... 189 Post-assessment.................................................................................... 191 Generalization.............................................................………................ 194 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 7. D E P E D C O P Y vii Quarter IV Definition of Terms................................................................................ 195 Pre-assessment..................................................................................... 199 Lesson 4: Prepare and Display Petit Fours LO 1 Prepare Iced Petit Fours................................................... 202 Activity 4.1.1................................................................... 204 Activity 4.1.2................................................................... 206 Activity 4.1.3................................................................... 209 LO 2 Prepare Fresh Petit Fours................................................. 211 Activity 4.2.1................................................................... 213 LO 3 Prepare Marzipan Petit Fours........................................... 215 Activity 4.3.1................................................................... 217 Activity 4.3.2................................................................... 218 Activity 4.3.3................................................................... 220 LO 4 Prepare Caramelized Petit Fours...................................... 223 Activity 4.4.1.................................................................... 226 LO 5 Display Petit Fours............................................................. 227 LO 6 Store Petit Fours…………………....................…………… 228 Lesson 5: Present Desserts (PD) LO 1 Present and Serve Plated Desserts................................... 229 LO 2 Plan, Prepare and Present Dessert Buffet Selection or Plating............................................................ 235 LO 3 Store and Package Desserts............................................. 237 Activity 5.3.1.................................................................... 243 Post-assessment.................................................................................... 244 Generalization......................................................................................... 247 References.............................................................................................. 248 Answer key.............................................................................................. 251 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 8. D E P E D C O P Y viii K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL TECHNICAL LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL-LIVELIHOOD TRACK HOME ECONOMICS – BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION (NC II) (160 hours) Course Description: This curriculum guide on Bread and Pastry Production course leads to National Certificate Level II (NCII). This course is designed for high school student to develop knowledge, skills, and attitude to perform the tasks on Bread and Pastry Production. It covers core competencies namely: 1) prepare and produce bakery products; 2) prepare and produce pastry products; 3) prepare and present gateau, tortes and cakes; 4) prepare and display petit fours and 5) present deserts. The preliminaries of this specialization course includes the following: 1) Explain core concepts in bread & pastry production ; 2) Discuss the relevance of the course 3) Explore on opportunities for a Baker or Commis as a career. CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE Introduction 1. Basic concepts in bread and pastry production 2. Relevance of the course 3. Career opportunities The learners demonstrate an understanding of the core concepts and theories in bread and pastry production The learners independently demonstrate core competencies in bread and pastry production as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation The learners: 1. explain core concepts in bread and pastry production 2. discuss the relevance of the course 3. explore opportunities in bread and pastry production Quarter 1 Lesson 1: PREPARE AND PRODUCE BAKERY PRODUCTS 1. Accurate measurement of ingredients 2. Baking ingredients and its The learners demonstrate an understanding of The learners independently demonstrate core LO 1. Prepare bakery products 1.1 Select, measure and weigh required ingredients TLE_HEBP9- 12PB-Ia-f-1 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 9. D E P E D C O P Y ix CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE substitution 3. Types, kinds, and classification of bakery products 4. Mixing procedures/ formulation/ recipes, and desired product characteristics of various bakery products 5. Baking techniques, appropriate conditions and enterprise requirements and standards 6. Temperature ranges in bakery products 7. Suggested projects: 7.1. Dinner roll 7.2. Pan de sal 7.3. Cinnamon roll 7.4. Ensaymada 7.5. Pan de coco the core concepts and theories in bread and pastry production competencies in preparing and producing bakery products according to recipe or production requirements 1.2 Prepare a variety of bakery products according to standard mixing procedures/ formulation/ recipes and desired product characteristics 1.3 Use appropriate equipment according to required bakery products and standard operating procedures 1.4 Bake bakery products according to techniques and appropriate conditions 1.5 Select required oven temperature to bake goods in accordance with the desired characteristics, standards recipe specifications All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 10. D E P E D C O P Y x CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE Quarter 2 LESSON 1: PREPARE AND PRODUCE PASTRY PRODUCTS (PP) 1. Culinary and technical terms related to pastry products 2. Ratio of ingredients required to produce a balance formula 3. Correct proportion control, yields, weights and sizes for profitability 4. Types, kinds, and classification of pastry products 5. Mixing procedures/formulation/recipes and desired product characteristics of various pastry products 6. Baking tools, equipment, and their uses and functions 7. Baking techniques appropriate conditions, and enterprise requirements and standards The learner demonstrates understanding of the basic concept and underlying theories in preparing and producing pastry products The learner demonstrate competencies in preparing and producing pastry products LO 1. Prepare pastry products 1.1. Select, measure and weigh required ingredients according to recipe or production requirements and established standards and procedures 1.2. Prepare variety of pastry products according to standard mixing procedures/formulation/ recipes and desired product characteristics 1.3. Use appropriate equipment according to required pastry products and standard operating procedures 1.4. Bake pastry products according to techniques and appropriate conditions; and enterprise requirement and standards TLE_HEBP9- 12PP-IIa-g-4 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 11. D E P E D C O P Y xi CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE 8. Temperature ranges in baking pastry products 9. Occupational health and safety 10. Suggested projects: 10.1 Pies - Pineapple pie - Buko pie - Egg pie 10.2 Pizza 10.3 Empanada 10.4 Tart 10.5 Etc. 1.5. Select required oven temperature to bake goods in accordance with the desired characteristics, standards recipe specifications and enterprise practices 11. Types and classifications of fillings, coatings/icing and glazes 12. Regular and special fillings and coating/icing, glazes and decorations 13. Decorative techniques and rules for garnishing 14. The tools and materials in LO 2. Decorate and present Pastry products 2.1 Prepare a variety of fillings and coating/icing, glazes and decorations for pastry products according to standard recipes, enterprise standards and/or customer preferences TLE_HEBP9- 12PP-IIh-i-5 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 12. D E P E D C O P Y xii CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE decorating, finishing and presenting 15. Standards and procedures in decorating pastry products 16. Occupational Health and Safety 17. Standards and procedures in finishing pastry products 18. Plating and presenting pastry products 2.2 Fill and decorate pastry products, where required and appropriate, in accordance with standard recipes and/or enterprise standards and customer preferences 2.3 Finish pastry products according to desired product characteristics 2.4 Present baked pastry products according to established standards and procedures 19. Shelf-life of pastry products 20. Standards and procedures in storing pastry products 21. Different kinds of packaging materials to be used 22. Standards and procedures in packaging pastry product LO 3. Store pastry products 3.1 Store pastry products according to established standards and procedures 3.2 Select packaging appropriate for the preservation of product freshness and eating characteristics TLE_HEBP9- 12PP-IIj-6 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 13. D E P E D C O P Y xiii CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE Quarter 3 LESSON 1: PREPARE AND PRESENT GATEAUX, TORTES AND CAKES (TC) 1. Culinary terms related to sponge and cakes 2. How to measure ingredients 3. Correct proportion control, yields, weights and sizes for profitability 4. Main ingredients used for variety of sponge and cakes 5. Specific temperature used for different types of sponge and cakes 6. Pre-heating the oven 7. Classification of the different types of sponge and cakes 8. Mixing methods used for variety of sponge and cakes 9. Required equipment and materials for sponge and cakes The learner demonstrates understanding of the core concept and underlying theories in preparing and presenting gateaux, tortes and cakes The learner demonstrate competencies in preparing and presenting gateaux, tortes and cakes LO 1. Prepare sponge and cakes 1.1 Select, measure and weigh ingredients according to recipe requirements, enterprise practices and customer practices 1.2 Select required oven temperature to bake goods in accordance with desired characteristics, standard recipe specifications and enterprise practices 1.3 Prepare sponges and cakes according to recipe specifications, techniques and conditions and desired product characteristics 1.4 Use appropriate equipment according to required pastry and bakery TLE_HEBP9- 12TC-IIIa-f-7 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 14. D E P E D C O P Y xiv CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE 10. Recipe specifications, techniques and conditions and desired product characteristics 11. Cooling temperature of sponge and cakes 12. Suggested projects: 13. Batter cake with butter icing 14. Sponge cake with butter cream filling and icing 15. Chiffon cake with boiled icing or fondant icing 16. Chocolate cake products and standard operating procedures 1.6 Cool sponges and cakes according to established standards and procedures 17. Identification of fillings appropriate in a specific cakes 18. Identification of the required consistency and appropriate flavor of fillings 19. Filling and assembling cakes according to the standard recipe LO 2. Prepare and use fillings 2.1 Prepare and select fillings in accordance with required consistency and appropriate flavors 2.2 Fill and assemble slice or layer sponges and TLE_HEBP9- 12TC-IIIg-8 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 15. D E P E D C O P Y xv CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE specifications 20. Classification of coatings and sidings based on the required recipe specifications and product characteristics cakes according to standard recipe specifications, enterprise practice and customer preferences 2.3 Select coatings and sidings according to the product characteristics and required recipe specification 21. Identification of specific decorations appropriate for sponge and cakes 22. Identification of standard recipes of icings and decorations for sponge and cakes 23. Identification and application of steps and procedure in icing a cake. 24. Types of icing/frosting and their uses LO 3. Decorate cakes 3.1 Decorate sponges and cakes suited to the product and occasion and in accordance with standard recipes and enterprise practices 3.2 Use suitable icings and decorations according to standard recipes and/or enterprise standards and customer preferences TLE_HEBP9- 12TC-IIIh-i-9 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 16. D E P E D C O P Y xvi CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE 25. Presenting and plating sponge and cakes LO 4. Present cakes 4.1. Present cakes in accordance with customer’s expectations and TLE_HEBP9- 12TC-IIIj-10 26. Selection and usage of equipment in accordance with service requirements 27. Identification of the product freshness, appearance, characteristics of prepared cakes 28. Cutting portion-controlled to minimize the wastage of cake 29. Standard size and weight per serving 4.2. established standards and procedures 4.3. Select and use equipment in accordance with service requirements 4.4. Maintain product freshness, appearances and eating qualities in accordance with the established standards and procedures 4.5. Marked cakes or cut portion-controlled to minimize wastage and in accordance with enterprise specifications and customer preferences All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 17. D E P E D C O P Y xvii CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE 30. Standards and procedures of storing cake products 31. Factors to consider in storing cakes 32. Storage methods for cakes 33. Storage temperature for cakes LO 5. Store cakes 5.1. Store cakes in accordance with establishment’s standards and procedures 5.2. Identify storage methods in accordance with product specifications and established standards and procedures TLE_HEBP9- 12TC-IIIj-11 Quarter 4 LESSON 1: PREPARE AND DISPLAY PETIT FOURS (PF) 1. Characteristics of classical and contemporary petit fours 2. Underlying principles in preparing petit fours 3. Types and kinds of sponge and bases 4. Different kinds of fillings 5. Procedure in making fondant icing The learner demonstrates understanding of the basic concept and underlying theories in preparing and displaying petit fours The learner demonstrate competencies in preparing and displaying petit fours LO 1. Prepare iced petit fours 1.1 Prepare, cut and assemble sponges and bases according to standard recipes and enterprise requirements and practices 1.2 Prepare fillings with the required flavors and consistency 1.3 Prepare fondant icing TLE_HEBP9- 12PF-IVa-b- 12 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 18. D E P E D C O P Y xviii CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE following required temperature and standard procedure 6. Decorations and designs 1.4 Design and use decorations in accordance with establishment standards and procedures 7. Kinds of small choux paste 8. Types of sweet paste and fillings 9. Different garnishes, glazes and finishes 10. Standards and operating procedures in preparing fresh petit fours LO 2. Prepare fresh petit fours 2.1 Bake and decorate a selection of small choux paste shapes in accordance with established standards and procedures 2.2 Prepare and blend baked sweet paste in accordance with establishment standards and procedures 2.3 Prepare and use fillings the required flavors TLE_HEBP9- 12PF-IVc-d- 13 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 19. D E P E D C O P Y xix CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE and correct consistency 2.4 Use garnishes, glazes and finished in accordance with established standards and procedures 11. Flavor and shape specifications and enterprise standards of quality marzipan 12. Standards and operating procedures in coating marzipan fruits LO 3. Prepare marzipan petit fours Quality marzipan to produce mini-sized fruits in accordance with enterprise and client requirements preserve desired eating characteristics and softened with egg whites, piped into shapes and sealed/browned with applied heat, according to enterprise practice TLE_HEBP9- 12PF-IVe-f- 14 13. Specifications of fresh fruits needed to caramelized LO 4. Prepare caramelized petit fours 4.1. Select and coat fresh fruits/fruit segments with TLE_HEBP9- 12PF-IVg-h- 15 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 20. D E P E D C O P Y xx CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE 14. Specifications of dried fruits needed. 15. Kinds of sugar to caramelized pale amber-colored caramel or glazed or any coating specified by the enterprise 4.2. Fill sandwich dried fruits or nuts with flavored marzipan and coated with pale amber-colored caramel according to specifications and enterprise standards 16. Kinds and uses of receptacles for petit fours 17. Tips on how to display petit fours 18. Standards and procedures in displaying petit fours LO 5. Display petit fours 5.1. Select and prepare appropriate receptacles for petit fours 5.2. Display petit fours creatively to enhance customer appeal TLE_HEBP9- 12PF-IVi-16 19. Tips on storing petit fours 20. Temperature requirements in storing petit fours LO 6. Store petit fours 6.1 Store petit fours in proper temperatures and conditions to maintain maximum eating qualities, appearance and freshness TLE_HEBP9- 12PF-IVi-17 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 21. D E P E D C O P Y xxi CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE 21. Standards and procedures in storing and packaging petit fours 6.2 Package petit fours in accordance with established standards and procedures Quarter 4 LESSON 2: PRESENT DESSERTS (PD) 1. Varieties and characteristics of specialized cakes, both classical and contemporary and other types of desserts 2. Commodity knowledge, including quality indicators of specialized cakes and other types of desserts 3. Culinary terms related to specialized cakes and other types of desserts 4. Portion control and yield 5. Standard recipe specifications of specialized cakes and other types of desserts 6. Standard Operating Procedures in preparing other types of desserts The learner demonstrates understanding of the basic concept and underlying theories in presenting desserts The learner demonstrate competencies in presenting desserts LO 1. Present and serve plated desserts 1.1. Portion and present desserts according to product items, occasion and enterprise standards and procedures 1.2. Plate and decorate desserts in accordance with enterprise standards and procedures TLE_HEBP9- 12PD-IVj-18 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 22. D E P E D C O P Y xxii CONTENT CONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANCE STANDARD LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE 7. Planning, preparing and presenting trolley services 8. Arranging and preparing variety of desserts LO 2. Plan, prepare and present dessert buffet selection or plating 2.1 Plan and utilize dessert buffet services according to available facilities, equipment and customer/enterprise requirements 2.2 Prepare and arrange variety of desserts in accordance with enterprise standards and procedures TLE-HEBP9- 12PD-IVj-19 9. Temperature range in storing desserts 10. Packaging design techniques 11. Standards and procedures in storing and packaging desserts LO 3. Store and package desserts 3.1 Store desserts in accordance with the required temperature and customer’s specifications. 3.2 Package desserts in accordance with established standards and procedures TLE_HEBP9- 12PD-IVj-20 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 23. D E P E D C O P Y Quarter 1 Overview Baking is cooking by dry heat in an oven or oven-type appliance. It is a method of cooking used in making breads, cakes, pies, pastries, and biscuits which everybody enjoys eating. Baking is an enjoyable activity which you can learn either as a hobby or as an income-generating project. This module will give you knowledge of the different bakery products and provide you hands-on experience in baking, from the basic biscuits to the more complex cookies, muffins, and breads. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 24. D E P E D C O P Y 2 Baking Terminologies As you wish to pursue baking as a career, you should familiarize yourself with the common preparation and baking terminologies that come across in the process. Acid a substance having a sour or sharp flavor Bake to cook food in a dry heat method inside an oven Batter a mixture of flours with liquids such as water, milk, or eggs used to prepare various foods Blend to combine ingredients and produce a homogenous mixture Coat to cover with a thin layer of flour, sugar, nuts, batter, etc. Contamination the state of being contaminated Chill to refrigerate, to reduce the temperature of food Dough a soft, thick mass or mixture of dry ingredients (e.g., flour or meal), and liquid (e.g., water) that is kneaded, shaped, and baked into bread or pastry Dust sprinkle the surface with flour to avoid mixture to stick to it Egg wash consists of beaten eggs sometimes mixed with a liquid, usually water or milk, which is brushed onto the bread or pastry Fermentation the process of converting sugar into alcohol to produce carbon dioxide Foaming to continuously beat egg white to incorporate air until it becomes light and fluffy Gluten a substance responsible for the elastic and sticky characteristics of dough Grease to brush pan with shortening Knead to press, stretch, and fold the dough until gluten is developed Line to put a grease proof paper on the baking pans or sheets Definition of Terms All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 25. D E P E D C O P Y 3 Meringue a mixture used as a dessert or a topping made of beaten egg whites and sugar until smooth, light and fluffy, usually added with cream of tartar to make it stable Mise En Place French term means “put in place” that includes assembling all the necessary ingredients, equipment, and tools and serving pieces needed to prepare food Mix to combine ingredients in any way that make distribution of ingredients evenly Pre-heat to heat the oven prior to baking to achieve the required heat Punch down to deflate the dough to expel carbon dioxide produced during the fermentation process to give it a second chance to rise Scrape to remove sticky ingredients from the side of the mixing bowl Stir in to add another ingredient into the mixture Syrup a thick sticky solution of sugar and water Whip to beat rapidly and continuously to aid incorporation of air as in whipping egg whites to make meringue and cream Work simplification performance of a task in the most efficient way possible Yeast microorganisms that produce carbon dioxide gas when it mixes with carbohydrates, causing the dough to rise All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 26. D E P E D C O P Y 4 Pre-assessment Read and analyze the statement carefully. Choose the best answer and write the letter only in your answer sheet. 1. Which of the following ingredients is usually used in dough that gives better taste and flavor? A. butter B. compound lard C. edible tallow D. vegetables oil 2. What kind of sugar is primarily used in preparing icing? A. brown sugar B. confectioner’s sugar C. granulated sugar D. refined sugar 3. What is the basic ingredient in baking that improves aroma, flavor, and nutrition in baked products? A. baking powder B. flour C. shortening D. sugar 4. Which of the ingredients is an example of a physical leavening agent? A. air B. baking powder C. baking soda D. yeast 5. Which kind of flour contains more gluten and less starch? A. all-purpose flour B. bread flour C. cake flour D. soft-flour What do you already know? Let us determine how much you already know about Bread and Pastry Production. Take this test. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 27. D E P E D C O P Y 5 6. Which among the choices is a personal cleanliness practice in baking? A. combing the hair in the working area B. keeping fingernails long C. washing the hands after work D. wearing an apron during working hours 7. What is the first step to have better results in baking? A. keeping oneself clean B. keeping the food and equipment clean C. keeping the utensils and work area clean D. all of the above 8. What is the best step to have better results in baking? A. Measure ingredients accurately. B. Memorize the recipe very well. C. Use modern equipment. D. Use only imported ingredients. 9. How many cups is equivalent to one gallon? A. 3 B. 5 C. 10 D. 16 10. What is the proper way to measure flour accurately? A. level off with the use of the tines of a fork B. shakes the measuring cup before levelling C. shovel the flour D. sift it before measuring 11. Which of the following is the best substitute for sour milk? A. 1 C sweet milk plus 1 tbsp. vinegar B. 1¾ C sweet milk plus 1 tbsp. vinegar C. 2 C sweet milk plus ½ tbsp. vinegar D. 2/3 C sweet milk plus 1 tbsp. vinegar 12. What is the best substitute for one cup sifted flour? A. 1 C minus 1 tbsp. sifted all = purpose flour B. 1 C minus 2 tbsp. sifted all = purpose flour C. 1 C plus 2 tbsp. sifted all = purpose flour D. 1 C sifted all-purpose flour 13. Which of the following flour mixture is thick enough to be rolled and kneaded? A. batter B. cream C. crust D. dough All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 28. D E P E D C O P Y 6 14. It refers to the procedure of rubbing one or two ingredients against a bowl with the tip of a wooden spoon or electric mixer. A. beating B. creaming C. folding D. stirring 15. Which of the following pastries refer to small, flat, and sweet cakes? A. biscuits B. cookies C. muffins D. pies 16. Which among the following cookies needs freezing before it is cut into desired shapes before baking? A. cookie bar B. pressed cookie C. refrigerated cookie D. rolled cookie 17. Which type of mixing technique is done only in baking bread? A. blending B. creaming C. folding D. kneading 18. It refers to the process of putting your product into containers for easy distribution? A. labeling B. packaging C. storing D. wrapping 19. It is one of the more innovative methods used in commercial food packaging. A. canned package B. chill packaging C. foil packaging D. freezing packaging 20. What storing technique is used to draw, fold and cover the bakery product? A. chilling B. folding C. refrigerate D. wrapping All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 29. D E P E D C O P Y 7 Lesson 1: PREPARE AND PRODUCE BAKERY PRODUCTS LO 1. Prepare bakery products  Select, measure, and weigh required ingredients according to recipe or production requirements.  Prepare a variety of bakery products according to standard. Mixing procedures/ formulation/ recipes and desired product characteristics  Use appropriate equipment according to required bakery products and standard operating procedures.  Bake bakery products according to techniques and appropriate conditions  Select required oven temperature to bake goods in accordance with the desired characteristics, standards recipe specifications. What do you need to know? Read Lesson Information closely and find out how much you can remember. Then do Self-check 1.1.1 to know how much you have learned. LO 1. Prepare bakery products LO 2. Decorate and present bakery products LO 3. Store bakery products EXPECTED OUTCOMES: At the end of this Lesson, you should be able to: All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 30. D E P E D C O P Y 8 Techniques in Measuring and Weighing Ingredients Used in Baking It is important to measure the ingredients accurately to get standard products and efficient use of materials. Different flour in different localities need varying amounts of liquid and this should be considered in baking. Keep a record of the quantity of flour used each time you bake to find out which measurement produces the best result from the flour available in your area. You will soon learn to judge the correct amount of liquid to add by the consistency of the dough and the way it handles. A. Measurement of Dry and Liquid Ingredients 1. Dry Ingredients A. Flour a. Sift the flour to remove lumps. b. Spoon sifted flour lightly into a measuring cup heaping it well over the top of the cup. Do not shake the cup. c. Level off the cup with a straight-edged utensils or spatula. d. For fractions of a cup, use the lines indicating ¼, ⅓, and ½ of the standard measuring cup. B. Sugar a. White sugar needs sifting only if lumpy. Proceed as in the measurement of flour. b. Brown sugar, if lumpy, press through a coarse sieve to crush the lumps. Pack into measuring cup just enough to hold its shape. Level off. c. Sift confectioner’s sugar through a sieve to remove lumps. Spoon lightly into measuring cup. Level off with spatula or any straight- edged utensil. Do not shake the cup. C. Baking Powder, Soda, Salt and Spices a. Fill measuring spoon with the desired ingredients. Level off with a spatula or any straight-edged utensils. If baking powder has caked, stir lightly before measuring. Lesson Information measuring cup, taking care not to have air pockets. Level off with a spatula or any straight – edged utensils. Use standard measuring spoon for less than ¼ cup shortening. D. Shortening a. With the use of measuring cup Have shortening at room temperature. Pack firmly into the desired and add shortening enough to cause the water to rise up to the 1 cup mark. To measure ¼ cup, fill with cold water up to ¾ cup level and add shortening enough to raise the water up to the1 cup mark. Drain well. b. Water Displacement Method Fill the cup with cold water up to ¼ cup level if ½ cup of fat is All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 31. D E P E D C O P Y 9 2. Liquid Ingredients Water and Milk A liquid measuring cup is best to use for liquid ingredients because it is clear and see through. It also has a spout that makes pouring of liquids easy. To get the exact amount, follow these steps when measuring liquids. 1. Set up the liquid measuring cup. Place the measuring cup on a flat, even surface. 2. Pour the liquid carefully and slowly into the cup. Stop pouring when the liquid reaches the marker line for the desired amount. 3. Check your measurement. Bend down so that your eyes level with the marker line. Look at the top of the liquid. Frequently Used Substitutions and Equivalents Equivalent Weights and Measurement Given Measurement Equivalents Abbreviations 1 gallon (gal.) 4 quarts gallon gal. 1 quart (qt.) 2 pints quart qt. 1 pint (pt.) 2 cups pint pt. 1 cup (c) 8 fluid ounces cup c. ½ cup 4 ounces tablespoon tbsp. or T ¼ cup 2 ounces teaspoon tsp. or t ⅛ cup 1 fluid ounce fluid ounce fl. oz. 1 tablespoon 3 teaspoons ounce oz. 1 pound 16 ounces pound lb. 2.2 pounds 35.2 ounces gram g. 1 kilogram 1000 grams kilogram kg. 1 cup butter = 1 cup margarine 1 oz baking chocolate (unsweetened) = 1 square 1 oz sweetened chocolate = ¼ cup cocoa + 1 ½ to 2 tsp shortening 8 – 10 pcs graham crackers = 1 cup graham crumbs 4 oz bread = 3 cups soft crumbs 1 cup milk = ½ cup evaporated milk ½ cup water 1 cup cake flour = 1 cup all-purpose flour – 2T + 2T cornstarch (both sifted before measuring) 1 tablespoon cornstarch = 2 tablespoon flour 1 cup sour milk = 1 cup evaporated milk + 1 T vinegar or lemon juice 1 cup whipping cream = ¾ cup whole milk + ¼ cup butter 1 whole egg = 2 egg yolks 1 cup molasses = 1 cup honey All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 32. D E P E D C O P Y 10 Something to do Listed below are the ingredients for brownies.  2 oz. chocolate, melted 2 eggs, beaten  1/3 c butter 1 c butter  1 c cake flour ½ tsp vanilla  ¼ tsp salt 1 c nuts, chopped  ½ tsp baking powder A. Assume that you do not have a measuring cup. Give the required measurement for every ingredient that is equivalent to the cup measurement. B. Give the substitute for every ingredients marked with bullet (•) Demonstrate in class on the proper way of measuring ingredients for brownies. Check the accuracy of your answers. Review the table of equivalents and substitution of ingredients before submitting your work. Master the procedure in measuring ingredients before proceeding to the actual demonstration. You will be evaluated in this task on the basis of the following criteria: Correctness of procedure - 40% Accuracy of measurement - 40 % Sanitation - 20 % Total 100 % Activity 1.1.1 Self-Check 1.1 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 33. D E P E D C O P Y 11 Major Ingredients in Baking I. FLOUR Flour is a finely ground meal obtained by grinding and milling cereal grains or other root crops. Flour is most commonly made from wheat and when the word "flour" is used without qualification, it usually implies wheat flour. However, flour also can be made from many other grasses and non-grain plants, such as rye, barley, maize (corn), rice, potatoes, and other foods. Wheat contains protein. When mixed with water, these proteins form as gluten. The more protein a flour has, the stronger the gluten strength. A. Types of Flour Flour can be classified as to hard flour or soft flour. 1. Hard flour or bread flour is high in gluten, with 12-14% protein content, and has strongest gluten strength. 2. Bread flour has 12-14% protein content and is made from hard wheat flour. The high gluten content causes the bread to rise and gives its shape and structure. 3. All-purpose flour has 10-11% protein content and is made from a blend of hard and soft wheat flours, also called the General Purpose Flour or family flour. 4. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and so results in a finer texture. Soft flour is usually made into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten content, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour. 5. Cake flour has 7-9% protein content and is made from soft wheat flour. It is good for making cakes and cookies where a tender and delicate texture is desired. B. Uses of Flour 1. Provides structure, texture and color to baked products 2. Provides nutritive value to baked products 3. Used as thickening agent 4. Used as binder of food 5. Used as stiffening agent in laundry What do you need to know? Lesson Information Read Lesson Information closely and then find how much you can remember. Then do Self-Check 1.1.2 to see how much you have learned. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 34. D E P E D C O P Y 12 C. Storage of Flour Most types of flour keep well in a sealed container in a cool, dry location. The original paper packaging used for many types of flour is good for long term storage as long as the package has not been opened. Once opened, the shelf life decreases. Many types of flour are now marketed in resealable plastic bags that increase shelf life. D. Properties/Characteristics of flour 1. whitish color 2. tolerance 3. strength 4. uniformity 5. high absorption II. SUGAR Sugar is a sweet, soluble organic compound that belongs to the carbohydrate group of food. They are the simplest to digest among all carbohydrates. A. Types of Sugar 1. Regular granulated sugar or white sugar - also known as table sugar or as refined sugar. 2. Confectioner’s sugar or powdered sugar - granulated sugar that has been pulverized. To prevent lumping and caking, about 3% cornstarch is added. 3. Brown sugar - contains caramel, mineral matter and moisture. It also contains a small amount of molasses. It comes in three colors. B. Effects of Sugar in Baking o increases dough development o makes the color of the crust richer o improves the nutritive value, flavor and aroma of the product o makes the bread more tender o increase the volume of the loaf o serves as food for the yeast o contributes to moisture content of baked products, increasing its storing quality o acts as creaming agent III. EGGS Eggs are considered a complete protein, containing all the essential amino acids humans use to build other proteins needed by the body. Both the yolk and the egg white contain protein, so whole eggs or their separated components may be used to set liquids. They represent almost 50% of the total cost of any baked product, thus considered the baking ingredient with the highest cost or expense. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 35. D E P E D C O P Y 13 A. Uses of Eggs in Baking 1. Eggs, as well as flour, are the structural ingredients in baking. 2. Eggs provide leavening; add color, texture, flavor and richness to the batter; and act as stabilizer in mixture that inherently wants to separate into its two parts, like oil and water. They are very important in helping to bind all the other ingredients together. 3. Beaten eggs are used as leavening agents as they incorporate air into the batter, which will expand in the oven and cause the cake to rise. 4. Eggs are used as thickening agent. 5. Egg washes are brushed on many baked goods to create a golden shiny top. The egg white provides luster and the egg yolk color. 6. Egg whites are used to make meringues. B. Composition of Egg 1. Mucin - protein which is found in egg whites and responsible for its gel characteristic. 2. Ovalbumin - another protein found in egg whites which coagulates and involve both in heat coagulation and whipping. 3. Lecithin- present in egg yolk which is responsible for its emulsifying property. It is the portion of the egg yolk that causes spoilage when eggs are stored at warm temperature. IV. SHORTENING Shortening is any fat, which, when added to flour mixtures increases tenderness. This is done by preventing the sticking of gluten strands while mixing so that gluten is shortened and makes the product tender. A. Examples of Shortening 1. Oil – made from plant products such as corn, cottonseeds, soybeans, peanuts, and other sources. As a rule, you can substitute oil for melted shortening. Among produced oils, corn oil and vegetable oils are commonly used in baking. Unless specified in the recipe, olive oil should not be used in baking. 2. Butter – made of fatty milk proteins. It contains 80-85 % fat; 10-15 % water and 5% milk solids. When used in baking, it contributes flavor and tenderness. Butter remains solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32-35°C (90-95 °F). 3. Margarine – made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. It contains 80-85 percent fat, 10-15 percent water and 5 percent salt. The hydrogenation process makes oil a solid. 4. Lard – made of fat from pork. Some people prefer lard to other fats for making pie crust and biscuits because it gives a flakier texture. 5. Cocoa Butter – the ivory-colored natural fat of the cocoa beans extracted during the manufacturing of chocolate and cocoa powder. It gives chocolate its creamy, smooth, melt-in-your-mouth texture. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 36. D E P E D C O P Y 14 B. Uses of Shortening in Baking 1. Makes bread products tender and improve flavor. 2. Assist in gas retention giving better volume and crust. 3. Prevent the cohesion of gluten. 4. Improve the aroma, color and texture of baked products. 5. Improve the shelf life of baked products because of its moisture. V. LEAVENING AGENT Leavening agents are gases that cause the dough to rise. In the presence of moisture, heat, and others, the leavening agent reacts to produce gas (often carbon dioxide) that becomes trapped as bubbles within the dough. When a dough or batter is baked, it "sets" and the holes left by the gas bubbles remain. This is what gives breads, cakes, and other baked goods to rise and increase in volume. A. Classification of Leavening Agents 1. Chemical Leaveners. Chemical leaveners are chemical mixtures or compounds that release gases, usually carbon dioxide. Chemical leaveners are used in quick breads and cakes, as well as cookies. Examples of chemical leaveners is a. Baking Soda - otherwise known as bicarbonate of soda, or Sodium Bicarbonate. It is a chemical salt with diverse practical uses. It is a powerful leavener that readily reacts as soon as it comes in contact with batter or dough. b. Baking Powder – is a combination of baking soda and acid salt. c. Cream of tartar - is tartaric acid and is a fine white crystalline acid salt which is a by-product of the wine-making industry. It is used in the whipping of egg whites to stabilize them and allow them to reach maximum volume. 2. Biological Leaveners. Yeast is a living organism, neither plant nor animal. Yeasts belong to a separate kingdom in taxonomy, the fungus kingdom. Leavening with yeast is a process based on fermentation, the process of converting sugar to alcohol and to carbon dioxide. Types of Yeast  Dry or granular  Compressed or cake type  Instant VI. LIQUID INGREDIENTS Liquid ingredients provide moisture to rehydrate and activate the yeast and bring together the flour and any other dry ingredients to make the dough. It also improves the formation of gluten strands during the kneading of dough. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 37. D E P E D C O P Y 15 The following are some types of the liquid ingredients used in baking: A. Water It is the cheapest liquid used in baking. It performs vital role in baking making ingredients rehydrated. The right amount of water helps dissolve all other ingredients in batter and in dough to form smooth, workable mixture. In that way, water acts as a binding agent for any baked products. B. Milk and Other Dairy Products Milk and cream, like water, moisten dough and batters. Unlike water, they add a slight flavor to the final baked good and increase its richness. Milk and cream also create a fuller, moister texture in baked goods and help them brown on the surface. They also contribute to the nutritive value of baked goods. 1. Types of Milk Used in Baking • fresh milk or whole milk • evaporated milk • condensed milk • skimmed milk • powder or dry milk 2. Uses of Milk in Baking • increases nutritive value of baked products • enhances texture and increase softness of baked goods • acts as a strengthener when mixed with flour, because it helps in the formation of gluten, which gives a baked item structure • provides moisture and tenderness to baked goods • enhances flavor • extends the shelf life of a cake • boosts crust color Minor Ingredients in Baking They are not as important as the major ingredients in baking but they are essential in attaining the sensory qualities of baked products. They are used in small quantity, but contribute to the enhancement of flavor and texture of the baked products. These are the ingredients that add distinction and character to baked goods. 1. Flavoring 2. Vanilla 3. Salt 4. Spices (cloves, cinnamon, mace, nutmeg) 5. Wines 6. Coffee 7. Chocolate and Cocoa All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 38. D E P E D C O P Y 16 Types of Chocolate 1. Unsweetened Chocolate 2. Bittersweet and Semisweet Chocolate 3. Milk Chocolate Something to do 1. Have a tasting exercise. Taste a pan de sal, hotcake, and siopao. Identify the ingredients used for each item. Write your answers in your notebook. 2. Prepare a basic recipe of griddle bread. Divide the mixture into four cups: to the first cup, add vanilla; to the second cup, add lemon; to the third cup, add cinnamon; and leave the fourth cup plain.  Evaluate your product according to texture, flavor, and smell. Which bread has the best texture, flavor, and smell? Use the following criteria: Correctness of procedure------ 40 % Accuracy of measurement----- 40 % Sanitation -------------------------- 20 % TOTAL 100 % Give what is asked for in the following. A. Six major ingredients in baking. B. Minor ingredients used in baking (4) C. Effects of sugar in baking (5) Activity 1.1.2 Self-check 1.1.2 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 39. D E P E D C O P Y 17 SANITATION Sanitation means keeping bacteria down to a small number as possible through personal hygiene and proper food handling. It also means keeping the food at the appropriate temperature so bacteria already present do not have a chance to multiply. Sanitary measures include personal hygiene, keeping food, equipment and the work area clean. Unsanitary practices and improper handling of food may result to food contamination or infection, poisoning and death. Workers Personal Hygiene  Remove jewelries and accessories before starting to work.  Hands should be clean and nails cut short.  Use the appropriate work outfit. People who work in the kitchen should wear suitable, clean and freshly ironed aprons. Aprons protect the body from burns and scalds and from food stain. Headbands are used to prevent loose hair from dropping into the food and also absorb sweat on head.  Keep sick persons out of the kitchen. Facilities  Sanitize all laboratory equipment, tools and utensils thoroughly before and after use.  Air dry all equipment, tools and utensils to avoid build up of dust and rust corrosion.  Dispose of garbage properly everyday so as not to invite rodents and insects. What do you need to know? Read Lesson Information closely and then find out how much you can remember. Then do Self-check 1.1.3 to know how much you have learned. Lesson Information All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 40. D E P E D C O P Y 18 Practical Ways of Keeping Food Clean  Food should be handled with clean hands.  Avoid sneezing and coughing when handling food.  Utensils that fall on the floor should be washed well before using them again.  Store food supplies in a clean, dry place to maintain its freshness.  Clean cans, bottles and bags containing ingredients before opening.  Keep dry and liquid ingredients in a sealed container. Check for its safety from time to time.  Separate fresh vegetables from old ones before storing.  Keep food at a suitable temperature. Bacteria multiply fastest between 15°C and 52°C (60°F and 125°F). Keep hot food hot until served. "Hot" means above 60°C (140°F), where bacteria can no longer grow. Keep cold food cold until served. "Cold" means below 4°C (40°F), at refrigerator temperature or below. Keeping the Work Laboratory Area Clean  Keep the floor area clean and free from waste, water and grease.  Keep cabinets dry, clean and closed tightly to keep away rodents and insects.  Check and clean the dishwashing area whenever needed.  Clean the tables after using them. Safety Precautions in the Kitchen Observance of safety precautions promote work efficiency and prevent accidents. Occasionally, accidents do happen. It is important that you keep calm so you can take proper actions. Accidents are caused either by people themselves or by hazardous environment or defective equipment. Factors that Contribute to Successful Baking Baking requires accuracy. Any deviation from the measurement, procedure, and type of ingredient may greatly affect the baked products. Beginners in baking should observe the correct practices in preparation to achieve the desired results. The Use of Quality Ingredients Always use high quality dry and liquid ingredients, minor baking ingredients, shortening and fresh eggs. Use ingredients indicated in the recipe. Refrain from substituting ingredients. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 41. D E P E D C O P Y 19 The Use of Appropriate Tools and Utensils Utilize standard measuring cups, glass and spoons for best results. Mixing bowls should be large enough to allow proper mixing of ingredients to produce dough and batter. Use a pastry blender or two knives when cutting shortening into flour. Appropriate use of tools and utensils promote work efficiency and effectiveness. Following Correct Procedures  Study and follow the recipe accurately. It is important to understand the recipe first then to assemble all the needed ingredients, tools and utensils before starting to bake. Follow the step-by-step procedure accurately.  Pre-heat the oven. If a thermostat is defective or not available use an oven thermometer to check the baking temperature.  Measure ingredients accurately. Do not change the specified amount of ingredients. Any change in the amount of ingredients may result in failure to achieve the desired effect or expected consistency of the mixture.  Observe correct hand and mixing techniques. Wrong mixing techniques such as over-mixing, under-mixing, under-beating, or overbeating of eggs, and insufficient creaming will result in poorly baked goods.  Make use of the type of pan specified in the recipe. Measure its length, width, and inside depth. Find out in the recipe if the pan(s) should or should not be greased or lined with wax paper.  Follow the specified baking time and temperature stated in the recipe. Place the baking pan at the center of the oven and avoid opening the oven door until baking is done. Arrange the following procedures in baking. Use A for the first step, B for second and so on. Write your answer in your test notebook. ______1. Pre-heat the oven. ______2. Follow the specified baking time and temperature. ______3. Make use of the type of pan specified in the recipe. ______4. Observe correct hand and mixing techniques. ______5. Study and follow the recipe accurately. ______6. Measure ingredients accurately. Self-check 1.1.3 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 42. D E P E D C O P Y 20 Something to Do Field Trip to a Bake Shop In a field trip to a baking shop, observe the following: 1. How do the bakers work? 2. Do they practice cleanliness and sanitation? 3. Write a narrative report of your observation. 4. You will present your output in class. You will be rated on the following criteria: CRITERIA 4 3 2 1 Clarity Exceptionally clear and easy to understand Generally clear and quite easy to understand Lacks clarity and difficult to understand Unclear cannot be understand Comprehensiveness Thorough and comprehensive explanation Substantial Explanation Partial or not comprehensive Explanation Misunderstanding or serious misconception on the explanation Relevance Highly relevant Generally relevant Somewhat relevant Irrelevant What do you need to know? Activity 1.1.3 Read Lesson Information closely and find out how much you can remember. Then do the Self-check 1.1.4 to know how much you have learned. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 43. D E P E D C O P Y 21 Baking Tools, Utensils and Equipment in Making Bread, Cookies, Muffins and Biscuits Baking is a sophisticated method of cooking food. It requires special tools and equipment in order to bring out the best results. To prepare for baking, familiarize yourself with the following baking tools, utensils and equipment classified according to their use. MEASURING UTENSILS LIQUID-MEASURING CUP - a transparent cup calibrated to indicate the amount of liquid. DRY-MEASURING CUP - is a set of marked cups used to measure dry ingredients such as flour and sugar. They are either made of plastic, aluminum, or stainless steel. MEASURING SPOONS - a set of spoons used to measure small amounts of ingredients. DIETETIC SCALE - is an instrument used to measure the weight of the items or ingredients. Lesson Information All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 44. D E P E D C O P Y 22 MIXING, BLENDING, and CUTTING UTENSILS DOUGH CUTTER - a tool with a sharp edge used to cut dough. FLOUR SIFTER - used in sifting coarse or dry ingredients such as flour and sugar. ELECTRIC MIXER - a motor powered device used to stir and blend mixtures used in baking. Grater - tool used to grate food into finer form. MIXING BOWL - a hollow dish where ingredients for baking are mixed. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 45. D E P E D C O P Y 23 ROLLING PIN - a solid elongated wood with handles at both ends that is used to flatten dough or pastry. ROTARY EGG BEATER - a hand- held device for beating eggs, cream, and other liquids. RUBBER SCRAPER - a tool used, for mixing and scraping mixture on the side of a bowl. SPATULA - a flat, thin and blunt metal used for leveling-off dry ingredients and spreading icing and frosting on cakes. WOODEN SPOON - a tool used for mixing and stirring flour mixtures. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 46. D E P E D C O P Y 24 BAKING UTENSILS OVEN - an equipment used for baking, heating, or drying foods BAKING PAN- an aluminum or tempered glass dish, rectangular or square in form used for baking cakes MUFFIN PAN - an aluminum rectangular or square pan with hallow rounded COOKIE or BAKING SHEET - is a flat aluminum sheet used for baking cookies Something to do 1. Your teacher will put a number on each of the baking tools, utensils and equipment. Your task is to identify and classify them. 2. Select one tool and/or equipment. Demonstrate in class its proper use and care. Self-Check 1.1.4 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 47. D E P E D C O P Y 25 Rubrics for scoring Point 5 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and equipment with no mistake. 4 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and equipment with 1 mistake. 3 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and equipment with 2 mistakes. 2 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and equipment with 3 mistakes. 1 Observed the proper way of demonstrating proper use of tool and equipment with 4 mistakes. Types, Kinds and Classification of Bakery Products Preparing bakery products requires no trick but adequate mastery of the processes in baking. This module will provide you hands-on experience in baking. Baking has become not just a favorite past time or hobby but a highly profitable business. Bread is one of the most popular and best sold baked products, not only in our country but in other countries as well. Many countries have bread as their staple food. There are different kinds of bread. Whatever kind of bread is eaten, people remember it for its quality. It is by maintaining good quality that popular bakeries or bread houses keep their customers. What do you need to know? Lesson Information Read Lesson Information closely and find out how much can you remember. Then do Self-check 1.1.5 to know how much you have learned. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 48. D E P E D C O P Y 26 The quality of bread is affected by the type of ingredients used, the manner the dough is mixed or prepared, and the temperature maintained during baking. Kinds of Dough in Baking Bread Dough used in baking bread is classified into two:  Lean dough. The Basic ingredients for bread which include flour, yeast, salts, a little sugar, and shortening make up the lean dough. This dough is made up into Pan de sal, Pan Amerikano, French bread, and other crusty bread varieties.  Rich dough. Aside from the basic ingredients for bread, rich dough has butter, nuts, fruits, eggs, and condiments. Milk is often used, too. Rich dough also uses more sugar. This dough is used in making rolls, coffee cakes, and the sweet bread varieties. Methods of Mixing Dough Straight method - This method combines all the ingredients together at one time to make the dough. The dough is kneaded and set aside to rise. Sponge and dough method - This method mixes part of the liquid, flour, and all of the yeast to make a soft mixture which is set aside to rise until bubbly. Then, the remaining ingredients are added and the mixture is treated as straight dough. Bread products can also be prepared using batter instead of dough. Preparation of this type of bread is faster since there is no dough to knead and shape. However, the texture of the finished product is not as fine as that of kneaded dough. Characteristics of a Well-Made Bread Bread of high quality is characterized by the following: 1. It is large for its weight, well-rounded top, and free from cracks and bulges. 2. The crust is thin with an even golden brown color. 3. It has fine and even grain, elongated cells, and thin cell wall making the crumb smooth, soft, elastic, and creamy white with a silken sheen. 4. It does not crumble easily. 5. It has a sweet and nutty odor, not sour. Cookies Cookies are always popular. They are really “little cakes, flat, sweet and small. They can be made in a variety of shapes and flavors, and can be served in just as many different ways. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 49. D E P E D C O P Y 27 Kinds of Cookies  Drop cookies - are irregular and unevenly shaped. They are made simply by dropping the cookie batter from a teaspoon to a baking sheet to get the popular tongue-shaped cookies.  Rolled cookies - are made from dough which have been rolled out and cut with cutters to form shapes that fit special occasions such as Christmas, Valentine’s Day and Easter.  Pressed or Bagged Cookies – are made with more butter which makes the finished product richer in taste than the other types of cookies. They are made by pressing the mixture out of a cookie presser or pastry tube onto the baking sheet, and at the same time forming it into varied shapes like rings or ribbons.  Cookie bar- this type of cookie is cut into bars after baking. They are usually small and square in shape.  Refrigerated cookies – this type of cookie is frozen and cut into desired shapes before baking. Mixing Techniques Mixing methods greatly affect flour mixtures and its resulting product. Various techniques have been developed for efficiency and convenience. Some of them are as follows:  Creaming - Rubbing one or two ingredients in a bowl with the help of a wooden spoon or electric mixer to make a soft fluffy mixture. The creamed mixture should have both smooth and grainy particles.  Cutting in - Mixing fat and flour with the use of a pastry blender or two knives in a scissor-like manner. This method cuts fat into small pieces, coating them with flour to form coarse, granular mixtures for pastries and biscuits.  Folding - This is working with two ingredients very gently to retain air in the mixture. It often involves one delicately textured ingredient such as beaten egg white or whipped cream, which would be reduced to nothing if handled crudely, and a batter type mix.  Cut and Fold - A combination of two motions cutting vertically through the mixture and turning over and over by gliding the spoon or rubber scraper across the bottom of the mixing bowl at each turn.  Beating - It is done to incorporate air in a mixture by mechanical agitation. It could be done with the aid of special gadgets like wire whips, egg beaters or electric food mixers or with a fork.  Stirring – It is often done with a wooden spoon, rotating it through a mixture as long as necessary usually until the ingredients are combined.  Whipping – It is a process of beating eggs and cream to fill them with air and make them thick and fluffy. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 50. D E P E D C O P Y 28  Sifting – It is the process of separating coarse particles in the ingredients by passing through a sieve. Air is incorporated through this method. Muffin Muffins are simple cup breads leavened and are considered a member of the quick bread family. A variety of quick loaf breads and coffee cakes can be derived from the basic muffin recipe. Outside Characteristics of Muffin and Quick Breads  Shape: Uniform; well-rounded top; free from peaks; no cracks.  Size: Uniform; large in proportion to weight.  Color: Uniform golden brown.  Crust: Tender; pebbled or slightly rough; shiny Inside Characteristics of Muffin and Quick Breads  Color: Creamy white or slightly yellow; free from streaks.  Grain: Round, even cells; free from tunnels.  Texture: Tender; moist; light.  Flavor: Pleasing; well-blended with no bitterness. Biscuits Biscuits are small flaky quick breads. They are leavened with fast-acting leaveners which make preparation time shorter than any yeast leavened bread. Two Ways to Make Biscuits:  Using solid fats Solid fats are cut into the flour with a fork, a pair of knives or a pastry blender until it coats the flour and is fairly crumbly and mealy. Liquid is added to make a soft dough and then the mixture is rapidly but lightly kneaded to evenly distribute the mixture and sufficiently develop the gluten for flaky product.  Using liquid shortening or “Wet to Dry Method” Liquid shortening or oil is added to the liquid ingredients and mixed with the dry ingredients to make soft dough. It is kneaded rapidly but lightly and treated like the solid fat dough. Outside Characteristics of Biscuits  Shape: Uniform; straight sides and level tops on rolled biscuits  Size: Uniform; twice the size of unbaked biscuits  Color: Uniform golden brown tops and bottoms—sides lighter; free from yellow or brown  Crust: Tender; moderately smooth; free form excess flour All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 51. D E P E D C O P Y 29 Inside Characteristics of Biscuits  Color: Creamy white; free from yellow or brown spots.  Grain: Flaky, pulling off in thin sheets; medium fine, even cells.  Texture: Tender; slightly moist; light.  Flavor: Pleasing, well-blended with no bitterness. NOTE: Drop biscuits will be nicely rounded with rough and crisper crust. They will not be as flaky. RECOGNIZE ME? Below are statements describing the different mixing techniques used in producing bakery products. Choose the correct word/term from the box and write your answer in your test notebook. Creaming Cutting-in Stirring Beating Whipping Sifting Folding Cut and Fold _______________ 1. Separating coarse particles in the ingredients by passing through a sieve. _______________ 2. Rubbing one or two ingredients in a bowl with the tip of a wooden spoon or electric mixer. _______________ 3. Mixing fat and flour using a pastry blender or two knives in a scissors-like manner. _______________ 4. Working with two ingredients very gently to retain air in the mixture. _______________ 5. Beating egg and creaming to fill with air and make them thick and fluffy. Self-Check 1.1.5 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 52. D E P E D C O P Y 30 Below is the table which indicates the type of baking products with corresponding oven temperature and baking time. Types of Product Oven Temperature Baking Time BREADS Biscuits 425°F to 450°F 10 to 15 min Corn bread 400°F to 425°F 30 to 40 min Muffins 400°F to 425°F 20 to 25 min Quick loaf breads 350°F to 375°F 1 to 1 ¼ hr Yeast bread 400°F 30 to 40 min COOKIES Drop 350°F to 400°F 8 to 15 min Rolled 375°F 8 to 10 min The succeeding pages provide recipes for the different types of bakery products. Divide the class into five groups. Choose a recipe to follow. Each group should be assigned to bake a particular type of bread, cookies, muffin & biscuits. No two groups should do the same recipe. There are enough recipes for all the groups. What do you need to know? Activity 1.1.4 Lesson Information Read Lesson Information and find out how much you can remember. Then do the Self-Check 1.1.6 to know how much you have learned. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 53. D E P E D C O P Y 31 Suggested projects DINNER ROLL Ingredients Mixture 1  1 ¼ cup bread flour  1 ∕8 bar butter (softened) Mixture 2  3 tablespoon sugar  ½ tablespoon yeast Mixture 3  ¼ cup beaten egg  1 ∕8 tsp iodized salt Mixture 4  Egg wash PROCEDURE: 1. In a large mixing bowl, combine bread flour and butter. Mix well. Add the sugar and yeast. Rub the dry ingredients with your hands until all ingredients were distributed equally. 2. Beat egg and combine to water and salt. 3. Pour all liquid ingredients to dry ingredients and mix well. Knead for 15-20 minutes. 4. When the dough is already smooth and elastic and blisters are showing, form a ball and set aside for 20-25 minutes or until it doubles in size. 5. Punch the dough. Flatten and weigh for 45 grams or make it to 7 pieces. 6. Arrange in baking sheet and set aside for 30 minutes or until it increases its size. 7. Bake for 10-15 minutes in 375°F. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 54. D E P E D C O P Y 32 PAN DE SAL INGREDIENTS:  1 k bread flour  1 ½ tbsp. instant yeast  ¼ cup lukewarm water  200 g brown sugar  2 tbsp.oil  2 tsp rock salt  1 tsp vanilla  150 grams lard  2 cups water PROCEDURE: 1. Dissolve yeast in ¼ cup lukewarm water. Sprinkle with 1 tbsp. sugar. Allow to stand for 8-10 minutes. 2. Combine water, oil, salt and sugar. Stir until salt and sugar are dissolved. Set aside. 3. In a separate bowl, place bread flour and make a well at the center and then add yeast mixture, and follow the liquid mixture. Mix thoroughly. 4. Transfer dough on a floured board and start kneading. Continue kneading until dough is smooth. (Approximately 25 minutes). 5. Shape into smooth ball and grease all sides with lard. Place in slightly greased bowl. Cover with damp clean cloth. Allow to rise until double in size, approximately 1 ½ hours, then punch down dough. 6. Cut dough into two, then roll each half into a round log about 30 cm x 2 ½ cm. 7. Cut into 12 equal pieces. Dredge with bread crumbs. 8. Place on greased baking sheets with one side of each piece facing up, about 2½ cm apart. Let it rise until double its size. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 350°F for 15-20 minutes. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 55. D E P E D C O P Y 33 CINNAMON ROLL Ingredients  1 TB yeast  1 tsp sugar  ½ cup water  2 cups milk  3 TB butter  ¼ cup sugar  1 tsp salt  ½ tsp vanilla  3 cups all-purpose flour Filling  ¼ cup softened butter  ⅓ cup brown sugar  2 tsp cinnamon  ¼ cup chopped cashew nuts  ½ cup raisins Greasing mixture on pan  ¼ cup maple syrup, optional  ¼ cup brown sugar  ¼ cup white sugar  ¼ cup butter Procedure: 1. Mix together yeast, sugar, water and milk. Cover for 5 minutes. 2. Add in butter, sugar, salt, vanilla and flour. Let it rise for 25 minutes. 3. Roll on floured table. 4. Spread filling, roll and cut to 1” thick. 5. Place on greased pans and let it rise for 30 minutes. 6. Preheat 350°F, bake for 20 minutes. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 56. D E P E D C O P Y 34 SPANISH BREAD/PAN DE COCO/CHEESE BREAD Ingredients  1 k bread flour  2 tbsp. instant yeast  ¼ cup lukewarm water  2 cups water  100 grams brown sugar  2 tbsp.oil  2 tsp rock salt  1 tsp vanilla  75 grams lard SPANISH BREAD FILLING Ingredients  ½ bar butter  1 ∕3 cup brown sugar  ½ c bread crumbs  ½ t vanilla Mix and cook together. PAN DE COCO FILLING Ingredients  1 pc young coconut (grated)  1 cup brown sugar  1 tsp vanilla Mix and cook together. CHEESE BREAD TOPPINGS Ingredients  ¼ cup butter  1 cup powdered milk Cut in butter and milk then add sugar. Procedure 1. Prepare the desired filling and/or topping. Set aside. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 57. D E P E D C O P Y 35 2. Dissolve yeast in ¼ cup lukewarm water. Sprinkle with 1 tbsp. sugar. Allow to stand for 8-10 minutes. 3. Combine water, oil, salt and sugar. Stir until salt and sugar is dissolved. Set aside. 4. In a separate bowl, place bread flour and make a well at the center. Then add yeast mixture, follow by the liquid mixture. Mix thoroughly. 5. Transfer dough on a floured board and start kneading. Continue kneading until dough is smooth. (Approximately 20-25 minutes) 6. Shape into smooth ball and grease all sides with lard. Place in slightly grease bowl. Cover with damp clean cloth. Allow to rise until double in size approximately 1 ½ hours. Then punch down dough. 7. Shape and add fillings and/or topping 8. Arrange in grease cookie sheet. 9. Allow to rise for the second time until double in size. 10. Bake until done (10-15 min at 350°F). CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIES Ingredients  11 ∕8 cup flour  ¼ tsp baking soda  ½ tsp salt  ¼ cup shortening  ¼ cup sugar  1 egg, beaten  1 tsp vanilla  ½ pound semi-sweet chocolate or chocolate chips Procedure 1. Sift flour, baking soda and salt together. 2. Cream shortening, brown sugar and granulated sugar together. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 58. D E P E D C O P Y 36 3. Add egg and vanilla. Beat thoroughly. 4. Add sifted dry ingredients. 5. Fold in chocolate / chocolate chips cut into small pieces. 6. Drop from teaspoon onto greased cookie sheet. 7. Bake in moderate oven (350°F) about 10 minutes. Make 50 cookies. BUTTERMILK NUT BREAD Ingredients  2 eggs, well beaten  1 ½ cups brown sugar  3 ¼ cups sifted flour  2 tsp baking soda  ½ tsp salt  2 cups butter milk  1 cup chopped nuts Procedure 1. Beat eggs, add sugar and mix well. 2. Sift flour, baking soda and salt together. Alternately add buttermilk and egg mixture to dry mixture. 3. Add nuts. Pour into 2 greased loaf pans. 4. Bake in slow oven (325°F) 1 hour. Makes 2 (8 x 4 inch) loaves. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 59. D E P E D C O P Y 37 CHEESE BISCUITS Ingredients:  2 cup all-purpose flour  1 Tbsp baking powder  5 Tbsp butter or margarine  ¼ cup grated cheddar cheese  1 egg, beaten Procedure 1. Sift flour and baking powder together. 2. Cut in butter until mixture resembles cornmeal. 3. Add cheese and milk to form soft dough. 4. Turn dough out on a lightly floured board and knead for 30 seconds. 5. Roll the dough out ¼ inch thick, and with a biscuit cutter cut out rounds. 6. Put half of the rounds on a baking sheet and top each with grated cheese. 7. Brush the biscuits with the lightly beaten egg. 8. Bake in a hot oven (375°F) for 15 minutes or until they are golden. BANANA MUFFIN Ingredients  1 ½ c all-purpose flour  1 tsp baking powder  1 tsp baking soda  ½ tsp salt  3 large bananas, mashed  ¾ cup white sugar  1 egg  1 ∕3 cup butter, melted All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 60. D E P E D C O P Y 38 Procedure 1. Pre heat oven to 350°F. Coat muffin pans with non-stick or use paper liner. Sift together the flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt. Set aside. 2. Combine bananas, sugar, egg, and melted butter in a large mixing bowl. Fold in flour mixture, and mix until smooth. Scoop into muffin pans. 3. Bake in preheated oven. Bake mini muffins for 10 to 15 minutes, and large muffins for 25 to 30 minutes. Muffin will spring back when lightly topped. STANDARD SCORE SHEET for BREAD/ MUFFIN Rate your product using this Score Sheet. Characteristics Excellent 5 Very Good 4 Good 3 Fair 2 Poor 1 External Characteristics 1. Shape: well-proportioned; Symmetrical; rounded top 2. Size: large but not airy; proportional to weight 3. Color: even, rich golden brown 4. Crust: tender; crisp; even thickness; free from cracks Internal Characteristics 1. Color: creamy white; free from streaks 2. Grain: fine; thin-walled cells, evenly distributed 3. Texture: tender; soft; slightly moist 4. Flavor: “wheaty” sweet Comments: All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com
  • 61. D E P E D C O P Y 39 HONEY RAISIN BARS Ingredients  ¼ cup shortening  ½ cup sugar  ½ cup honey  1 egg  1 ½ cup cereal flakes  1 ½ cup cake flour  1 ½ tsp baking powder  ¼ tsp baking soda  ¼ tsp salt  ½ cup milk  1 cup seedless raisins Procedure 1. Blend shortening, sugar, and honey thoroughly. 2. Add egg and beat well. 3. Crush cereal flakes into fine crumbs, mix with sifted dry ingredients and add to shortening mixture alternately with milk. 4. Stir in raisins. 5. Spread batter ½ inch thick in well-greased 10 x 15 inch pan. 6. Bake 15 to 20 minutes at 350°F. 7. Cool and cut into 35 2-inch squares. CARAMEL SUGAR COOKIES Ingredients  1 cup shortening  1 c sugar  ½ c brown sugar  3 eggs, beaten  2 t vanilla  3 ¾ c cake flour  ½ c brown sugar  1 t salts  ½ baking soda  brown sugar All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016. Downloaded from www.shsph.blogspot.com