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CFMI-TP-NT.11 NOVEMBER 30, 1980
REVISED NOVEMBER 30, 2011
NON-DESTRUCTIVE
TEST MANUAL
PART 7-BORESCOPE INSPECTION
LEP
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PART 7 - BORESCOPE INSPECTION
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PART 7 - BORESCOPE INSPECTION
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CONTENTS
Part 7
Page 1/2
Feb 29/96
PART 7 - BORESCOPE INSPECTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page
72-00-00 Borescope Inspection ....................................... 1
R 72-21-00 Borescope Inspection of Low Pressure Compressor ............ 1
72-31-00 Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Compressor ........... 1
72-42-00 Borescope Inspection of Combustion Section ................. l
72-51-00 Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Turbine Nozzle ....... l
72-52-00 Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Turbine Blades ....... l
72-54-00 Borescope Inspection of Low Pressure Turbine ............... 1
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BORESCOPE INSPECTION
1. General.
A. This procedure describes the type of borescope equipment found to be
acceptable for inspection of the CFM56 turbofan engine.
B. The borescope is a precision monocular periscope instrument especially
designed for the inspection of the inside of turbofan engines through
small diameter access holes. The borescope provides a system of
visually inspecting and taking photographs of selected areas inside the
engine. A television camera and viewing screen may be used instead of
visual examination through the monocular viewer and a television tape
recorder may be used in lieu of the photographic method of making a
record. The CFM56 engine has been designed with a substantial number of
access holes for viewing critical areas inside the engine.
C. This procedure includes instructions for checking the resolution of
borescopes and fiberscopes.
2. Safety.
The following WARNINGS apply to using borescope equipment.
WARNING: DO NOT EXPOSE YOUR EYES TO THE FULL INTENSITY OF THE XENON OR
GAS ARC LIGHT SOURCE.
WARNING: ALL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT USED IN INSPECTION SHALL BE PROPERLY
GROUNDED.
WARNING: ALL STANDS AND GROUND EQUIPMENT SHALL HAVE SAFETY LOCKS AND
RAILINGS. DO NOT IMPROVISE WITH LADDERS AND BOARDS.
3. Tools, Equipment and Materials.
NOTE: Equivalent substitutes may be used instead of the following items.
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A. Tools and Equipment.
(1) Special Tools.
Tool No. Description
856A1084G02, Cart, Stator Actuator
G03 or G04
856A1142P03 or P04 Motor, Drive-Core Engine
Rotation (CFM56-2)
856A1310G01 Kit, Borescope Guide - HP
Turbine
856A1351P01 Guide Tube, HPT Shroud
856A1320P04, P05, P06 Borescope Set, Rigid
P07
856A1321P05, P06 Fiberscope Set
856A1324P01 (ALT) Borescope, Videoprobe -
Flexible
856A1322P02, P04, P08, Borescope, Light Source Set
P09, P11
856A1323G01 Borescope Resolution Monitor
856A1488P01 or P02 Motor Drive - Core Engine
Rotation (CFM56-5)
856A2002P01, P02, P03 Motor Drive - Core Engine
or P04 Rotation (CFM56-3)
856A1815G04, G05, G06 Motor Drive-Core Engine
Rotation (CFM56-7B)
NOTE: Other borescope systems using either fiber light or distal
lamps for illumination and a rigid lens optical path may be
considered acceptable for inspection of the CFM56 turbofan
engine if they meet the design specifications of CFMI
Specification M50TF3276-S1.
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(2) Standard Tools.
Description Manufacturer
35 mm Camera Local Purchase
Video Monitor Local Purchase
B. Rigid Borescope Set, 856A1320, and Light Source Set, 856A1322. See
figure 1.
(1) This borescope set consists of the following:
(a) Light source - 110 VAC 60 Hz, 220 VAC 50 Hz, or 110 VAC 400
Hz.
(b) Four rigid probes. See figure 2.
(c) Two fiber light bundles.
(d) Long right angle extension.
(e) 40-60 degree eyepiece extension.
(f) Magnification adapter - 2:1 magnification at 2 in. (50,8 mm).
(g) 35 mm camera adapter.
(h) Television camera adapter.
NOTE: The 35 mm camera and television camera adapters are
optional equipment and may be obtained from the
borescope vendor.
(2) Preparation for use.
(a) The rigid borescope set, except for the light source, is
stored in a carrying case and must be assembled prior to use.
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Rigid Borescope Set
Figure 1
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Rigid Borescope Probe Specifications
Figure 2
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CAUTION: BEFORE CONNECTING THE POWER SUPPLY TO A 110 VAC 60 HZ
POWER SOURCE, BE SURE THE ON-OFF SWITCH IS IN THE OFF
POSITION AND LIGHT INTENSITY CONTROL IS SET TO MINIMUM.
ENSURE PROJECTOR AND POWER SUPPLY ARE PROPERLY GROUNDED.
(b) Select desired probe. Connect the fiber bundle to the probe
and to the light projector. Connect the light projector
electrical cable to a grounded power source.
(c) When the magnification adapter is required, attach the adapter
to the eyepiece at the selected probe. When used with probe 1
the probe must be focused prior to attaching the magnification
adapter.
(d) If photographic record is desired, attach the 35 mm camera on
the optional adapter. Attach the camera and adapter to the
eyepiece of the selected probe.
(e) When using the optional television camera adapter, attach the
C-mount to the TV camera adapter and connect the camera
assembly (vidicon and low light intensifier) to the C-mount.
Connect the TV camera electrical cable to the camera and
camera control unit. Attach the TV camera adapter to the
eyepiece of the probe.
(f) Attach the offset eyepiece to the probe eyepiece as required
if viewing access is limited.
(3) Operating information for the use of the rigid borescope set is as
follows:
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(a) Probe 1 is primarily used for defect assessment of the
combustion chamber and high pressure turbine (HPT) nozzle.
This probe contains a variable focus adjustment in the form of
a knurled ring between the eyepiece and the fiber light bundle
disconnect fitting. This is the high magnification probe and
can be used to define or access most defects in the combustion
chamber or HPT nozzle. For photo recording purposes a visually
sharp focus should be obtained prior to coupling of the camera
and adapter to the borescope. Fine adjustments may then be
accomplished through adjustment of the camera adapter. This
probe will require more exposure time than the other probes
due to increased focal length and therefore less light
transmission. The depth of field and field of view are
decreased because of the magnification provided in the probe
optics.
(b) Probe 2 is a general purpose 90 degree probe and is primarily
used for general inspection of the engine. Probe 2 can be used
in all borescope ports of the engine.
(c) Probe 3 is a fore-oblique angle probe primarily required for
the high pressure compressor (HPC) blade platforms and
airfoils.
(d) Probe 4 is a retro-angle probe primarily required for blade
tips and other liner surfaces and shrouds.
(e) Probes 2, 3 and 4 can have fixed or adjustable focus lenses.
1 For close-up inspection, less than 0.25 in. (6,4 mm) away
from the probe optics window, the magnification adapter
should be utilized. The magnification adapter provides
variable focus as well as magnification. The magnification
of 2 to 1 is only obtained at 2.0 in. (50,8 mm) from optics
to object distance. The magnification factor decreases for
object distances greater than 2.0 in. (50,8 mm); object to
optic spacing.
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2 For objects less than 2.0 in. (50,8 mm) from the probe lens
window, adjust the magnification adapter to bring the
object clearly into focus. Only fine adjustments are
required on the camera adapter. Use of the magnification
adapter for photo recording will require more exposure time
for a given probe, than photos taken without its use. The
magnification adapter is not recommended for use with probe
1 during photo recording.
(f) Light projection provides the light source for the fiber
bundle probes. Place the power unit switch to ON. The red
indicator light should glow. Adjust the intensity of the light
source to provide the required illumination after the probe is
inserted into the engine port.
(g) Two light sources are built into the power unit. The 150-watt
lamp is used for visual inspection of objects close to the
distal end of the probe. The 1000-watt high intensity lamp is
used for photography as well as visual inspection of
combustors and HPT nozzle vanes.
NOTE: The photo arc light circuit contains a thermal delay
cutout that prevents the light from being turned ON if
light projector is too hot.
C. Fiberscope Set, 856A1321 and Borescope Guide Tube, 856A1310. See figure
3.
(1) The flexible fiber optic system has an articulated distal tip. The
light for viewing is conducted from the projector to the probe
through an integrally attached fiber light bundle. The distal end
can be angulated over a range of 180 degrees of arc vertically at
the bending point. The system contains the following features.
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Fiberscope Set
Figure 3
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(a) Optical system specifications.
1 Distal focusing - adjustment at eyepiece.
2 Depth of field - 6 mm to 100 mm.
3 Angle of view - 90 degrees.
4 Diopter adjustment - minus 6D to plus 4D.
5 Magnification - 1:1 at 25 mm.
6 Objective focal distance - 2.13 mm.
7 Lens speed - f 2.8.
8 Image bundle size - 1.7 mm square.
9 Single fiber image guide - 17 microns.
10 Illumination - inherent light guide with 5 feet extension.
(b) Distal tip specifications.
1 Size - 6 mm dia x 20 mm long.
2 Side view - 90 degrees to centerline of probe.
(c) Bending section (articulated tip) specifications.
1 Angulation controllable at eyepiece 180° (90° up - 90°
down).
2 Minimum bend radius - one in. (25,4 mm).
3 Length of bending section - 50 mm.
(d) Flexible cable-probe specifications.
1 Working length - 70 in. (1800 mm).
2 Outside diameter over working length - 6 mm.
3 Covering on cable - stainless steel braid.
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4 Temperature range - 0°F to 200°F (- 18°C to 93°C)
continuous operation.
5 Light source - the fiberscope integral light bundle will
attach to the Light Source Set, 856A1322.
(2) Preparation for use.
CAUTION: MOST FLEXIBLE FIBER OPTICAL SYSTEMS MAY BE DAMAGED QUITE
EASILY IN VERY COLD WEATHER. FORCED BENDING OR WARMING
CAN DAMAGE THE FIBER BUNDLE. SLOWLY AND GENTLY
ARTICULATE TIP IN COLD WEATHER. AFTER EXPOSURE TO
EXTREME COLD, WARM INSTRUMENT TO ROOM TEMPERATURE VERY
GRADUALLY.
(a) Connect the fiber light bundle from probe to light projector.
Connect light projector to power source. Be sure that the
power supply and power outlet is grounded.
(b) Install optional 35 mm camera adapter or TV camera adapter as
required.
(c) Turn light projector ON.
(3) Care and use of flexible fiberscope.
The fiberscope (flexible borescope) is a precision optical
instrument utilizing bunches of finely spun glass fibers to carry
light and images. Although guarded by a stainless steel sheath for
protection, reasonable care must be used to prevent damage and
assure long service life.
(a) Read the instruction manual completely before using.
(b) Check the scope for damage before using. A slightly damaged
scope, such as partial loss of tip control can result in
getting the scope hung up and finally resulting in severe
damage.
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(c) Although they are safer than ones with distal tip bulbs,
scopes are not explosion proof. They ~ should not be used
where highly volatile gases or explosive dust could reach the
hot projection lamp of the external light source.
(d) Do not subject the scope to intense X-ray or gamma radiation.
Glass fibers are not nonbrowning and will turn yellow, amber,
or brown if exposed to radiation.
(e) When cleaning the scope, use lens tissue only on glass
surfaces. Scopes should be kept clean at all times.
(f) Avoid extreme temperatures. Use between 0°F to 200°F (- 18°C
to 93°C). Do not insert into a hot engine; heat will cause
bubbling of epoxy at the tip. This will cause loss of focus
and damage to the lens sheath seals. Low temperatures will
make the sheath brittle and tend to crack.
(g) Hold tip or adjacent hardware when removing scope to prevent
dropping to floor which will avoid hard shocks.
(h) Use control knob to maneuver bending section of tip. Never
bend or twist tip by hand; damage will result.
(i) Do not force the control knob. Use the knob to guide the tip
through curves, using tip touch to insert and also to remove
or reposition the fiber probe. Do not merely push through
guide tubes nor yank out when removing.
(j) Return angle control knob to neutral position before
withdrawing scope from engine or guide tube.
(k) Bending section is flexible in one plane only. This plane must
be oriented to the curves in the guide tube. The plane can be
established by the articulation control. Do not bend in a 90
degree plane to the tip articulation plane.
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(l) Do not insert the scope too far into the engine. If engine
rotor is rotated the tip might be cut.
(m) Use plastic guide tube, 856A1310, to guide flexible fiber
scope when inspecting the leading edge of the HPT blades.
(n) When storing the scope, use care when closing the protective
case. If the fiber bundles are closed within the case edges,
damage will result. Never leave scope laying on floor where it
might be stepped on or run over.
4. Procedure Before Borescope Inspection.
A. Support Equipment.
Inspection of the HP rotor blades (compressor and turbine) requires
rotation of the core engine rotor a complete 360 degrees for each stage
of blades to be inspected. This can be done manually or with the aid of
a pneumatically powered motor. A special pad is provided for this
purpose.
(1) Manual rotation.
The core engine rotor is actuated by means of a drive adapter with
a long breaker bar installed into the drive pad.
(2) Pneumatic rotation.
The pneumatic turning device provides smooth even speed turning of
the core rotor. This is an advantage to the inspector viewing the
blades. Reversible control as well as speed control are provided
and the need for an additional mechanic to turn the rotor is
eliminated. A 360 degree protractor is integral with the device.
The pneumatic pressure required is satisfied by a shop or line air
supply.
(3) Installation and operation.
The installation and operation of the MOTOR, DRIVE CORE ENGINE
ROTATION are given in the maintenance manual relative to each
engine model:
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Engine Tool number
CFM56-2/A/B/C 856A1142
CFM56-3 856A2002
CFM56-5/A/B/C 856A1488
CFM56-7B 856A1815
B. Zero CFM56-7B Index Position.
The zero index position is the referenced position for borescope
inspection. Thus, you can put the No. 1 blade in position before you
turn each stage of blades.
(1) Low pressure rotor zero index position. See figure 4.
(a) Locate No. 1 fan blade which is identified by a circular hole
in the spinner rear cone adjacent to the No. 1 blade.
(b) Align the leading edge of the No. 1 fan blade with the T12
temperature sensor located in the fan frame at 1: 30 o'clock,
aft looking forward.
(c) The low pressure rotor is now in the zero referenced position
for inspection.
(2) Core rotor zero index position. See figure 5.
(a) Prepare for borescope inspection.
(b) Remove the borescope port ( S4) plug between the 4 and 5
o'clock position on the compressor case.
(c) Put the rigid borescope probe with the 90° right angle viewer
and a 60° field of vision in the borescope port, and lock aft
to the stage 4 blade platform.
(d) While you lock in the borescope, turn the core engine rotor
clockwise (forward looking aft).
(e) Turn the rotor until you can see the locking lug of the first
blade slot.
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Zero Index Position of Core Engine Rotor (typical)
Figure 5
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(f) Continue to turn the rotor until you see the second locking
lug. The second locking lug is 2 blades past the first locking
lug.
(g) Align the leading edge of the first blade past the second
locking lug with the leading edge of the nearest stage 4 vane.
This is the zero index point and blade number 1 for inspection
of all stages of the compressor rotor.
5. Inspection Techniques.
A. Description.
(1) The CFM56 booster has one borescope port in the stage 3 (a second
port is provided in stage 4 for CFM56-5B/5C only) for inspection.
The core rotor blade airfoils and root/platform are completely
inspectable from the gas path aspect. Borescope inspection ports
are located in each HPC stator assembly. The low pressure turbine
(LPT) has borescope inspection ports in all stator stages. The HPT
blade leading edges are inspected using the fiberscope via the
igniter ports. The relative closeness of the borescope inspection
ports to the rotor blades results in high magnification viewing
using any of the specified probes (CFMI Specification M50TF3276-
S1).
(2) The primary probe recommended for CFM56 inspection is probe 2, wide
angle fixed field, 90 degree angle of view with 60 to 65 degree
field of view. The magnification of this probe is 1 x 1 at 2 in.
(25,4 x 25,4 at 51 mm). Therefore, objects viewed closer than 2
in. (51 mm) from the distal lens are magnified. Those objects
viewed further away than 2 in. (51 mm) are decreased in image
size, relative to actual dimensions of the object. The
magnification is variable relative to blade position due to the
changing viewing distances as a rotor is turned and the blade
passes the relatively fixed borescope. The probe is turned or
rotated to view the passing blade.
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Along with the varying magnification, the angle of incidence of
the illumination beam changes as the blades pass the fixed viewing
port positions. These views are further varied by probe immersions
into the engine (radially), thus producing/providing a third
variable, the aspect of the object.
(3) Use a borescope probes 2, 3 or 4 change the angle of views as well
as the incidence angle of light beam relative to optic angle of
view. The magnification factor of probes 2, 3 or 4 does not
change, it is 1 x 1 at 2 in. (25,4 x 25,4 at 51 mm).
NOTE: The above factors or variables should be utilized to the
inspectors advantage when attempting to assess suspected
deterioration or defects, e.g.; scratches, cracks, contour
changes, impact results, dents, dirt smears, surface finish
changes, and coloration variables.
(4) Another helpful technique in establishing the type of defect is
through varying the borescope light intensity. Flooding a scratch,
crack, or dirt streak to attempt to establish what the mark or
line really is, gives the inspector the aid of depth. Cracks that
are open do not usually disappear with low to high light levels.
Dirt/carbon/water streaks do not show the depth or shadow
characteristics that cracks exhibit. It should also be noted that
arc light sources such as the GE Marc 300/16 high intensity light
(300 watt) versus the 150 watt quartz iodide or any incandescent
light source tends to give a difference in image color when viewed
through the borescope. The 300 watt arc light gives the closest to
true or actual color of any light source.
(5) In contrast, the nonarc or incandescent light sources give a copper
or bronze hue/coloration to the internal engine parts. Use of the
various probes and variable positioning of the borescope relative
to the suspect defects usually results in defining the suspected
defect, e.g.; a crack or dirt line or water mark, a sharp nick or
smooth dent, loss of metal or coloration change, etc. Having
established the defect or suspected problem, the assessment of the
magnitude of the defect now becomes the challenge.
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B. Resolution Check of Borescope and Fiberscope Using Borescope Resolution
Monitor, 856A1323.
NOTE: If the person performing the testing has corrected vision, then
the appropriate eyewear (eyeglasses, contact lenses, etc.)
should be worn.
(1) Test rigid borescope as follows. See figures 6 and 7.
(a) Turn on lightsource and allow a minimum of 3 minutes warm up
for lamp to reach its' maximum operating range.
CAUTION: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BUNDLE OUTPUT.
(b) Insert male end of light bundle into lightsource. Glance at
female end to assure that adequate light is passing through.
(c) Connect female end of light bundle to male connector on
Borescope Resolution Monitor, 856A1323.
(d) Turn intensity of lightsource to maximum.
(e) Check Borescope Resolution Monitor to assure that resolution
target is illuminated.
(f) Insert borescope into clamping device located on arm of the
Borescope Resolution Monitor, with objective window of
borescope facing resolution target.
CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE CLAMPING DEVICE. OVERTIGHTENING
COULD RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE BORESCOPE. HAND TIGHTENING
IS SUFFICIENT.
(g) Hand tighten borescope in place.
(h) In order to ensure that borescope is positioned correctly, lay
Borescope Resolution Monitor on a flat surface making sure
that the arm with the clamping device is also resting on a
flat surface. The objective window on borescope should be in
line with black pivot bolt of arm.
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Borescope Resolution Monitor
Figure 6
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Resolution Target
Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 2)
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Resolution Target
Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 2)
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(i) Align borescope so resolution target is centered in field of
view. If you peer through borescope and only part of
resolution target is illuminated in your field of view, (i.e.
half of field of view resembles a half moon) borescope is not
serviceable for engine inspection.
NOTE: The resolution target is divided into group numbers and
element numbers. There are 7 groups , with 6 elements to
each group. Group 0, element 1 is located at the lower
right of the target, its' 6 lines are quite visible to
your eye. Group 1 is located on the far right side of
the target and appears smaller than group 0. Group 2 is
located in the center left side of the target, while
group 3 is located in the center right side of the
target. Each group diminishes in size.
(j) For borescopes with a magnification of 1:1 at 2 in. (51 mm),
the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal, 3 vertical) of group 3,
element 4 (11.3 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be
distinguishable. Otherwise, borescope is not serviceable for
engine inspection. See figure 7, sheet 1.
(k) For borescopes with a magnification of 1:1 at 7 in. (178 mm),
the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal, 3 vertical) of group 5,
element 2 (36.0 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be
distinguishable. Otherwise, the borescope is not serviceable
for engine inspection. See figure 7, sheet 2.
NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the light intensity or the
scope position in order to obtain the best view.
However, if the forementioned group/element cannot be
seen, the scope or light bundle or light source is not
serviceable for engine inspection.
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(2) Test fiberscope as follows. See figures 6 and 7.
(a) Turn lightsource on and allow a minimum of 3 minutes warm up
for lamp to reach its' maximum operating range.
WARNING: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BUNDLE OUTPUT. THIS
COULD RESULT IN INJURY TO PERSONNEL.
(b) Insert male end of light bundle into lightsource. Glance at
female end to assure that adequate light is passing through.
(c) Connect female end of light bundle to male connector on
Borescope Resolution Monitor, 856A1323.
(d) Turn intensity of lightsource to maximum.
(e) Check Borescope Resolution Monitor to assure that resolution
target is illuminated.
(f) Insert fiberscope into clamping device located on arm of the
Borescope Resolution Monitor.
(g) Align objective window of fiberscope with resolution target.
CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE CLAMPING DEVICE. OVERTIGHTENING
COULD RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE FIBERSCOPE. HAND
TIGHTENING IS SUFFICIENT.
(h) Hand tighten fiberscope in place.
NOTE: Due to the nature of the fiberscope, it may be necessary
to use a free hand to assure that the tip of the
objective window remains centered on the resolution
target.
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May 31/99
(i) Check fiberscope with objective window aligned and centered in
field of view. If only part of target is illuminated in field
of view (i.e. half of field of view resembles a half-moon),
fiberscope is defective and is not serviceable for engine
inspection.
NOTE: The resolution target is divided into group numbers and
elements numbers. There are 7 groups, with 6 elements to
each group. Group 0, element 1 is located at the lower
right of the target, its' 6 lines are quite visible to
your eye. Group 1 is located on the far side of the
target and appears to be smaller than group 0. Group 2
is located in the center left side of the target, while
group 3 is located in the center right side of the
target. Each group diminishes in size.
(j) For fiberscopes with 90° direction of view, the 6 individual
lines (3 horizontal, 3 vertical) of group 1, element 4 (2.83
lines per millimeter of resolution) should be distinguishable.
Otherwise, the fiberscope is not serviceable for engine
inspection. See figure 7, sheet 1.
NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the light intensity or the
scope position in order to obtain the best view.
However, if the forementioned group/element cannot be
seen, the scope or light bundle or light source is not
serviceable for engine inspection.
C. Procedure.
(1) If Polaroid camera equipment and optional camera adapters are
available, it is relatively easy to effect a comparative
measurement.
(a) Position the rotor to obtain the best view of the defect,
relative to assessment of the maintenance manual limit, e.g.;
leading edge impact, tip (distortion) curl, leading edge or
trailing edge distortion, etc. Usually normal (at right angle)
to the defect and centered in the field of view.
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May 31/99
(b) Obtain a Polaroid photo of the defect.
(c) Using a full scale cross section of the engine, for reference,
locate a scale (machinist 6 in. scale marked in 0.010 in.
increments) in the relative axial and circumferential position
outside the HPC case, withdraw the borescope probe with camera
attached.
(d) Hold the borescope probe aligned with the centerline (same
position, axial, angle of look, and circumferential
orientation as the defect photo was obtained) of the borescope
port and obtain a photo of the measurement scale.
(e) By comparative measurement, apply the magnified scale
increments from the photo of the scale to the photo of the
actual defect. These 2 photos should be at the same relative
magnification.
(2) If photographic equipment is not available, the comparative
assessment becomes more difficult; however, the following
procedure has been used successfully.
(a) Position the rotor at the optimum rotation angle to view the
defect.
(b) Use a sample blade (if available) and mark a similar or
depiction of the blade defect. Place this blade in the
relative position of the installed defective blade on the
outside of the engine.
(c) Withdraw the borescope, retaining the axial circumferential
orientation and lock angle relationship and visually assess
the comparison of the actual to marked defect (from the
installed blade to the external sample).
(d) Re-mark or correct the depiction until satisfied that the 2
images compare.
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(e) Measure the marked defect.
NOTE: A straight edge scale can also be used if no blade
samples are available to the inspector.
(3) Borescope temperature limitations.
(a) Figure 8 provides engine cool-down information relative to the
various borescope port locations for use in determining
elapsed time required prior to engine inspection of arrival
aircraft.
(b) The information is either calculated or recorded from test
engine data runs. It is not recommended that (fiber light type
or fiber optic/light flexible) fiberscope inspections be
accomplished at temperatures above 150°F (65,6°C).
CAUTION: REFER TO AIRCRAFT OPERATION MANUAL FOR STARTER DUTY
CYCLE LIMITATIONS PRIOR TO MOTORING OF ENGINE.
(c) To increase the engine cool-down rate after shutdown, motor
engine for a maximum of 2 minutes by utilizing the engine
starter and by carefully adhering to starter duty cycle
limitations. This will reduce the hot section area temperature
sufficiently to allow fiber optics method of inspection at
that time.
NOTE: If engine starter motoring is used it is further
recommended that engine hot section inspections be
accomplished within 20 minutes after the motoring cycles
are completed. Local temperature rise (due to engine
temperature soak-back) may cause local temperatures
sufficient to damage the fiber optic type borescopes.
72-00-00
Part 7
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May 31/99
Engine Temperature for Borescope Inspection after Engine Shutdown
Following Normal Flight Cycle
Figure 8
72-21-00
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May 31/99
BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR
1. Requirements.
A. On Condition Maintenance.
Borescope inspection of the booster section may be required for visual
assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan.
B. Special Inspection.
Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from
engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation.
The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required
to be inspected.
2. Procedure.
The borescope inspection of the booster section is given in the
Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine
model.
ENGINE REFERENCE
CFM56-2 72-21-00, Fan and Booster Inspection/Check
CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-008-C00
CFM56-5A TASK 72-21-00-290-001
CFM56-5B TASK 72-21-00-290-003
CFM56-5C TASK 72-21-00-290-801
CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-803-F00
3. Inspection Criteria.
A. General.
Whenever borescope inspection of the fan rotor is required, the
following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable
hardware limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in-limit
defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent
deterioration rates.
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(1) On Condition (Scheduled Inspection).
(a) Cracks or tears.
(b) Nicks and scratches.
(c) Dents.
(d) Erosion.
(e) Tip curl.
(f) Pits.
(g) Distortion leading or trailing edges.
(h) Missing metal.
(2) Special Inspections.
Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements.
The following listing relates the special checks to those
additional defects which are prevalent in engines having
experienced a problem requiring special checks.
(a) Fan stall.
(b) Foreign object damage (FOD) and suspected bird injection.
(c) High fan vibs.
4. Documentation of Defects.
A. General.
(1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for
each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided
which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for each
rotor stage. The maps are provided so that any damage within
serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and
position on the blade.
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Page 3
May 31/99
The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated
during subsequent inspections. The rotor blade maps are oriented
about the zero reference for inspection continuity. The inspection
records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the
damaged parts are repaired or replaced.
(2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1.
B. Mapping Defects.
(1) Record individual blade damage on booster blade maps. See figure 2.
(2) Record damage detected on appropriate fan/booster rotor blade map.
See figures 3 through 7. The blade numbering relative to angular
position applies only when the booster is indexed as defined in
section 72-00-00.
NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at
the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to
allow the mapping to be done in an office after the
inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord
or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc.
C. Photo Recording of Damage.
Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be
made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to
engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the
correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely
difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to
sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
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May 31/99
Booster Section Inspection Record
R Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 6)
R
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Booster Section Inspection Record
R Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 6)
R
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Booster Section Inspection Record
R Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 6)
R
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Booster Section Inspection Record
R Figure 1 (Sheet 4 of 6)
R
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Booster Section Inspection Record
R Figure 1 (Sheet 5 of 6)
R
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Booster Section Inspection Record
R Figure 1 (Sheet 6 of 6)
R
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Booster Blade Map
Figure 2
72-21-00
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May 31/99
CFM56-2 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 1 of 4)
R
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CFM56-3 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 2 of 4)
R
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May 31/99
CFM56-5 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 3 of 4)
R
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R CFM56-7B Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 4 of 4)
R
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R CFM56-2 Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 6)
72-21-00
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May 31/99
R CFM56-3 Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5A Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5B Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 4 (Sheet 4 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5C Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 4 (Sheet 5 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-7B Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 4 (Sheet 6 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-2 Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 5 (Sheet 1 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-3 Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 5 (Sheet 2 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5A Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 5 (Sheet 3 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5B Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 5 (Sheet 4 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5C Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 5 (Sheet 5 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-7B Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 5 (Sheet 6 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-2 Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 6 (Sheet 1 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-3 Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 6 (Sheet 2 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5A Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 6 (Sheet 3 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5B Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 6 (Sheet 4 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5C Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 6 (Sheet 5 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-7B Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 6 (Sheet 6 of 6)
R
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R CFM56-5B Stage 5 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 2)
R
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R CFM56-5C Stage 5 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 2)
R
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May 31/99
BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR
1. Requirements.
A. On Condition Maintenance.
Borescope inspection of high pressure compressor (HPC) section may be
required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition
engine maintenance.
B. Special Inspection.
Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from
engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation.
The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required
to be inspected.
2. Procedure.
The borescope inspection of high pressure compressor is given in the
Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine
model.
ENGINE REFERENCE
CFM56-2 72-31-00, Maintenance Practices
CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-049-C00
CFM56-5A TASK 72-31-00-290-001
CFM56-5B TASK 72-31-00-290-002
CFM56-5C TASK 72-31-00-290-801
CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-804
3. Inspection Criteria.
A. General.
Whenever borescope inspection of the HPC is required, the following
defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware
limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in limit defect
conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration
rates.
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(1) on condition (Scheduled Inspection).
(a) Cracks.
(b) Nicks or scratches.
(c) Dents.
(d) Erosion.
(e) Tip curl.
(f) Pits.
(g) Distortion of leading or trailing edge.
(h) Missing metal.
(i) Dirt.
(2) Special inspections.
Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements.
The following listing relates the special checks to those
additional defects which are prevalent in engines having
experienced a problem requiring the special check.
(a) Core stall.
(b) Oil fumes detected in cabin air.
(c) Foreign object damage (FOD).
(d) High core vibration.
4. Documentation of Defects.
A. General.
(1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for
each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided
which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for each
rotor stage of the compressor. The maps are provided so that any
damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by
blade number and position on the blade.
72-31-00
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Page 3
May 31/99
The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated
during subsequent inspection. The rotor blade maps are oriented
about the zero reference for inspection continuity. The inspection
records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the
damaged parts are repaired or replaced.
(2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1.
B. Mapping Defects.
(1) Record individual blade damage on HPC blade map. See figure 2.
(2) Record damage detected on the appropriate compressor rotor stage
maps. See figures 3 through 11. The blade numbering relative to
angular position applies only when the high pressure rotor is
indexed as defined in section 72-00-00.
NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at
the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to
allow the mapping to be done in an office after the
inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord
or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc.
C. Photo Recording of Damage.
Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be
made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to
engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the
correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely
difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to
sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
72-31-00
Part 7
Page 4
May 31/99
Compressor Section Inspection Record
Figure 1
R
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Compressor Blade Map
Figure 2
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May 31/99
Stage 1 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 3
R
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Stage 2 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 4
R
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Stage 3 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 5
R
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Stage 4 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 6
R
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Stage 5 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 7
R
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Stage 6 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 8
R
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Stage 7 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 9
R
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Stage 8 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 10
R
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Stage 9 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 11
R
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May 31/99
BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF COMBUSTION SECTION
1. Requirements.
A. On Condition.
Borescope inspection of the combustion section may be required for a
visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance
plan.
B. Special Inspections.
Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from
engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation.
The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required
to be inspected.
2. Procedure.
The borescope inspection of combustion chamber is given in the Maintenance
Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model.
ENGINE REFERENCE
CFM56-2 72-42-00, Maintenance Practices
CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-023-C00
CFM56-5A TASK 72-42-00-290-001
CFM56-5B TASK 72-42-00-290-041
CFM56-5C TASK 72-42-00-290-802
CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-805-F00 (SAC)
TASK 72-00-00-200-816-F00 (DAC)
3. Inspection Criteria.
A. General.
Whenever borescope inspection of the combustion section is required,
the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the
applicable hardware limits for serviceability.
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B. On Condition (Scheduled Maintenance).
(1) Discoloration.
(a) Normal aging of the combustion chamber components will show a
wide range of color changes. Use of arc Xenon or incandescent
light sources for borescope illumination will result in viewed
coloration differences. The closest color to true daylight
viewing is gained from the use of a Marc 300/16 type hi-
intensity lamp light projector. This light is close to white
light.
(b) Use of incandescent filament lamps tend to project a yellowish
color on the viewed hardware. Incandescent lamps usually do
not have sufficient light levels to view the distant areas of
the combustion chamber liners.
(c) Use of the Xenon arc lamp with the distal light type
borescopes tend to cast a bluish coloration on the viewed
hardware. Carbon streaks have been misinterpreted as cracks
and carbon deposits have bean misinterpreted as holes or burn
through.
(2) Inner liner.
The aft panel of the inner liner is susceptable to distortion and
cracking, the first evidence of this is discoloration in a round
spot approximately 1.0 in. (25 mm) dia., which is followed by
distortion and cracking. This usually occurs uniformly around the
aft liner in approximately 20 places.
C. Special Inspections.
(1) Overtemperature operation.
(a) High exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increase in EGT trend.
(b) Overtemperature during takeoff or cruise.
72-42-00
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May 31/99
(2) Impact damage observed on high pressure turbine (HPT) rotor blades.
Inspect the combustion chamber in accordance with the standard
condition check. Limits and area all apply as in an on condition
check.
4. Documentation of Defects.
A. General.
(1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for
each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided
which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for the
combustion section. The maps are provided so that any damage
within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially for location
of damaged area. The propagation of the damage can then be
pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. The
inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder
until the damaged parts are repaired or replaced.
(2) Record inspection on single annular combustion chamber (SAC)
inspection record. See figure 1.
(3) Record inspection on dual annular combustion chamber (DAC)
inspection record. See figure 2.
B. Mapping Defects.
(1) Record damage on maps.
- SAC : see figures 3 through 8.
- DAC : see figures 9 through 15.
NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at
the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to
allow the mapping to be done in an office after the
inspection. Details are lost relative to magnitude of
defect, surrounding condition, etc.
R
R
R
R
R
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C. Photo Recording of Damage.
Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be
made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to
engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the
correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely
difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to
sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
72-42-00
Part 7
Page 5
May 31/99
R Single Annular Combustion Section Inspection Record
Figure 1
72-42-00
Part 7
Page 6
May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Section Inspection Record
R Figure 2
R
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Nov 30/11
R Single Annular Combustion Chamber (Typical)
Figure 3
72-42-00
Part 7
Page 8
Nov 30/11
R Single Annular Combustion Chamber Section View
Figure 4
R
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May 31/99
R Outer Liner Surface Map (SAC)
R Figure 5
72-42-00
Part 7
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May 31/99
R Outer Liner Inner Surface Map (SAC)
R Figure 6
72-42-00
Part 7
Page 11
May 31/99
R Inner Liner Surface Map (SAC)
R Figure 7
72-42-00
Part 7
Page 12
May 31/99
R Dome Area General Map (SAC)
R Figure 8
72-42-00
Part 7
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May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Inspection
R Figure 9
R
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May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Inspection
R Figure 10
R
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May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection
R Figure 11
R
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May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection
R Figure 12
R
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May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection
R Figure 13
R
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May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection
R Figure 14
R
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May 31/99
R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection
R Figure 15
R
72-51-00
Part 7
Page 1
May 31/99
BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE NOZZLE ASSEMBLY
1. Requirements.
A. On Condition.
Borescope inspection of the high pressure turbine (HPT) may be required
for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine
maintenance plan.
B. Special Inspections.
Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from
engine problems trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The
CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to
be inspected.
2. Procedure.
The borescope inspection of high pressure turbine nozzle assembly is given
in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each
engine model.
ENGINE REFERENCE
CFM56-2 72-51-00, Maintenance Practices
CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-023-C00
CFM56-5A TASK 72-51-00-290-002
CFM56-5B TASK 72-51-00-290-004
CFM56-5C TASK 72-51-00-290-801
CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-806-F00
3. Inspection Criteria.
A. General.
Whenever borescope inspection of the HPT nozzle assembly is required,
observed defects must be assessed as to the applicable hardware limits
for serviceability.
R
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B. On Condition (Scheduled Maintenance).
(1) Discoloration.
(2) Leading edge damage.
(a) Cracks.
(b) Burns.
(c) Blocked cooling air passages.
(3) Airfoil concave surface.
Cracks.
(4) Airfoil convex surface.
Cracks.
(5) Airfoil trailing edge.
(a) Cracks.
(b) Buckling and bowing.
(c) Burns.
(6) Other airfoil areas/defects.
(a) Burns.
(b) Nicks, scores, scratches, or dents.
(7) Inner and outer bands.
(a) Burns.
(b) Cracks.
72-51-00
Part 7
Page 3
May 31/99
C. Special Inspections.
The on condition checks pertains to all special inspection requirements
regarding hardware limits and inspection procedures.
(1) Overtemperature operation.
(2) Engine stall.
(3) Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) trend step increase.
4. Documentation of Defects.
A. General.
(1) It is recommended that a record of each inspection be maintained
for each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms and a map of
the HPT nozzle assembly is provided so that any damage within (or
out) of serviceable limits can be recorded. A record of the vane
by clock location as well as magnitude can be sketched on the map.
This information is useful in establishing deterioration data from
subsequent inspection or watch checks. These records should
accompany the HPT nozzle (module or engine) to the repair facility
for correlation of inspection depiction versus actual hardware
condition.
(2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1.
72-51-00
Part 7
Page 4
May 31/99
B. Mapping Defects.
(1) Record damage detected on the HPT nozzle vane map.
See figures 2 and 3.
NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at
the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to
allow the mapping to be done in an office after the
inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord
or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc.
C. Photo Recording of Damage.
(1) Photos of the HPT nozzle vanes require time exposures unless
extremely fast ASA film is used. It is recommended that the probe
(rigid optic fiber light borescope) be used for photo recording.
This probe has the greatest fiber light transmission capability.
(2) Care should be taken to center the light beam on the vane leading
edge in question, eliminating as much glare or reflective lighting
from the inner combustion liner. Too much immersion of the probe
will show liner high-lighting and tend to wash out the HPT nozzle
vane photo detail.
NOTE: Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo
should be made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not
recorded relative to engine serial number, stage, port
direction of view, and date, the correlation of the hardware
damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Note
directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence
of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
R
72-51-00
Part 7
Page 5
May 31/99
High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Inspection Report
Figure 1
72-51-00
Part 7
Page 6
May 31/99
High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Map of Damaged Vanes (Typical)
Figure 2
72-51-00
Part 7
Page 7/8
May 31/99
R CFM56-7B HPT Nozzle Map Damaged Vanes
R Figure 3
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 1
May 31/99
BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE BLADES
1. Requirements.
A. On Condition.
Borescope inspection of the high pressure turbine (HPT) blades may be
required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition
engine maintenance plan.
B. Special Inspections.
Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from
engine problem, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The
CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to
be inspected.
2. Procedure.
The borescope inspection of high pressure turbine blades is given in the
Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine
model.
ENGINE REFERENCE
CFM56-2 72-52-00, Maintenance Practices
CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-026-C00
CFM56-5A TASK 72-52-00-290-001
CFM56-5B TASK 72-52-00-290-001-A
CFM56-5C TASK 72-52-00-290-801
CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-807-F00
3. Inspection Criteria.
A. General.
Whenever borescope inspections of the HPT section are required, the
following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable
hardware limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in-limit
defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent
deterioration rates.
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 2
May 31/99
B. On Condition (Scheduled Inspection).
(1) Trailing edge.
Cracks.
(2) Tip area.
(a) Cracks.
(b) Bent, curled, or missing pieces.
(c) Tip trailing edge wear.
(3) Blade platform.
(a) Nicks and dents.
(b) Cracks.
(4) Concave and convex airfoil surface.
(a) Cracks.
(b) Distortion.
(c) Burning.
(5) Cooling holes.
(a) Cracks.
(b) Plugging.
C. Special Inspection.
(1) General.
Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements.
The following listing relates the special check to those typical
defects which are prevalent in engine having experienced those
problems requiring the special check. In all cases, the general on
condition check should be accomplished. This section merely
highlights those areas of distress associated with a given
problem.
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 3
May 31/99
(2) Core stall (N2).
(a) When an engine stall is either suspected or known to have
occurred, a borescope inspection of the HPT rotor is required;
prior to release of the engine.
(b) High pressure compressor (HPC) stalls usually drive the
exhaust gas temperature (EGT) to overlimit if the stall is
severe or sustained. This produces tip deterioration
(nibbling) on the concave or pressure face tip centered about
2/3 chord aft from the leading edge.
(c) The normal on condition check must be accomplished.
(3) Overtemperature.
(a) When certain EGT excursions are reported, a borescope
inspection of HPT rotor is required; prior to release of the
engine.
(b) The normal on condition check is required. The typical effect
of HPT overtemperature is the nibbling of the concave or
pressure face tip about 2/3 chord aft of the leading edge. In
all inspections of the HPT rotor, the on condition check and
limits apply.
(4) Metal in the tailpipe.
When metallic debris is noted in the engine tailpipe, a borescope
inspection of the HPT rotor is required; prior to release of the
engine. The standard on condition check and corresponding limits
apply.
(5) N2 overspeed, core vibs, and hard landing.
An N2 overspeed, high or changing core vibration indication or
following a reported hard landing, will require a borescope
inspection/check of the HPT rotor prior to release of the engine.
The standard on condition check and limits apply to these
conditional checks.
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 4
May 31/99
4. Documentation of Defects.
A. General.
(1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for
each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided
which include borescope inspection forms and maps for each rotor
stage of the HPT. The maps are provided so that any damage within
serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and
position of blade. The propagation of the damage can then be
pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. The HPT
rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for
inspection continuity. The inspection records and maps will remain
with the engine folder until damaged part(s) are repaired or
replaced.
(2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1.
B. Mapping Defects.
(1) Record individual blade damage on HPT blade map. See figure 2.
(2) Record damage detected on the appropriate high pressure turbine
rotor maps. See figure 3. The blade numbering relative to angular
position applies only when the high pressure rotor is indexed as
defined in section 72-00-00.
NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at
the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to
allow the mapping to be done in an office after the
inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord
or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc.
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 5
May 31/99
C. Photo Recording of Damage.
Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be
made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to
engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the
correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely
difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to
sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 6
Nov 30/11
HPT Rotor Inspection Record
Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 3)
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 7
Nov 30/11
HPT Rotor Inspection Record
Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 3)
R
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 8
Nov 30/11
HPT Rotor Inspection Record
Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 3)
R
R
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 9
R Nov 30/11
HPT Rotor Blade Map (Typical)
Figure 2
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 10
Nov 30/11
CFM56-2/-3 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 1 of 6)
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 11
Nov 30/11
CFM56-5 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 2 of 6)
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 12
Nov 30/11
R CFM56-5 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 3 of 6)
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 13
Nov 30/11
R CFM56-7B Not 7BE With Single Annular Combustion
HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 4 of 6)
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 14
Nov 30/11
R CFM56-7BE With Single Annular Combustion
R HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 5 of 6)
R
72-52-00
Part 7
Page 15/16
Nov 30/11
CFM56-7B With Dual Annular Combustion
HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R Figure 3 (Sheet 6 of 6)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 1
May 31/99
BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF LOW PRESSURE TURBINE
1. Requirements.
A. On Condition.
Borescope inspection of low pressure turbine (LPT) may be required for
a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine
maintenance plan.
B. Special Inspections.
Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from
engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation.
The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required
to be inspected.
2. Procedure.
The borescope inspection of low pressure turbine is given in the
Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine
model.
ENGINE REFERENCE
CFM56-2 72-54-00, Inspection/Check
CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-045-C00
CFM56-5A TASK 72-54-00-290-001
CFM56-5B TASK 72-54-00-290-005
CFM56-5C TASK 72-54-00-290-801
CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-808-F00
3. Inspection Criteria.
A. General.
Whenever borescope inspections of the LPT section are required, the
following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable
hardware limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in limit
conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration
rates.
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 2
May 31/99
B. On Condition (Scheduled Inspection).
(1) Cracks in LPT rotor blades.
(a) Using the fiber light type rigid optic borescope probe 2 (wide
angle scope) inspect the total airfoil, platform, and tip
shrouds for evidence of cracks. For tip shroud condition, the
retrograde or probe 4 is recommended. Use of the magnification
adapter is recommended for final assessment of possible or
suspect cracks in the blade tip shrouds.
(b) Cracks shall exhibit depth and under magnified assessment
shall show edge material definition. Care must be used to
distinguish cracks from smears, carbon streaks, etc.
(2) Nicks and dents.
(a) Nicks and/or dents in the leading edge, trailing edge, airfoil
surfaces (convex/concave) and/or the platforms must be
assessed. Note and record the presence of these defects
relative to the percent span and percent chord for magnitude
and location on the blade. Note also the condition of the
blade material adjacent (at extremities of defect) to the
observed defect. Note any cracking or sharpness of dents
and/or nicks.
(b) Smooth impact deformities to leading or trailing edge blade
contour should be noted/reported. Subsequent inspection should
be performed to locate the origin of such damage. For example:
inspect damage to leading edge of stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 versus
leading edge damage (impact) to stages 2, 3, and with minor
trailing edge damage to stage 1 blades, etc.
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 3
Feb 29/96
(3) Wear.
LPT rotor blade tip shroud interlock and/or circumferential mating
face area wear has been experienced. This area is viewable using
probe 2, but if suspected wear is observed the retrograde probe 4
is recommended for final assessment.
(4) Dirt, coloration, pitting, and corrosion.
High time LPT rotor assemblies may show airfoil surface
irregularities which can be dirt accumulation, carbon buildup,
pitting of the surface from particles in the gas stream or
corrosion of the blade material. These abnormalities are very
difficult to define and to differentiate between the various
suspect defects/surface irregularities. Dirt and coloration are of
little concern, however pitting and/or corrosion of the blade
material are considered significant deterioration modes. Use of
all 3 probes as well as varying light intensities is required for
final assessment of these conditions.
C. Special Inspections.
Special defects accompany some of the special check requirements. The
following listing relates the special check to those typical defects.
In all cases, the general on condition check should be accomplished.
This section merely highlights those areas of distress associated with
a given problem.
(1) Overtemperature inspection. See figure 1.
The LPT stage 1 and stage 4 blades (stage 5 for CFM56-5C) must be
inspected.
(2) Metal in the tailpipe.
All LPT stages must be inspected.
R
R
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 4
Feb 29/96
4. Documentation of Defects.
A. General.
(1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for
each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided
which include borescope inspection forms and maps for each rotor
stage of the LPT. The maps are provided so that any damage within
serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and
position of the blade. The propagation of the damage can then be
pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. The LPT
rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for
inspection continuity. The inspection records and maps will remain
with the engine folder until damaged part(s) are repaired or
replaced.
(2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 2.
B. Mapping Defects.
(1) Record individual blade damage on the LPT blade map. See figure 3.
(2) Record damage detected on the appropriate LPT rotor stage map. See
figures 4 through 8. The blade numbering relative to angular
position applies only when the low pressure rotor is indexed as
defined in section 72-00-00.
NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at
the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to
allow the mapping to be done in an office after the
inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord
or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc.
Map the defect on the site of the inspection.
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 5
Feb 29/96
C. Photo Recording of Damage.
Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be
made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to
engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the
correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely
difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to
sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 6
Feb 29/96
LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection
R Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 5)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 7
Feb 29/96
LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection
R Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 5)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 8
Feb 29/96
LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection
R Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 5)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 9
Feb 29/96
LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection
R Figure 1 (Sheet 4 of 5)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 10
Feb 29/96
LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection
R Figure 1 (Sheet 5 of 5)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 11
May 31/99
CFM56-2/-3 LPT Section Inspection Record
Figure 2 (Sheet 1 of 3)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 12
May 31/99
R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B LPT Section Inspection Record
Figure 2 (Sheet 2 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 13
May 31/99
CFM56-5C LPT Section Inspection Record
Figure 2 (Sheet 3 of 3)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 14
May 31/99
LPT Blade Map (Typical)
Figure 3
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 15
May 31/99
CFM56-2/-3 Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 16
May 31/99
R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 17
May 31/99
CFM56-5C Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 18
May 31/99
CFM56-2/-3 Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 5 (Sheet 1 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 19
May 31/99
R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 5 (Sheet 2 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 20
May 31/99
CFM56-5C Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 5 (Sheet 3 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 21
May 31/99
CFM56-2/-3 Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 6 (Sheet 1 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 22
May 31/99
R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 6 (Sheet 2 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 23
May 31/99
CFM56-5C Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 6 (Sheet 3 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 24
May 31/99
CFM56-2/-3 Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 25
May 31/99
Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 3)
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 26
May 31/99
R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 27
May 31/99
CFM56-5C Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 7 (Sheet 3 of 3)
R
72-54-00
Part 7
Page 28/28
May 31/99
CFM56-5C Stage 5 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades
Figure 8
R

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BORESCOPE INSPECTION for engins CFM56.pdf

  • 1. CFMI-TP-NT.11 NOVEMBER 30, 1980 REVISED NOVEMBER 30, 2011 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL PART 7-BORESCOPE INSPECTION
  • 2.
  • 3. LEP Part 7 Page 1 Nov 30/11 PART 7 - BORESCOPE INSPECTION LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION PAGE DATE R TITLE PAGE 1 Nov 30/11 R LEP 1 Nov 30/11 R 2 Nov 30/11 CONTENTS 1 Feb 29/96 2 Blank 72-00-00 1 May 31/99 R 2 Nov 30/11 3 May 31/99 4 May 31/99 5 May 31/99 6 May 31/99 7 May 31/99 8 May 31/99 9 May 31/99 10 May 31/99 11 May 31/99 12 May 31/99 13 May 31/99 14 May 31/99 15 May 31/99 16 May 31/99 17 May 31/99 18 May 31/99 19 May 31/99 20 May 31/99 21 May 31/99 22 May 31/99 23 May 31/99 24 May 31/99 25 May 31/99 26 May 31/99 27 May 31/99 28 Blank SECTION PAGE DATE 72-21-00 1 May 31/99 2 May 31/99 3 May 31/99 4 May 31/99 5 May 31/99 6 May 31/99 7 May 31/99 8 May 31/99 9 May 31/99 10 May 31/99 11 May 31/99 12 May 31/99 13 May 31/99 14 May 31/99 15 May 31/99 16 May 31/99 17 May 31/99 18 May 31/99 19 May 31/99 20 May 31/99 21 May 31/99 22 May 31/99 23 May 31/99 24 May 31/99 25 May 31/99 26 May 31/99 27 May 31/99 28 May 31/99 29 May 31/99 30 May 31/99 31 May 31/99 32 May 31/99 33 May 31/99 34 May 31/99 72-31-00 1 May 31/99 2 May 31/99 3 May 31/99 4 May 31/99 5 May 31/99 R: indicates pages added, changed, or deleted this revision.
  • 4. LEP Part 7 Page 2 Nov 30/11 PART 7 - BORESCOPE INSPECTION LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION PAGE DATE 72-31-00 6 May 31/99 (Cont'd) 7 May 31/99 8 May 31/99 9 May 31/99 10 May 31/99 11 May 31/99 12 May 31/99 13 May 31/99 14 May 31/99 72-42-00 1 May 31/99 2 May 31/99 3 May 31/99 4 May 31/99 5 May 31/99 6 May 31/99 R 7 Nov 30/11 R 8 Nov 30/11 9 May 31/99 10 May 31/99 11 May 31/99 12 May 31/99 13 May 31/99 14 May 31/99 15 May 31/99 16 May 31/99 17 May 31/99 18 May 31/99 19 May 31/99 20 Blank 72-51-00 1 May 31/99 2 May 31/99 3 May 31/99 4 May 31/99 5 May 31/99 6 May 31/99 7 May 31/99 8 Blank 72-52-00 1 May 31/99 2 May 31/99 3 May 31/99 SECTION PAGE DATE 72-52-00 4 May 31/99 5 May 31/99 R 6 Nov 30/11 R 7 Nov 30/11 R 8 Nov 30/11 R 9 Nov 30/11 R 10 Nov 30/11 R 11 Nov 30/11 R 12 Nov 30/11 R 13 Nov 30/11 R 14 Nov 30/11 R 15 Nov 30/11 R 16 Blank 72-54-00 1 May 31/99 2 May 31/99 3 Feb 29/96 4 Feb 29/96 5 Feb 29/96 6 Feb 29/96 7 Feb 29/96 8 Feb 29/96 9 Feb 29/96 10 Feb 29/96 11 May 31/99 12 May 31/99 13 May 31/99 14 May 31/99 15 May 31/99 16 May 31/99 17 May 31/99 18 May 31/99 19 May 31/99 20 May 31/99 21 May 31/99 22 May 31/99 23 May 31/99 24 May 31/99 25 May 31/99 26 May 31/99 27 May 31/99 28 Blank R: indicates pages added, changed, or deleted this revision.
  • 5. CONTENTS Part 7 Page 1/2 Feb 29/96 PART 7 - BORESCOPE INSPECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 72-00-00 Borescope Inspection ....................................... 1 R 72-21-00 Borescope Inspection of Low Pressure Compressor ............ 1 72-31-00 Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Compressor ........... 1 72-42-00 Borescope Inspection of Combustion Section ................. l 72-51-00 Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Turbine Nozzle ....... l 72-52-00 Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Turbine Blades ....... l 72-54-00 Borescope Inspection of Low Pressure Turbine ............... 1
  • 6.
  • 7. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 BORESCOPE INSPECTION 1. General. A. This procedure describes the type of borescope equipment found to be acceptable for inspection of the CFM56 turbofan engine. B. The borescope is a precision monocular periscope instrument especially designed for the inspection of the inside of turbofan engines through small diameter access holes. The borescope provides a system of visually inspecting and taking photographs of selected areas inside the engine. A television camera and viewing screen may be used instead of visual examination through the monocular viewer and a television tape recorder may be used in lieu of the photographic method of making a record. The CFM56 engine has been designed with a substantial number of access holes for viewing critical areas inside the engine. C. This procedure includes instructions for checking the resolution of borescopes and fiberscopes. 2. Safety. The following WARNINGS apply to using borescope equipment. WARNING: DO NOT EXPOSE YOUR EYES TO THE FULL INTENSITY OF THE XENON OR GAS ARC LIGHT SOURCE. WARNING: ALL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT USED IN INSPECTION SHALL BE PROPERLY GROUNDED. WARNING: ALL STANDS AND GROUND EQUIPMENT SHALL HAVE SAFETY LOCKS AND RAILINGS. DO NOT IMPROVISE WITH LADDERS AND BOARDS. 3. Tools, Equipment and Materials. NOTE: Equivalent substitutes may be used instead of the following items.
  • 8. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 2 Nov 30/11 A. Tools and Equipment. (1) Special Tools. Tool No. Description 856A1084G02, Cart, Stator Actuator G03 or G04 856A1142P03 or P04 Motor, Drive-Core Engine Rotation (CFM56-2) 856A1310G01 Kit, Borescope Guide - HP Turbine 856A1351P01 Guide Tube, HPT Shroud 856A1320P04, P05, P06 Borescope Set, Rigid P07 856A1321P05, P06 Fiberscope Set 856A1324P01 (ALT) Borescope, Videoprobe - Flexible 856A1322P02, P04, P08, Borescope, Light Source Set P09, P11 856A1323G01 Borescope Resolution Monitor 856A1488P01 or P02 Motor Drive - Core Engine Rotation (CFM56-5) 856A2002P01, P02, P03 Motor Drive - Core Engine or P04 Rotation (CFM56-3) 856A1815G04, G05, G06 Motor Drive-Core Engine Rotation (CFM56-7B) NOTE: Other borescope systems using either fiber light or distal lamps for illumination and a rigid lens optical path may be considered acceptable for inspection of the CFM56 turbofan engine if they meet the design specifications of CFMI Specification M50TF3276-S1. R R R R R
  • 9. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 (2) Standard Tools. Description Manufacturer 35 mm Camera Local Purchase Video Monitor Local Purchase B. Rigid Borescope Set, 856A1320, and Light Source Set, 856A1322. See figure 1. (1) This borescope set consists of the following: (a) Light source - 110 VAC 60 Hz, 220 VAC 50 Hz, or 110 VAC 400 Hz. (b) Four rigid probes. See figure 2. (c) Two fiber light bundles. (d) Long right angle extension. (e) 40-60 degree eyepiece extension. (f) Magnification adapter - 2:1 magnification at 2 in. (50,8 mm). (g) 35 mm camera adapter. (h) Television camera adapter. NOTE: The 35 mm camera and television camera adapters are optional equipment and may be obtained from the borescope vendor. (2) Preparation for use. (a) The rigid borescope set, except for the light source, is stored in a carrying case and must be assembled prior to use.
  • 10. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 Rigid Borescope Set Figure 1
  • 11. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 Rigid Borescope Probe Specifications Figure 2
  • 12. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 CAUTION: BEFORE CONNECTING THE POWER SUPPLY TO A 110 VAC 60 HZ POWER SOURCE, BE SURE THE ON-OFF SWITCH IS IN THE OFF POSITION AND LIGHT INTENSITY CONTROL IS SET TO MINIMUM. ENSURE PROJECTOR AND POWER SUPPLY ARE PROPERLY GROUNDED. (b) Select desired probe. Connect the fiber bundle to the probe and to the light projector. Connect the light projector electrical cable to a grounded power source. (c) When the magnification adapter is required, attach the adapter to the eyepiece at the selected probe. When used with probe 1 the probe must be focused prior to attaching the magnification adapter. (d) If photographic record is desired, attach the 35 mm camera on the optional adapter. Attach the camera and adapter to the eyepiece of the selected probe. (e) When using the optional television camera adapter, attach the C-mount to the TV camera adapter and connect the camera assembly (vidicon and low light intensifier) to the C-mount. Connect the TV camera electrical cable to the camera and camera control unit. Attach the TV camera adapter to the eyepiece of the probe. (f) Attach the offset eyepiece to the probe eyepiece as required if viewing access is limited. (3) Operating information for the use of the rigid borescope set is as follows:
  • 13. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 7 May 31/99 (a) Probe 1 is primarily used for defect assessment of the combustion chamber and high pressure turbine (HPT) nozzle. This probe contains a variable focus adjustment in the form of a knurled ring between the eyepiece and the fiber light bundle disconnect fitting. This is the high magnification probe and can be used to define or access most defects in the combustion chamber or HPT nozzle. For photo recording purposes a visually sharp focus should be obtained prior to coupling of the camera and adapter to the borescope. Fine adjustments may then be accomplished through adjustment of the camera adapter. This probe will require more exposure time than the other probes due to increased focal length and therefore less light transmission. The depth of field and field of view are decreased because of the magnification provided in the probe optics. (b) Probe 2 is a general purpose 90 degree probe and is primarily used for general inspection of the engine. Probe 2 can be used in all borescope ports of the engine. (c) Probe 3 is a fore-oblique angle probe primarily required for the high pressure compressor (HPC) blade platforms and airfoils. (d) Probe 4 is a retro-angle probe primarily required for blade tips and other liner surfaces and shrouds. (e) Probes 2, 3 and 4 can have fixed or adjustable focus lenses. 1 For close-up inspection, less than 0.25 in. (6,4 mm) away from the probe optics window, the magnification adapter should be utilized. The magnification adapter provides variable focus as well as magnification. The magnification of 2 to 1 is only obtained at 2.0 in. (50,8 mm) from optics to object distance. The magnification factor decreases for object distances greater than 2.0 in. (50,8 mm); object to optic spacing.
  • 14. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 8 May 31/99 2 For objects less than 2.0 in. (50,8 mm) from the probe lens window, adjust the magnification adapter to bring the object clearly into focus. Only fine adjustments are required on the camera adapter. Use of the magnification adapter for photo recording will require more exposure time for a given probe, than photos taken without its use. The magnification adapter is not recommended for use with probe 1 during photo recording. (f) Light projection provides the light source for the fiber bundle probes. Place the power unit switch to ON. The red indicator light should glow. Adjust the intensity of the light source to provide the required illumination after the probe is inserted into the engine port. (g) Two light sources are built into the power unit. The 150-watt lamp is used for visual inspection of objects close to the distal end of the probe. The 1000-watt high intensity lamp is used for photography as well as visual inspection of combustors and HPT nozzle vanes. NOTE: The photo arc light circuit contains a thermal delay cutout that prevents the light from being turned ON if light projector is too hot. C. Fiberscope Set, 856A1321 and Borescope Guide Tube, 856A1310. See figure 3. (1) The flexible fiber optic system has an articulated distal tip. The light for viewing is conducted from the projector to the probe through an integrally attached fiber light bundle. The distal end can be angulated over a range of 180 degrees of arc vertically at the bending point. The system contains the following features.
  • 15. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99 Fiberscope Set Figure 3
  • 16. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99 (a) Optical system specifications. 1 Distal focusing - adjustment at eyepiece. 2 Depth of field - 6 mm to 100 mm. 3 Angle of view - 90 degrees. 4 Diopter adjustment - minus 6D to plus 4D. 5 Magnification - 1:1 at 25 mm. 6 Objective focal distance - 2.13 mm. 7 Lens speed - f 2.8. 8 Image bundle size - 1.7 mm square. 9 Single fiber image guide - 17 microns. 10 Illumination - inherent light guide with 5 feet extension. (b) Distal tip specifications. 1 Size - 6 mm dia x 20 mm long. 2 Side view - 90 degrees to centerline of probe. (c) Bending section (articulated tip) specifications. 1 Angulation controllable at eyepiece 180° (90° up - 90° down). 2 Minimum bend radius - one in. (25,4 mm). 3 Length of bending section - 50 mm. (d) Flexible cable-probe specifications. 1 Working length - 70 in. (1800 mm). 2 Outside diameter over working length - 6 mm. 3 Covering on cable - stainless steel braid.
  • 17. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 4 Temperature range - 0°F to 200°F (- 18°C to 93°C) continuous operation. 5 Light source - the fiberscope integral light bundle will attach to the Light Source Set, 856A1322. (2) Preparation for use. CAUTION: MOST FLEXIBLE FIBER OPTICAL SYSTEMS MAY BE DAMAGED QUITE EASILY IN VERY COLD WEATHER. FORCED BENDING OR WARMING CAN DAMAGE THE FIBER BUNDLE. SLOWLY AND GENTLY ARTICULATE TIP IN COLD WEATHER. AFTER EXPOSURE TO EXTREME COLD, WARM INSTRUMENT TO ROOM TEMPERATURE VERY GRADUALLY. (a) Connect the fiber light bundle from probe to light projector. Connect light projector to power source. Be sure that the power supply and power outlet is grounded. (b) Install optional 35 mm camera adapter or TV camera adapter as required. (c) Turn light projector ON. (3) Care and use of flexible fiberscope. The fiberscope (flexible borescope) is a precision optical instrument utilizing bunches of finely spun glass fibers to carry light and images. Although guarded by a stainless steel sheath for protection, reasonable care must be used to prevent damage and assure long service life. (a) Read the instruction manual completely before using. (b) Check the scope for damage before using. A slightly damaged scope, such as partial loss of tip control can result in getting the scope hung up and finally resulting in severe damage.
  • 18. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 (c) Although they are safer than ones with distal tip bulbs, scopes are not explosion proof. They ~ should not be used where highly volatile gases or explosive dust could reach the hot projection lamp of the external light source. (d) Do not subject the scope to intense X-ray or gamma radiation. Glass fibers are not nonbrowning and will turn yellow, amber, or brown if exposed to radiation. (e) When cleaning the scope, use lens tissue only on glass surfaces. Scopes should be kept clean at all times. (f) Avoid extreme temperatures. Use between 0°F to 200°F (- 18°C to 93°C). Do not insert into a hot engine; heat will cause bubbling of epoxy at the tip. This will cause loss of focus and damage to the lens sheath seals. Low temperatures will make the sheath brittle and tend to crack. (g) Hold tip or adjacent hardware when removing scope to prevent dropping to floor which will avoid hard shocks. (h) Use control knob to maneuver bending section of tip. Never bend or twist tip by hand; damage will result. (i) Do not force the control knob. Use the knob to guide the tip through curves, using tip touch to insert and also to remove or reposition the fiber probe. Do not merely push through guide tubes nor yank out when removing. (j) Return angle control knob to neutral position before withdrawing scope from engine or guide tube. (k) Bending section is flexible in one plane only. This plane must be oriented to the curves in the guide tube. The plane can be established by the articulation control. Do not bend in a 90 degree plane to the tip articulation plane.
  • 19. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 (l) Do not insert the scope too far into the engine. If engine rotor is rotated the tip might be cut. (m) Use plastic guide tube, 856A1310, to guide flexible fiber scope when inspecting the leading edge of the HPT blades. (n) When storing the scope, use care when closing the protective case. If the fiber bundles are closed within the case edges, damage will result. Never leave scope laying on floor where it might be stepped on or run over. 4. Procedure Before Borescope Inspection. A. Support Equipment. Inspection of the HP rotor blades (compressor and turbine) requires rotation of the core engine rotor a complete 360 degrees for each stage of blades to be inspected. This can be done manually or with the aid of a pneumatically powered motor. A special pad is provided for this purpose. (1) Manual rotation. The core engine rotor is actuated by means of a drive adapter with a long breaker bar installed into the drive pad. (2) Pneumatic rotation. The pneumatic turning device provides smooth even speed turning of the core rotor. This is an advantage to the inspector viewing the blades. Reversible control as well as speed control are provided and the need for an additional mechanic to turn the rotor is eliminated. A 360 degree protractor is integral with the device. The pneumatic pressure required is satisfied by a shop or line air supply. (3) Installation and operation. The installation and operation of the MOTOR, DRIVE CORE ENGINE ROTATION are given in the maintenance manual relative to each engine model:
  • 20. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 Engine Tool number CFM56-2/A/B/C 856A1142 CFM56-3 856A2002 CFM56-5/A/B/C 856A1488 CFM56-7B 856A1815 B. Zero CFM56-7B Index Position. The zero index position is the referenced position for borescope inspection. Thus, you can put the No. 1 blade in position before you turn each stage of blades. (1) Low pressure rotor zero index position. See figure 4. (a) Locate No. 1 fan blade which is identified by a circular hole in the spinner rear cone adjacent to the No. 1 blade. (b) Align the leading edge of the No. 1 fan blade with the T12 temperature sensor located in the fan frame at 1: 30 o'clock, aft looking forward. (c) The low pressure rotor is now in the zero referenced position for inspection. (2) Core rotor zero index position. See figure 5. (a) Prepare for borescope inspection. (b) Remove the borescope port ( S4) plug between the 4 and 5 o'clock position on the compressor case. (c) Put the rigid borescope probe with the 90° right angle viewer and a 60° field of vision in the borescope port, and lock aft to the stage 4 blade platform. (d) While you lock in the borescope, turn the core engine rotor clockwise (forward looking aft). (e) Turn the rotor until you can see the locking lug of the first blade slot. R R R
  • 21. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 Zero Index Position of Core Engine Rotor (typical) Figure 5
  • 22. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 (f) Continue to turn the rotor until you see the second locking lug. The second locking lug is 2 blades past the first locking lug. (g) Align the leading edge of the first blade past the second locking lug with the leading edge of the nearest stage 4 vane. This is the zero index point and blade number 1 for inspection of all stages of the compressor rotor. 5. Inspection Techniques. A. Description. (1) The CFM56 booster has one borescope port in the stage 3 (a second port is provided in stage 4 for CFM56-5B/5C only) for inspection. The core rotor blade airfoils and root/platform are completely inspectable from the gas path aspect. Borescope inspection ports are located in each HPC stator assembly. The low pressure turbine (LPT) has borescope inspection ports in all stator stages. The HPT blade leading edges are inspected using the fiberscope via the igniter ports. The relative closeness of the borescope inspection ports to the rotor blades results in high magnification viewing using any of the specified probes (CFMI Specification M50TF3276- S1). (2) The primary probe recommended for CFM56 inspection is probe 2, wide angle fixed field, 90 degree angle of view with 60 to 65 degree field of view. The magnification of this probe is 1 x 1 at 2 in. (25,4 x 25,4 at 51 mm). Therefore, objects viewed closer than 2 in. (51 mm) from the distal lens are magnified. Those objects viewed further away than 2 in. (51 mm) are decreased in image size, relative to actual dimensions of the object. The magnification is variable relative to blade position due to the changing viewing distances as a rotor is turned and the blade passes the relatively fixed borescope. The probe is turned or rotated to view the passing blade.
  • 23. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 Along with the varying magnification, the angle of incidence of the illumination beam changes as the blades pass the fixed viewing port positions. These views are further varied by probe immersions into the engine (radially), thus producing/providing a third variable, the aspect of the object. (3) Use a borescope probes 2, 3 or 4 change the angle of views as well as the incidence angle of light beam relative to optic angle of view. The magnification factor of probes 2, 3 or 4 does not change, it is 1 x 1 at 2 in. (25,4 x 25,4 at 51 mm). NOTE: The above factors or variables should be utilized to the inspectors advantage when attempting to assess suspected deterioration or defects, e.g.; scratches, cracks, contour changes, impact results, dents, dirt smears, surface finish changes, and coloration variables. (4) Another helpful technique in establishing the type of defect is through varying the borescope light intensity. Flooding a scratch, crack, or dirt streak to attempt to establish what the mark or line really is, gives the inspector the aid of depth. Cracks that are open do not usually disappear with low to high light levels. Dirt/carbon/water streaks do not show the depth or shadow characteristics that cracks exhibit. It should also be noted that arc light sources such as the GE Marc 300/16 high intensity light (300 watt) versus the 150 watt quartz iodide or any incandescent light source tends to give a difference in image color when viewed through the borescope. The 300 watt arc light gives the closest to true or actual color of any light source. (5) In contrast, the nonarc or incandescent light sources give a copper or bronze hue/coloration to the internal engine parts. Use of the various probes and variable positioning of the borescope relative to the suspect defects usually results in defining the suspected defect, e.g.; a crack or dirt line or water mark, a sharp nick or smooth dent, loss of metal or coloration change, etc. Having established the defect or suspected problem, the assessment of the magnitude of the defect now becomes the challenge.
  • 24. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 B. Resolution Check of Borescope and Fiberscope Using Borescope Resolution Monitor, 856A1323. NOTE: If the person performing the testing has corrected vision, then the appropriate eyewear (eyeglasses, contact lenses, etc.) should be worn. (1) Test rigid borescope as follows. See figures 6 and 7. (a) Turn on lightsource and allow a minimum of 3 minutes warm up for lamp to reach its' maximum operating range. CAUTION: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BUNDLE OUTPUT. (b) Insert male end of light bundle into lightsource. Glance at female end to assure that adequate light is passing through. (c) Connect female end of light bundle to male connector on Borescope Resolution Monitor, 856A1323. (d) Turn intensity of lightsource to maximum. (e) Check Borescope Resolution Monitor to assure that resolution target is illuminated. (f) Insert borescope into clamping device located on arm of the Borescope Resolution Monitor, with objective window of borescope facing resolution target. CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE CLAMPING DEVICE. OVERTIGHTENING COULD RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE BORESCOPE. HAND TIGHTENING IS SUFFICIENT. (g) Hand tighten borescope in place. (h) In order to ensure that borescope is positioned correctly, lay Borescope Resolution Monitor on a flat surface making sure that the arm with the clamping device is also resting on a flat surface. The objective window on borescope should be in line with black pivot bolt of arm.
  • 25. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 19 May 31/99 Borescope Resolution Monitor Figure 6
  • 26. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 20 May 31/99 Resolution Target Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 2)
  • 27. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 21 May 31/99 Resolution Target Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 2)
  • 28. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 22 May 31/99 (i) Align borescope so resolution target is centered in field of view. If you peer through borescope and only part of resolution target is illuminated in your field of view, (i.e. half of field of view resembles a half moon) borescope is not serviceable for engine inspection. NOTE: The resolution target is divided into group numbers and element numbers. There are 7 groups , with 6 elements to each group. Group 0, element 1 is located at the lower right of the target, its' 6 lines are quite visible to your eye. Group 1 is located on the far right side of the target and appears smaller than group 0. Group 2 is located in the center left side of the target, while group 3 is located in the center right side of the target. Each group diminishes in size. (j) For borescopes with a magnification of 1:1 at 2 in. (51 mm), the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal, 3 vertical) of group 3, element 4 (11.3 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be distinguishable. Otherwise, borescope is not serviceable for engine inspection. See figure 7, sheet 1. (k) For borescopes with a magnification of 1:1 at 7 in. (178 mm), the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal, 3 vertical) of group 5, element 2 (36.0 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be distinguishable. Otherwise, the borescope is not serviceable for engine inspection. See figure 7, sheet 2. NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the light intensity or the scope position in order to obtain the best view. However, if the forementioned group/element cannot be seen, the scope or light bundle or light source is not serviceable for engine inspection.
  • 29. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 23 May 31/99 (2) Test fiberscope as follows. See figures 6 and 7. (a) Turn lightsource on and allow a minimum of 3 minutes warm up for lamp to reach its' maximum operating range. WARNING: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BUNDLE OUTPUT. THIS COULD RESULT IN INJURY TO PERSONNEL. (b) Insert male end of light bundle into lightsource. Glance at female end to assure that adequate light is passing through. (c) Connect female end of light bundle to male connector on Borescope Resolution Monitor, 856A1323. (d) Turn intensity of lightsource to maximum. (e) Check Borescope Resolution Monitor to assure that resolution target is illuminated. (f) Insert fiberscope into clamping device located on arm of the Borescope Resolution Monitor. (g) Align objective window of fiberscope with resolution target. CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE CLAMPING DEVICE. OVERTIGHTENING COULD RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE FIBERSCOPE. HAND TIGHTENING IS SUFFICIENT. (h) Hand tighten fiberscope in place. NOTE: Due to the nature of the fiberscope, it may be necessary to use a free hand to assure that the tip of the objective window remains centered on the resolution target.
  • 30. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 24 May 31/99 (i) Check fiberscope with objective window aligned and centered in field of view. If only part of target is illuminated in field of view (i.e. half of field of view resembles a half-moon), fiberscope is defective and is not serviceable for engine inspection. NOTE: The resolution target is divided into group numbers and elements numbers. There are 7 groups, with 6 elements to each group. Group 0, element 1 is located at the lower right of the target, its' 6 lines are quite visible to your eye. Group 1 is located on the far side of the target and appears to be smaller than group 0. Group 2 is located in the center left side of the target, while group 3 is located in the center right side of the target. Each group diminishes in size. (j) For fiberscopes with 90° direction of view, the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal, 3 vertical) of group 1, element 4 (2.83 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be distinguishable. Otherwise, the fiberscope is not serviceable for engine inspection. See figure 7, sheet 1. NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the light intensity or the scope position in order to obtain the best view. However, if the forementioned group/element cannot be seen, the scope or light bundle or light source is not serviceable for engine inspection. C. Procedure. (1) If Polaroid camera equipment and optional camera adapters are available, it is relatively easy to effect a comparative measurement. (a) Position the rotor to obtain the best view of the defect, relative to assessment of the maintenance manual limit, e.g.; leading edge impact, tip (distortion) curl, leading edge or trailing edge distortion, etc. Usually normal (at right angle) to the defect and centered in the field of view.
  • 31. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 25 May 31/99 (b) Obtain a Polaroid photo of the defect. (c) Using a full scale cross section of the engine, for reference, locate a scale (machinist 6 in. scale marked in 0.010 in. increments) in the relative axial and circumferential position outside the HPC case, withdraw the borescope probe with camera attached. (d) Hold the borescope probe aligned with the centerline (same position, axial, angle of look, and circumferential orientation as the defect photo was obtained) of the borescope port and obtain a photo of the measurement scale. (e) By comparative measurement, apply the magnified scale increments from the photo of the scale to the photo of the actual defect. These 2 photos should be at the same relative magnification. (2) If photographic equipment is not available, the comparative assessment becomes more difficult; however, the following procedure has been used successfully. (a) Position the rotor at the optimum rotation angle to view the defect. (b) Use a sample blade (if available) and mark a similar or depiction of the blade defect. Place this blade in the relative position of the installed defective blade on the outside of the engine. (c) Withdraw the borescope, retaining the axial circumferential orientation and lock angle relationship and visually assess the comparison of the actual to marked defect (from the installed blade to the external sample). (d) Re-mark or correct the depiction until satisfied that the 2 images compare.
  • 32. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 26 May 31/99 (e) Measure the marked defect. NOTE: A straight edge scale can also be used if no blade samples are available to the inspector. (3) Borescope temperature limitations. (a) Figure 8 provides engine cool-down information relative to the various borescope port locations for use in determining elapsed time required prior to engine inspection of arrival aircraft. (b) The information is either calculated or recorded from test engine data runs. It is not recommended that (fiber light type or fiber optic/light flexible) fiberscope inspections be accomplished at temperatures above 150°F (65,6°C). CAUTION: REFER TO AIRCRAFT OPERATION MANUAL FOR STARTER DUTY CYCLE LIMITATIONS PRIOR TO MOTORING OF ENGINE. (c) To increase the engine cool-down rate after shutdown, motor engine for a maximum of 2 minutes by utilizing the engine starter and by carefully adhering to starter duty cycle limitations. This will reduce the hot section area temperature sufficiently to allow fiber optics method of inspection at that time. NOTE: If engine starter motoring is used it is further recommended that engine hot section inspections be accomplished within 20 minutes after the motoring cycles are completed. Local temperature rise (due to engine temperature soak-back) may cause local temperatures sufficient to damage the fiber optic type borescopes.
  • 33. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 27/28 May 31/99 Engine Temperature for Borescope Inspection after Engine Shutdown Following Normal Flight Cycle Figure 8
  • 34. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR 1. Requirements. A. On Condition Maintenance. Borescope inspection of the booster section may be required for visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. B. Special Inspection. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. 2. Procedure. The borescope inspection of the booster section is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. ENGINE REFERENCE CFM56-2 72-21-00, Fan and Booster Inspection/Check CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-008-C00 CFM56-5A TASK 72-21-00-290-001 CFM56-5B TASK 72-21-00-290-003 CFM56-5C TASK 72-21-00-290-801 CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-803-F00 3. Inspection Criteria. A. General. Whenever borescope inspection of the fan rotor is required, the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in-limit defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates. R
  • 35. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 (1) On Condition (Scheduled Inspection). (a) Cracks or tears. (b) Nicks and scratches. (c) Dents. (d) Erosion. (e) Tip curl. (f) Pits. (g) Distortion leading or trailing edges. (h) Missing metal. (2) Special Inspections. Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements. The following listing relates the special checks to those additional defects which are prevalent in engines having experienced a problem requiring special checks. (a) Fan stall. (b) Foreign object damage (FOD) and suspected bird injection. (c) High fan vibs. 4. Documentation of Defects. A. General. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for each rotor stage. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position on the blade.
  • 36. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. The rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the damaged parts are repaired or replaced. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1. B. Mapping Defects. (1) Record individual blade damage on booster blade maps. See figure 2. (2) Record damage detected on appropriate fan/booster rotor blade map. See figures 3 through 7. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the booster is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc. C. Photo Recording of Damage. Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
  • 37. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 Booster Section Inspection Record R Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 6) R
  • 38. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 Booster Section Inspection Record R Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 6) R
  • 39. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 Booster Section Inspection Record R Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 6) R
  • 40. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 7 May 31/99 Booster Section Inspection Record R Figure 1 (Sheet 4 of 6) R
  • 41. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 8 May 31/99 Booster Section Inspection Record R Figure 1 (Sheet 5 of 6) R
  • 42. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99 Booster Section Inspection Record R Figure 1 (Sheet 6 of 6) R
  • 43. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99 Booster Blade Map Figure 2
  • 44. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 CFM56-2 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 1 of 4) R
  • 45. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 CFM56-3 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 2 of 4) R
  • 46. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 CFM56-5 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 3 of 4) R
  • 47. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 R CFM56-7B Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 4 of 4) R
  • 48. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 R CFM56-2 Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 6)
  • 49. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 R CFM56-3 Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 6) R
  • 50. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 6) R
  • 51. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 R CFM56-5B Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 4 (Sheet 4 of 6) R
  • 52. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 19 May 31/99 R CFM56-5C Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 4 (Sheet 5 of 6) R
  • 53. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 20 May 31/99 R CFM56-7B Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 4 (Sheet 6 of 6) R
  • 54. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 21 May 31/99 R CFM56-2 Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 5 (Sheet 1 of 6) R
  • 55. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 22 May 31/99 R CFM56-3 Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 5 (Sheet 2 of 6) R
  • 56. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 23 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 5 (Sheet 3 of 6) R
  • 57. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 24 May 31/99 R CFM56-5B Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 5 (Sheet 4 of 6) R
  • 58. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 25 May 31/99 R CFM56-5C Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 5 (Sheet 5 of 6) R
  • 59. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 26 May 31/99 R CFM56-7B Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 5 (Sheet 6 of 6) R
  • 60. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 27 May 31/99 R CFM56-2 Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 6 (Sheet 1 of 6) R
  • 61. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 28 May 31/99 R CFM56-3 Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 6 (Sheet 2 of 6) R
  • 62. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 29 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 6 (Sheet 3 of 6) R
  • 63. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 30 May 31/99 R CFM56-5B Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 6 (Sheet 4 of 6) R
  • 64. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 31 May 31/99 R CFM56-5C Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 6 (Sheet 5 of 6) R
  • 65. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 32 May 31/99 R CFM56-7B Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 6 (Sheet 6 of 6) R
  • 66. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 33 May 31/99 R CFM56-5B Stage 5 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 2) R
  • 67. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 34 May 31/99 R CFM56-5C Stage 5 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 2) R
  • 68. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR 1. Requirements. A. On Condition Maintenance. Borescope inspection of high pressure compressor (HPC) section may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance. B. Special Inspection. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. 2. Procedure. The borescope inspection of high pressure compressor is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. ENGINE REFERENCE CFM56-2 72-31-00, Maintenance Practices CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-049-C00 CFM56-5A TASK 72-31-00-290-001 CFM56-5B TASK 72-31-00-290-002 CFM56-5C TASK 72-31-00-290-801 CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-804 3. Inspection Criteria. A. General. Whenever borescope inspection of the HPC is required, the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in limit defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates. R
  • 69. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 (1) on condition (Scheduled Inspection). (a) Cracks. (b) Nicks or scratches. (c) Dents. (d) Erosion. (e) Tip curl. (f) Pits. (g) Distortion of leading or trailing edge. (h) Missing metal. (i) Dirt. (2) Special inspections. Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements. The following listing relates the special checks to those additional defects which are prevalent in engines having experienced a problem requiring the special check. (a) Core stall. (b) Oil fumes detected in cabin air. (c) Foreign object damage (FOD). (d) High core vibration. 4. Documentation of Defects. A. General. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for each rotor stage of the compressor. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position on the blade.
  • 70. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspection. The rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the damaged parts are repaired or replaced. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1. B. Mapping Defects. (1) Record individual blade damage on HPC blade map. See figure 2. (2) Record damage detected on the appropriate compressor rotor stage maps. See figures 3 through 11. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the high pressure rotor is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc. C. Photo Recording of Damage. Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
  • 71. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 Compressor Section Inspection Record Figure 1 R
  • 72. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 Compressor Blade Map Figure 2
  • 73. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 Stage 1 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 R
  • 74. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 7 May 31/99 Stage 2 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 R
  • 75. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 8 May 31/99 Stage 3 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 R
  • 76. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99 Stage 4 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 R
  • 77. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99 Stage 5 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 R
  • 78. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 Stage 6 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 8 R
  • 79. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 Stage 7 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 9 R
  • 80. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 Stage 8 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 10 R
  • 81. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 Stage 9 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 11 R
  • 82. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF COMBUSTION SECTION 1. Requirements. A. On Condition. Borescope inspection of the combustion section may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. B. Special Inspections. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. 2. Procedure. The borescope inspection of combustion chamber is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. ENGINE REFERENCE CFM56-2 72-42-00, Maintenance Practices CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-023-C00 CFM56-5A TASK 72-42-00-290-001 CFM56-5B TASK 72-42-00-290-041 CFM56-5C TASK 72-42-00-290-802 CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-805-F00 (SAC) TASK 72-00-00-200-816-F00 (DAC) 3. Inspection Criteria. A. General. Whenever borescope inspection of the combustion section is required, the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. R R
  • 83. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 B. On Condition (Scheduled Maintenance). (1) Discoloration. (a) Normal aging of the combustion chamber components will show a wide range of color changes. Use of arc Xenon or incandescent light sources for borescope illumination will result in viewed coloration differences. The closest color to true daylight viewing is gained from the use of a Marc 300/16 type hi- intensity lamp light projector. This light is close to white light. (b) Use of incandescent filament lamps tend to project a yellowish color on the viewed hardware. Incandescent lamps usually do not have sufficient light levels to view the distant areas of the combustion chamber liners. (c) Use of the Xenon arc lamp with the distal light type borescopes tend to cast a bluish coloration on the viewed hardware. Carbon streaks have been misinterpreted as cracks and carbon deposits have bean misinterpreted as holes or burn through. (2) Inner liner. The aft panel of the inner liner is susceptable to distortion and cracking, the first evidence of this is discoloration in a round spot approximately 1.0 in. (25 mm) dia., which is followed by distortion and cracking. This usually occurs uniformly around the aft liner in approximately 20 places. C. Special Inspections. (1) Overtemperature operation. (a) High exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increase in EGT trend. (b) Overtemperature during takeoff or cruise.
  • 84. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 (2) Impact damage observed on high pressure turbine (HPT) rotor blades. Inspect the combustion chamber in accordance with the standard condition check. Limits and area all apply as in an on condition check. 4. Documentation of Defects. A. General. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for the combustion section. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially for location of damaged area. The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the damaged parts are repaired or replaced. (2) Record inspection on single annular combustion chamber (SAC) inspection record. See figure 1. (3) Record inspection on dual annular combustion chamber (DAC) inspection record. See figure 2. B. Mapping Defects. (1) Record damage on maps. - SAC : see figures 3 through 8. - DAC : see figures 9 through 15. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. Details are lost relative to magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc. R R R R R R R
  • 85. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 C. Photo Recording of Damage. Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
  • 86. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 R Single Annular Combustion Section Inspection Record Figure 1
  • 87. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Section Inspection Record R Figure 2 R
  • 88. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 7 Nov 30/11 R Single Annular Combustion Chamber (Typical) Figure 3
  • 89. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 8 Nov 30/11 R Single Annular Combustion Chamber Section View Figure 4 R
  • 90. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99 R Outer Liner Surface Map (SAC) R Figure 5
  • 91. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99 R Outer Liner Inner Surface Map (SAC) R Figure 6
  • 92. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 R Inner Liner Surface Map (SAC) R Figure 7
  • 93. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 R Dome Area General Map (SAC) R Figure 8
  • 94. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Inspection R Figure 9 R
  • 95. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Inspection R Figure 10 R
  • 96. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection R Figure 11 R
  • 97. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection R Figure 12 R
  • 98. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection R Figure 13 R
  • 99. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection R Figure 14 R
  • 100. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 19/20 May 31/99 R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection R Figure 15 R
  • 101. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE NOZZLE ASSEMBLY 1. Requirements. A. On Condition. Borescope inspection of the high pressure turbine (HPT) may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. B. Special Inspections. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. 2. Procedure. The borescope inspection of high pressure turbine nozzle assembly is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. ENGINE REFERENCE CFM56-2 72-51-00, Maintenance Practices CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-023-C00 CFM56-5A TASK 72-51-00-290-002 CFM56-5B TASK 72-51-00-290-004 CFM56-5C TASK 72-51-00-290-801 CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-806-F00 3. Inspection Criteria. A. General. Whenever borescope inspection of the HPT nozzle assembly is required, observed defects must be assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. R
  • 102. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 B. On Condition (Scheduled Maintenance). (1) Discoloration. (2) Leading edge damage. (a) Cracks. (b) Burns. (c) Blocked cooling air passages. (3) Airfoil concave surface. Cracks. (4) Airfoil convex surface. Cracks. (5) Airfoil trailing edge. (a) Cracks. (b) Buckling and bowing. (c) Burns. (6) Other airfoil areas/defects. (a) Burns. (b) Nicks, scores, scratches, or dents. (7) Inner and outer bands. (a) Burns. (b) Cracks.
  • 103. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 C. Special Inspections. The on condition checks pertains to all special inspection requirements regarding hardware limits and inspection procedures. (1) Overtemperature operation. (2) Engine stall. (3) Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) trend step increase. 4. Documentation of Defects. A. General. (1) It is recommended that a record of each inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms and a map of the HPT nozzle assembly is provided so that any damage within (or out) of serviceable limits can be recorded. A record of the vane by clock location as well as magnitude can be sketched on the map. This information is useful in establishing deterioration data from subsequent inspection or watch checks. These records should accompany the HPT nozzle (module or engine) to the repair facility for correlation of inspection depiction versus actual hardware condition. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1.
  • 104. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 B. Mapping Defects. (1) Record damage detected on the HPT nozzle vane map. See figures 2 and 3. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc. C. Photo Recording of Damage. (1) Photos of the HPT nozzle vanes require time exposures unless extremely fast ASA film is used. It is recommended that the probe (rigid optic fiber light borescope) be used for photo recording. This probe has the greatest fiber light transmission capability. (2) Care should be taken to center the light beam on the vane leading edge in question, eliminating as much glare or reflective lighting from the inner combustion liner. Too much immersion of the probe will show liner high-lighting and tend to wash out the HPT nozzle vane photo detail. NOTE: Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. R
  • 105. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Inspection Report Figure 1
  • 106. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Map of Damaged Vanes (Typical) Figure 2
  • 107. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 7/8 May 31/99 R CFM56-7B HPT Nozzle Map Damaged Vanes R Figure 3 R
  • 108. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE BLADES 1. Requirements. A. On Condition. Borescope inspection of the high pressure turbine (HPT) blades may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. B. Special Inspections. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problem, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. 2. Procedure. The borescope inspection of high pressure turbine blades is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. ENGINE REFERENCE CFM56-2 72-52-00, Maintenance Practices CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-026-C00 CFM56-5A TASK 72-52-00-290-001 CFM56-5B TASK 72-52-00-290-001-A CFM56-5C TASK 72-52-00-290-801 CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-807-F00 3. Inspection Criteria. A. General. Whenever borescope inspections of the HPT section are required, the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in-limit defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates. R
  • 109. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 B. On Condition (Scheduled Inspection). (1) Trailing edge. Cracks. (2) Tip area. (a) Cracks. (b) Bent, curled, or missing pieces. (c) Tip trailing edge wear. (3) Blade platform. (a) Nicks and dents. (b) Cracks. (4) Concave and convex airfoil surface. (a) Cracks. (b) Distortion. (c) Burning. (5) Cooling holes. (a) Cracks. (b) Plugging. C. Special Inspection. (1) General. Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements. The following listing relates the special check to those typical defects which are prevalent in engine having experienced those problems requiring the special check. In all cases, the general on condition check should be accomplished. This section merely highlights those areas of distress associated with a given problem.
  • 110. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 (2) Core stall (N2). (a) When an engine stall is either suspected or known to have occurred, a borescope inspection of the HPT rotor is required; prior to release of the engine. (b) High pressure compressor (HPC) stalls usually drive the exhaust gas temperature (EGT) to overlimit if the stall is severe or sustained. This produces tip deterioration (nibbling) on the concave or pressure face tip centered about 2/3 chord aft from the leading edge. (c) The normal on condition check must be accomplished. (3) Overtemperature. (a) When certain EGT excursions are reported, a borescope inspection of HPT rotor is required; prior to release of the engine. (b) The normal on condition check is required. The typical effect of HPT overtemperature is the nibbling of the concave or pressure face tip about 2/3 chord aft of the leading edge. In all inspections of the HPT rotor, the on condition check and limits apply. (4) Metal in the tailpipe. When metallic debris is noted in the engine tailpipe, a borescope inspection of the HPT rotor is required; prior to release of the engine. The standard on condition check and corresponding limits apply. (5) N2 overspeed, core vibs, and hard landing. An N2 overspeed, high or changing core vibration indication or following a reported hard landing, will require a borescope inspection/check of the HPT rotor prior to release of the engine. The standard on condition check and limits apply to these conditional checks.
  • 111. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 4. Documentation of Defects. A. General. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection forms and maps for each rotor stage of the HPT. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position of blade. The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. The HPT rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until damaged part(s) are repaired or replaced. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1. B. Mapping Defects. (1) Record individual blade damage on HPT blade map. See figure 2. (2) Record damage detected on the appropriate high pressure turbine rotor maps. See figure 3. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the high pressure rotor is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc.
  • 112. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 C. Photo Recording of Damage. Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film.
  • 113. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 6 Nov 30/11 HPT Rotor Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 3) R
  • 114. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 7 Nov 30/11 HPT Rotor Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 3) R R
  • 115. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 8 Nov 30/11 HPT Rotor Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 3) R R R
  • 116. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 9 R Nov 30/11 HPT Rotor Blade Map (Typical) Figure 2
  • 117. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 10 Nov 30/11 CFM56-2/-3 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 1 of 6)
  • 118. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 11 Nov 30/11 CFM56-5 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 2 of 6) R
  • 119. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 12 Nov 30/11 R CFM56-5 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 3 of 6) R
  • 120. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 13 Nov 30/11 R CFM56-7B Not 7BE With Single Annular Combustion HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 4 of 6) R
  • 121. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 14 Nov 30/11 R CFM56-7BE With Single Annular Combustion R HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 5 of 6) R
  • 122. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 15/16 Nov 30/11 CFM56-7B With Dual Annular Combustion HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R Figure 3 (Sheet 6 of 6)
  • 123. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF LOW PRESSURE TURBINE 1. Requirements. A. On Condition. Borescope inspection of low pressure turbine (LPT) may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. B. Special Inspections. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems, trend symptoms, or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. 2. Procedure. The borescope inspection of low pressure turbine is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. ENGINE REFERENCE CFM56-2 72-54-00, Inspection/Check CFM56-3 TASK 72-00-00-216-045-C00 CFM56-5A TASK 72-54-00-290-001 CFM56-5B TASK 72-54-00-290-005 CFM56-5C TASK 72-54-00-290-801 CFM56-7B TASK 72-00-00-200-808-F00 3. Inspection Criteria. A. General. Whenever borescope inspections of the LPT section are required, the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. It is recommended that in limit conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates. R
  • 124. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 B. On Condition (Scheduled Inspection). (1) Cracks in LPT rotor blades. (a) Using the fiber light type rigid optic borescope probe 2 (wide angle scope) inspect the total airfoil, platform, and tip shrouds for evidence of cracks. For tip shroud condition, the retrograde or probe 4 is recommended. Use of the magnification adapter is recommended for final assessment of possible or suspect cracks in the blade tip shrouds. (b) Cracks shall exhibit depth and under magnified assessment shall show edge material definition. Care must be used to distinguish cracks from smears, carbon streaks, etc. (2) Nicks and dents. (a) Nicks and/or dents in the leading edge, trailing edge, airfoil surfaces (convex/concave) and/or the platforms must be assessed. Note and record the presence of these defects relative to the percent span and percent chord for magnitude and location on the blade. Note also the condition of the blade material adjacent (at extremities of defect) to the observed defect. Note any cracking or sharpness of dents and/or nicks. (b) Smooth impact deformities to leading or trailing edge blade contour should be noted/reported. Subsequent inspection should be performed to locate the origin of such damage. For example: inspect damage to leading edge of stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 versus leading edge damage (impact) to stages 2, 3, and with minor trailing edge damage to stage 1 blades, etc.
  • 125. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 3 Feb 29/96 (3) Wear. LPT rotor blade tip shroud interlock and/or circumferential mating face area wear has been experienced. This area is viewable using probe 2, but if suspected wear is observed the retrograde probe 4 is recommended for final assessment. (4) Dirt, coloration, pitting, and corrosion. High time LPT rotor assemblies may show airfoil surface irregularities which can be dirt accumulation, carbon buildup, pitting of the surface from particles in the gas stream or corrosion of the blade material. These abnormalities are very difficult to define and to differentiate between the various suspect defects/surface irregularities. Dirt and coloration are of little concern, however pitting and/or corrosion of the blade material are considered significant deterioration modes. Use of all 3 probes as well as varying light intensities is required for final assessment of these conditions. C. Special Inspections. Special defects accompany some of the special check requirements. The following listing relates the special check to those typical defects. In all cases, the general on condition check should be accomplished. This section merely highlights those areas of distress associated with a given problem. (1) Overtemperature inspection. See figure 1. The LPT stage 1 and stage 4 blades (stage 5 for CFM56-5C) must be inspected. (2) Metal in the tailpipe. All LPT stages must be inspected. R R R
  • 126. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 4 Feb 29/96 4. Documentation of Defects. A. General. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection forms and maps for each rotor stage of the LPT. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position of the blade. The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. The LPT rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until damaged part(s) are repaired or replaced. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 2. B. Mapping Defects. (1) Record individual blade damage on the LPT blade map. See figure 3. (2) Record damage detected on the appropriate LPT rotor stage map. See figures 4 through 8. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the low pressure rotor is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used, accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span, magnitude of defect, surrounding condition, etc. Map the defect on the site of the inspection. R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
  • 127. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 5 Feb 29/96 C. Photo Recording of Damage. Whenever photos are made of a defect, a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number, stage, port direction of view, and date, the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. R R R R R R R
  • 128. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 6 Feb 29/96 LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection R Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 5)
  • 129. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 7 Feb 29/96 LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection R Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 5)
  • 130. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 8 Feb 29/96 LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection R Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 5)
  • 131. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 9 Feb 29/96 LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection R Figure 1 (Sheet 4 of 5)
  • 132. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 10 Feb 29/96 LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection R Figure 1 (Sheet 5 of 5)
  • 133. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 CFM56-2/-3 LPT Section Inspection Record Figure 2 (Sheet 1 of 3)
  • 134. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B LPT Section Inspection Record Figure 2 (Sheet 2 of 3) R
  • 135. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 CFM56-5C LPT Section Inspection Record Figure 2 (Sheet 3 of 3)
  • 136. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 LPT Blade Map (Typical) Figure 3
  • 137. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 CFM56-2/-3 Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 3) R
  • 138. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 3) R
  • 139. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 CFM56-5C Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 3) R
  • 140. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 CFM56-2/-3 Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 1 of 3) R
  • 141. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 19 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 2 of 3) R
  • 142. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 20 May 31/99 CFM56-5C Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 3 of 3) R
  • 143. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 21 May 31/99 CFM56-2/-3 Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 1 of 3) R
  • 144. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 22 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 2 of 3) R
  • 145. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 23 May 31/99 CFM56-5C Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 3 of 3) R
  • 146. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 24 May 31/99 CFM56-2/-3 Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades R
  • 147. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 25 May 31/99 Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 3)
  • 148. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 26 May 31/99 R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 3) R
  • 149. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 27 May 31/99 CFM56-5C Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 3 of 3) R
  • 150. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 28/28 May 31/99 CFM56-5C Stage 5 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 8 R