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B M S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
AAT ON
BIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS
(19ES7BSBFE)
Domain: “Interplay of biology and emerging technologies[Genetic Engineering]”
Title: “Modern Therapy for Cardiac Problems”
NAME USN
VINAY KUMAR K V 1BM19EC181
VINAYAK RAO H K 1BM19EC182
SOHAN SURESH SHETH 1BM19EC190
INTRODUCTION
 Biotechnology is the use of biological agents for technological advancement.
 The primary applications of this technology are in medicine (production of vaccines and
antibiotics) and agriculture (genetic modification of crops, such as to increase nutrient
content).
 Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. as of
2016, the only established therapy using stem cells is hematopoietic stem cell
transplantation. this usually takes the form of a bone-marrow transplantation, but the cells
can also be derived from umbilical cord blood
 Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the
modification and manipulation of an organism's genes using technology. it is a set of
technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes
within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms
2
LITERATURE SURVEY
3
 Julie wolfram et. al [1]
 Hestates Coronary artery disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias are major causes of
morbidity
 Mortality reclinical studies suggest that myocardial gene transfer can improve angiogenesis with
vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or fibroblast growthfactor (FGF)
 Aidann Flynn et.al [2]
 He describe mammalian cardiac regeneration, and discuss animal models of cardiac disease
 The effects ofvarious cell therapies on cardiovascular disease are described
 Particular attention is given to adult bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells
 Genmao Cao et. al [3]
 Basic Research and Clinical Prospects” explains various kinds of gene editing technology like
germlime and somantic gene editing technology and ethical concerns regarding humans
4
LITERATURE SURVEY Cont..
 Robert Kirkton et. al [4]
 explains the use of genetic engineering to induce or alter specific protein expression in stem cells
has already facilitated research in this field and may, additionally, offer a potential route for
designing more efficient cell sources for cardiac repair
 This paper will describe the applications of genetic engineering to improve theisolation,
selection, and differentiation of stem cells prior to implantation
 Describes strategiesto promote the retention, mobilization, survival, integration, and tracking of
stem cells after implantation.
 Andrew H baker et. al [5]
 explains various cardiac problems that the human can face and explains how it can be treated
using gene therapy
 Coronary Heart Disease, Peripheral Vascular Disease, Heart Failure and Arrhythmias,
Hyperlipidaemias, Lipoprotein Metabolism,and Atherosclerosis, Restenosis, In-stent Restenosis,
and Vein Graft Disease are the diseases the paper discusses where gene therapy can be used
 Heart Failure
 Heart failure sometimes known as congestive heart failure occurs
when the heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should.
 Proper treatment can improve the signs and symptoms of heart
failure and may help some people live longer. Lifestyle changes such
as losing weight, exercising, reducing salt (sodium) in your diet and
managing stress can improve your quality of life
 Chest pain, including angina, is not usually caused by heart failure,
but may occur if the heart failure was caused by a heart attack. The
severity of the heart failure is measured by the severity of symptoms
during exercise.
CARDIAC PROBLEMS
5
 Heart Enlargement
 An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a sign of another condition.
The term "cardiomegaly" refers to an enlarged heart seen on any imaging test, including
a chest X-ray.
 Heart damage and certain types of heart disease can cause an enlarged heart.
Sometimes short-term stress on the body, such as pregnancy, can cause the heart to get
larger.
 An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) can be caused by damage to the heart muscle or any
condition that makes the heart pump harder than usual, including pregnancy. This
condition is called idiopathic cardiomyopathy
 Arrhythmias
 Arrhythmias, also known as cardiac arrhythmias, heart arrhythmias, or dysrhythmias,
are irregularities in the heartbeat, including when it is too fast or too slow
 Some types of arrhythmias have no symptoms. Symptoms, when present, may include
palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats. In more serious cases, there may be
light-headedness, passing out, shortness of breath or chest pain.
 Arrhythmias are often categorized into four groups: extra beats,supraventricular
tachycardias, ventricular arrhythmias and bradyarrhythmia’s
CARDIAC PROBLEMS Cont..
6
7
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) IN CARDIOVASCULAR
MEDICINE
 Uses include detecting heart disease, treating strokes faster and enhancing diagnostic
radiology capabilities
 These technologies complement the knowledge of doctors
 AI cardiology allows doctors to spend more time with their patients and improves the
shared decision-making process
 The clinic is well situated to advance AI because its long history of high-volume
patient care has generated a massive database of historical genomes,
microbiomes, ECGs, diagnostic images and other test results
 Cardiovascular medicine doctors and scientists at these clinics are combining AI with
clinical practice for better care
 Possible future uses still in development at Mayo Clinic include:
 Predicting risk early in conditions such as embolic stroke
 Monitoring the heart and detecting arrhythmia in smart clothing projects
 Developing AI technology compatible with smartphones and high-tech
stethoscopes
8
ORGAN CONFORMAL ELECTRONICS
 Conformal electronics are stretchable, flexible electronic devices that can diagnose
and treat tissue functions with high spatiotemporal resolution
 These devices are comprised of a network of sensors and actuators, which include
electrodes, photodiodes, thermocouples, LEDs, pressure transducers, and
photovoltaic devices
 Conformal electronics can conform to the epicardium or endocardium to multi
parametrically monitor and correct cardiac tissue function
 Currently in the clinic, many catheter-based technologies and implantable
mechanical and electrotherapeutic devices are employed for the diagnosis and
treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure
 Conformal electronics will enable a new generation of devices to transform the
current paradigm of cardiac diagnosis and therapy.
 Cell therapy for cardiac regeneration
 As it has been established that regenerative mechanisms exist within the mammalian
myocardium, considerable optimism has been generated in trying toreproduce cardiac repair
on a much larger scale.
 Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are pluripotent, have received considerable attention. The
pluripotent nature of ES cells confers the potential to regenerate the entiremyocardium.
 To circumvent some of these issues, ES cells have been modifiedprior to implantation in order
to generate a cardio myocyte phenotype, and the administration of these cells in rodent
studies has been associated with a beneficial effect.
 Subtypes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been
extensively studied, but the earliest reports of cell administrationto the ischemic myocardium
utilized skeletal myoblasts. These cells had been shown toimprove cardiac function in animal
studies, but evidence of their cardiomyogenic potential was lacking
STEM CELL THERAPY
9
 Stroke is ranked as the second leading cause of death worldwide. Ischemic stroke
commonly results from emboli that originate in the heart among high-risk patients,
such as those who develop atrial fibrillation
 Atrial fibrillation (AF or AFib) remains a leading cause of stroke, which in turn may be
associated with devastating health consequences and mortality. Yet, oral
anticoagulants and left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion devices may not be
appropriate for all patients or may be associated with life-threatening complications
 These approaches, which are currently being tested in preclinical studies, might be
translated in the near future to treatments available for patients with increased
bleeding risks.
 Our aim was to develop an alternative, device-based approach for continuous stroke
prevention in high-risk patients.
Novel Embolic Protection To Prevent Strokes
10
 The goal of gene therapy is to modify a gene or genetic pathway to provide therapeutic
value and prevent or reduce disease. It is important to develop a method that is safe
and effective for the treatment of human disease
 Stem cell therapy is potentially a promising new treatment for cardiovascular disease.
Cell therapy for cardiac repair holds great potential for the treatment of cardiac
disease
 Despite this, translating stem cell therapy from bench to bedside remains challenging.
Further clinical trials should be carefully designed to answer specifically relevant
questions, and should be performed in conjunction with basic laboratory work.
 It will be necessary to have a greater understanding of the effects of cell therapy at a
genetic and molecular level.
CONCLUSION
11
 Rose T. Yin, K. Benjamin Lee, Jeffrey S. Panting, Sheena W. Chen, Kedar K. Aras, Igor R.
Efimov,Flynn, A. and O'Brien, T., 2011. Stem cell therapy for cardiac disease. Expert
Opinion on Biological Therapy, 11(2), pp.177-187.
 Ylä-Herttuala, S. and Baker, A.H., 2017. Cardiovascular gene therapy: past, present, and
future. Molecular Therapy, 25(5), pp.1095-1106.
 C. Leong, Y. Xiao, Z. Yun and M. F. Iskander, "Non-Invasive Stethoscope for Continuous
Assessment of Lung Water: Towards AI-based Data Augmentation and Prediction,"
2022 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI
Radio Science Meeting (AP-S/URSI), Denver, CO, USA, 2022, pp. 341-342, doi:
10.1109/AP-S/USNC-URSI47032.2022.9886294.Kirkton,
 Q. Xie et al., "A Survey of Wireless Sensor Technique Applications for Medical Care,"
2017 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and
Knowledge Discovery (CyberC), Nanjing, China, 2017, pp. 412-415, doi:
10.1109/CyberC.2017.87
REFERENCE
12
 Current research on gene therapy treatment has focused on targeting body (somatic)
cells such as bone marrow or blood cells. This type of genetic alteration cannot be
passed to a person’s children
 Gene therapy could be targeted to egg and sperm cells (germ cells), however, which
would allow the genetic changes to be passedto future generations. This approach is
known as germline gene therapy
 The idea of these germline alterations is controversial. While it could spare future
generations in afamily from having a particular genetic disorder, it might affect the
development of a foetus in unexpected ways or have long-term side effects that are
not yet known
GENE THERAPY
13

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BFE_AAT_ppt.pptx

  • 1. B M S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING AAT ON BIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS (19ES7BSBFE) Domain: “Interplay of biology and emerging technologies[Genetic Engineering]” Title: “Modern Therapy for Cardiac Problems” NAME USN VINAY KUMAR K V 1BM19EC181 VINAYAK RAO H K 1BM19EC182 SOHAN SURESH SHETH 1BM19EC190
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Biotechnology is the use of biological agents for technological advancement.  The primary applications of this technology are in medicine (production of vaccines and antibiotics) and agriculture (genetic modification of crops, such as to increase nutrient content).  Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. as of 2016, the only established therapy using stem cells is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. this usually takes the form of a bone-marrow transplantation, but the cells can also be derived from umbilical cord blood  Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the modification and manipulation of an organism's genes using technology. it is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms 2
  • 3. LITERATURE SURVEY 3  Julie wolfram et. al [1]  Hestates Coronary artery disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias are major causes of morbidity  Mortality reclinical studies suggest that myocardial gene transfer can improve angiogenesis with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or fibroblast growthfactor (FGF)  Aidann Flynn et.al [2]  He describe mammalian cardiac regeneration, and discuss animal models of cardiac disease  The effects ofvarious cell therapies on cardiovascular disease are described  Particular attention is given to adult bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells  Genmao Cao et. al [3]  Basic Research and Clinical Prospects” explains various kinds of gene editing technology like germlime and somantic gene editing technology and ethical concerns regarding humans
  • 4. 4 LITERATURE SURVEY Cont..  Robert Kirkton et. al [4]  explains the use of genetic engineering to induce or alter specific protein expression in stem cells has already facilitated research in this field and may, additionally, offer a potential route for designing more efficient cell sources for cardiac repair  This paper will describe the applications of genetic engineering to improve theisolation, selection, and differentiation of stem cells prior to implantation  Describes strategiesto promote the retention, mobilization, survival, integration, and tracking of stem cells after implantation.  Andrew H baker et. al [5]  explains various cardiac problems that the human can face and explains how it can be treated using gene therapy  Coronary Heart Disease, Peripheral Vascular Disease, Heart Failure and Arrhythmias, Hyperlipidaemias, Lipoprotein Metabolism,and Atherosclerosis, Restenosis, In-stent Restenosis, and Vein Graft Disease are the diseases the paper discusses where gene therapy can be used
  • 5.  Heart Failure  Heart failure sometimes known as congestive heart failure occurs when the heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should.  Proper treatment can improve the signs and symptoms of heart failure and may help some people live longer. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising, reducing salt (sodium) in your diet and managing stress can improve your quality of life  Chest pain, including angina, is not usually caused by heart failure, but may occur if the heart failure was caused by a heart attack. The severity of the heart failure is measured by the severity of symptoms during exercise. CARDIAC PROBLEMS 5
  • 6.  Heart Enlargement  An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a sign of another condition. The term "cardiomegaly" refers to an enlarged heart seen on any imaging test, including a chest X-ray.  Heart damage and certain types of heart disease can cause an enlarged heart. Sometimes short-term stress on the body, such as pregnancy, can cause the heart to get larger.  An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) can be caused by damage to the heart muscle or any condition that makes the heart pump harder than usual, including pregnancy. This condition is called idiopathic cardiomyopathy  Arrhythmias  Arrhythmias, also known as cardiac arrhythmias, heart arrhythmias, or dysrhythmias, are irregularities in the heartbeat, including when it is too fast or too slow  Some types of arrhythmias have no symptoms. Symptoms, when present, may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats. In more serious cases, there may be light-headedness, passing out, shortness of breath or chest pain.  Arrhythmias are often categorized into four groups: extra beats,supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular arrhythmias and bradyarrhythmia’s CARDIAC PROBLEMS Cont.. 6
  • 7. 7 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE  Uses include detecting heart disease, treating strokes faster and enhancing diagnostic radiology capabilities  These technologies complement the knowledge of doctors  AI cardiology allows doctors to spend more time with their patients and improves the shared decision-making process  The clinic is well situated to advance AI because its long history of high-volume patient care has generated a massive database of historical genomes, microbiomes, ECGs, diagnostic images and other test results  Cardiovascular medicine doctors and scientists at these clinics are combining AI with clinical practice for better care  Possible future uses still in development at Mayo Clinic include:  Predicting risk early in conditions such as embolic stroke  Monitoring the heart and detecting arrhythmia in smart clothing projects  Developing AI technology compatible with smartphones and high-tech stethoscopes
  • 8. 8 ORGAN CONFORMAL ELECTRONICS  Conformal electronics are stretchable, flexible electronic devices that can diagnose and treat tissue functions with high spatiotemporal resolution  These devices are comprised of a network of sensors and actuators, which include electrodes, photodiodes, thermocouples, LEDs, pressure transducers, and photovoltaic devices  Conformal electronics can conform to the epicardium or endocardium to multi parametrically monitor and correct cardiac tissue function  Currently in the clinic, many catheter-based technologies and implantable mechanical and electrotherapeutic devices are employed for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure  Conformal electronics will enable a new generation of devices to transform the current paradigm of cardiac diagnosis and therapy.
  • 9.  Cell therapy for cardiac regeneration  As it has been established that regenerative mechanisms exist within the mammalian myocardium, considerable optimism has been generated in trying toreproduce cardiac repair on a much larger scale.  Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are pluripotent, have received considerable attention. The pluripotent nature of ES cells confers the potential to regenerate the entiremyocardium.  To circumvent some of these issues, ES cells have been modifiedprior to implantation in order to generate a cardio myocyte phenotype, and the administration of these cells in rodent studies has been associated with a beneficial effect.  Subtypes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied, but the earliest reports of cell administrationto the ischemic myocardium utilized skeletal myoblasts. These cells had been shown toimprove cardiac function in animal studies, but evidence of their cardiomyogenic potential was lacking STEM CELL THERAPY 9
  • 10.  Stroke is ranked as the second leading cause of death worldwide. Ischemic stroke commonly results from emboli that originate in the heart among high-risk patients, such as those who develop atrial fibrillation  Atrial fibrillation (AF or AFib) remains a leading cause of stroke, which in turn may be associated with devastating health consequences and mortality. Yet, oral anticoagulants and left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion devices may not be appropriate for all patients or may be associated with life-threatening complications  These approaches, which are currently being tested in preclinical studies, might be translated in the near future to treatments available for patients with increased bleeding risks.  Our aim was to develop an alternative, device-based approach for continuous stroke prevention in high-risk patients. Novel Embolic Protection To Prevent Strokes 10
  • 11.  The goal of gene therapy is to modify a gene or genetic pathway to provide therapeutic value and prevent or reduce disease. It is important to develop a method that is safe and effective for the treatment of human disease  Stem cell therapy is potentially a promising new treatment for cardiovascular disease. Cell therapy for cardiac repair holds great potential for the treatment of cardiac disease  Despite this, translating stem cell therapy from bench to bedside remains challenging. Further clinical trials should be carefully designed to answer specifically relevant questions, and should be performed in conjunction with basic laboratory work.  It will be necessary to have a greater understanding of the effects of cell therapy at a genetic and molecular level. CONCLUSION 11
  • 12.  Rose T. Yin, K. Benjamin Lee, Jeffrey S. Panting, Sheena W. Chen, Kedar K. Aras, Igor R. Efimov,Flynn, A. and O'Brien, T., 2011. Stem cell therapy for cardiac disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 11(2), pp.177-187.  Ylä-Herttuala, S. and Baker, A.H., 2017. Cardiovascular gene therapy: past, present, and future. Molecular Therapy, 25(5), pp.1095-1106.  C. Leong, Y. Xiao, Z. Yun and M. F. Iskander, "Non-Invasive Stethoscope for Continuous Assessment of Lung Water: Towards AI-based Data Augmentation and Prediction," 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (AP-S/URSI), Denver, CO, USA, 2022, pp. 341-342, doi: 10.1109/AP-S/USNC-URSI47032.2022.9886294.Kirkton,  Q. Xie et al., "A Survey of Wireless Sensor Technique Applications for Medical Care," 2017 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC), Nanjing, China, 2017, pp. 412-415, doi: 10.1109/CyberC.2017.87 REFERENCE 12
  • 13.  Current research on gene therapy treatment has focused on targeting body (somatic) cells such as bone marrow or blood cells. This type of genetic alteration cannot be passed to a person’s children  Gene therapy could be targeted to egg and sperm cells (germ cells), however, which would allow the genetic changes to be passedto future generations. This approach is known as germline gene therapy  The idea of these germline alterations is controversial. While it could spare future generations in afamily from having a particular genetic disorder, it might affect the development of a foetus in unexpected ways or have long-term side effects that are not yet known GENE THERAPY 13