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An Comann
                                     50 Small Towns in
                                         Scotland

Architecture+DesignScotland
Ailtearachd is Dealbhadh na h-Alba


ISBN 978-0-947649-70-8
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                                      an comann
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                    fifty small towns in scotland
                                                                                                                                      1
                                      by laura hart + joanna hooi

             an comann in scots gaelic means ‘in society, a collection, group or bringing together’




             preface
             Small towns are an important part in the urban fabric of Scotland. This document
             de-constructs 50 case studies over a 150 year period. Using figure ground
             illustrations it provides a graphical record of their physical development to
             reveal patterns of growth. This is accompanied by background research looking at
             siginificant historic events and trends. Current socio economic statistics are used
             to establish a broad picture of each town today, to illustrate how the past has
             impacted on the present performance of each settlement.

             The purpose of this study is to identify key factors that have led to past failure or
             success. These towns are categorised selected and grouped to show a correlation
             between typology and performance. The town types included are; market,
             industrial, planned, coastal, commuter and tourist. There seems to be a link
             between historical type and the current success of the settlements. This
             connection is shown visually through the town’s figure ground.

             This study seems to show that across the case studies a crucial factor in the
             development of our towns is function. The demise of industrial towns which after
             the loss of their main employer have struggled to adjust to the 21st century.
             Conversely, those towns that have adapted to suit modern lifestyles appear to be
             thriving.

             Above all, this study illustrates that important trends of the past can provide the
             foundation to steer future development whilst respecting the integrity of our
             towns.




             The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the United Kingdom Copyright Acts
             as qualified by University of Strathclyde Regulation 3.49. Due acknowledgement must always be made of
             the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this document.




AC1.indd 1                                                                                                             18/12/2009 13:31:26
Introduction
                               contents                                                3
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               Scotland over time                                                      7
                       Part A - Past                                                                              s
                                Scottish small town and planning history               8-9
                       Part B - Present + Future
                                Location map + regional growth                         10                         3
                                Demographic of Scotland today and future predictions   11

               How to read this book                                                   13

               Case Studies

                      Market towns                                                     15
                              Case studies                                             16 - 33
                              Analysis + Conclusion                                    35 - 41

                      Industrial towns                                                 43
                              Case studies                                             44 - 67
                              Analysis + Conclusion                                    68 - 75

                      Planned towns                                                    77
                             Case studies                                              78 - 89
                             Analysis + Conclusion                                     90 - 95

                      Coastal towns                                                    97
                              Case studies                                             98 - 111
                              Analysis + Conclusion                                    112 - 117

                      Commuter towns                                                   119
                           Case studies                                                120 - 137
                           Analysis + Conclusion                                       138 - 145

                      Tourist towns                                                    147
                              Case studies                                             148 - 161
                              Analysis + Conclusion                                    162 - 167

               Summary of results                                                      169
                             Results Table                                             170 - 171
                             Summary                                                   172 - 173

               Conclusion                                                              174

               Bibliography                                                            175 -176




AC1.indd 2-3                                                                                       18/12/2009 13:31:26
introduction
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               Small towns are very much part of the urban landscape of Scotland. They provide not only a historical legacy                      i
               but are important drivers for the economy, activity and culture; they are an important focal point for rural                      o
               communities. Creating a successful town can have significant effects for its hinterland and protect the country-                  n
               side from unnecessary development.
                                                                                                                                                 5
               Over the course of the twentieth century, many of Scotland’s small towns have been threatened by decline.
               Loss of industry and employment has taken the heart out of some of our small towns leaving a legacy of
               derelict buildings and a commuting workforce. Subsequently the identity, purpose and pride of many small
               towns are under threat and the economic potential and benefits these towns can offer the rest of the country
               is not being realised. Conversely, some towns appear to be thriving. This document aims to investigate the
               factors that influence these situations by providing a comprehensive graphical resource to show the evolution
               of small towns in Scotland over the past 150 years.

               A variety of town types and sizes throughout Scotland is analysed to give a broad range of patterns and
               trends. Historical figure grounds are used to provide a visual record of development over time and to
               compare and contrast the growth of towns at 50 year intervals. These are then paired with current socio-eco-
               nomic statistics in order to establish the effects that historical development has had on the present status of
               the selected case studies.

               As we enter a new age of urban renaissance the way our towns grow and are shaped may be markedly
               different than the past fifty years. The document is based on the concept that to appreciate small towns and
               how these may be best adapted in the future, it is important to fully understand how they have evolved over
               time. It is a morphological study of the built form and the people and processes that have shaped it.
               The document is divided in to four sections:


               Section one – Methodology - process undertaken to compile this book

               Section two – Background Research

                              Scotland over time -      [1] History of small towns and planning Scotland
                                                        [2] Statistical analysis of current demographic trends.

               Section three - Case studies and analysis -      Market towns
                                                                Industrial towns
                                                                Planned towns
                                                                Coastal towns
                                                                Commuter towns
                                                                Tourist towns
               Section four - Results




AC1.indd 4-5                                                                                                                      18/12/2009 13:31:26

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                   scotland over time
                   Part 1- History of Small Towns and Planning.
                   Part 2 - Demographic of Scotland Today and Tomor
                            row.

                   This chapter is in two parts. The first section looks at
                   the past giving a brief history of small towns and the
                   Scottish planning system over time. The second part
                   gives an account of current socio-economic conditions
                   and demographics. It then predicts how these may
                   change in the future.




AC1.indd 6-7                                                             18/12/2009 13:31:26
12th - 15th centuries                                   16th & 17th centuries                                          18th & 19th centuries                                         20th & 21st centuries
      scotland through time
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                              12th century - Market towns were the first type of      16th Century - Developments in quarrying techniques leads       - The Union of the Parliments in 1707 joined Scotland and     - Legacy of the industrial revolution century left
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                              settlement to emerge. They were designed in a           to a change in building material & stone takes over from        England. Peace allowed the country to develop.                Scotland’s urban communities in an appalling condition.
                              defensive pattern, with high streets often tightly      timber construction. This allowed important buildings to                                                                                                                                                e
                              arranged along routes to Castles.                       become more prominent.                                          - Scotland entered a new era in economics and wealth          - First part of the century was dominated by the first                    t
                                                                                                                                                      brought on by the progress in manufacturing and engi-         and second World Wars, through which Scotland
                              - Introduction of Royal Charters. These titles were     - Foreign Trade prospered and development continued with        neering methods.                                              continued as an industrial nation.
                              appointed to settlements giving them trading            a further 77 royal burghs forming throughout the 16th
                              monopolies and access to ports (Royal Burgh, Burgh      century.                                                        - Towns emerged as industrial settlements, a new second       - 20th century drew a great blow to Scotland. From the
                              of Barony etc).                                                                                                         rank of town after the Royal Burghs.                          1970’s onward traditional industries that had brought                     9
                                                                                      17th Century - Period of development with over 160 small                                                                      great wealth through the 18th and 19th century began
                              - 13th century - Expansion of trade and discovery of    villages elevated to burgh status, however only a few of        - New settlements were often villages that had merged         to decline, mainly through competition from foreign
                              water power introducing mills and the textile indus-    these succeeded.                                                together or extensions of existing rural parishes. They did   counties.
                              try.                                                                                                                    not manage to assume any of the power of the Royal
                                                                                      - Industrialisation began with factories appearing in           Burghs, but instead formed as single function industrial      - Between 1981 and 2001 70% of all jobs in the primary
                              - 14th/15th centuries - Success achieved in the 12th    Glasgow and Greenock and smaller burghs venturing into          towns.                                                        and manufacturing industries had been lost and vast
                              and 13th century came to an abrupt stop in 1296.        glass and pottery.                                                                                                            quantities of industrial land has been left vacant and
                              For 21 weeks Edward I of England launched a cam-                                                                        - Early 19th century saw the arrival of railways, this had    undeveloped.
                              paign on Scotland, sweeping through the country          - New buildings and institutions, such as banks, were          huge consequences for Scotland’s towns. A mobile popula-
                              taking every notable castle.                            required to support new industry. Royal Burghs formed;          tion created the tourism market and the transport of goods    - Economy becomes based upon service industry with
                                                                                      they accommodated most of these becoming administrative         vastly improved industrial productivity. Cities and towns     4/5 jobs expected to be in this sector by 2010. Some
                              - Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries numerous       and financial centres.                                          multiplied.                                                   communities struggle still with industrial decline
                              towns were burnt to the ground on the commands of
                              the English kings, sparing nothing. This period was      - War with England lead to a depreciation in trade as
                              intermingled with war, famine and economic decline.     commerce with the country ceased, the two competed for
                                                                                      overseas trade.
                              - In an effort to mend the failing economy laws were
                              introduced regarding clothing, drinking times and       - Plague and famine devastated Scotland leading to a 20 %
                              sport. In the later half of 15th century, empty sites   loss in population                                                                                                            1909 Housing Act started an era associated with Public
                              were given grants to repopulate areas where trade                                                                                                                                     Housing Policy. 1919 Housing Act followed - this pro-
                              was depressed. 40- 50 new Burghs formed between                                                                                                                                       moted an ideal model for housing, the garden city.
                                                                                                                                                       Dean of the Guilds established to enforce regulations.
                              the 14th and 15th century.
                                                                                                                                                       Many local authorities chose not to have one as it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1930 Housing Act - allows for slum clearance and the
                                                                                                                                                       hindered devlopment and financial gain. Number of Dean
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    construction of New Towns. Nothing is constructed until
                                                                                                                                                       of the Guild Courts reduced form 49 to 12 by 1869.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the end of the second world war. 1947 housing acts
                                                                                                                                                       Distastrous consequences for built environment followed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    creates modern planning system. Vast estates are built.
                                                                                                                                                       with overcrowded, unsanitary, disease ridden conditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In cities, tenement slums are demolished and replaced by
                                                                                                                                                       emerging as people flocked to towns for work. Urban
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tower blocks or population sent to new towns. Small
                                                                                                                                                       population was housed in traditional tenements, often
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    towns see lower density terraced estates form.
                                                                                                                                                       overcrowded.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1970/80s - Policy change to rehabilitate rather than
      planning




                                 - Towns designed by surveyors appointed by King,     - Dean of the Guild evolve from being concerned with             Some planned settlements emerged, but these were
                                 layouts related to defence and the protection of     mainly mercantile interests to protecting the public.                                                                         demolish existing slums. Tower blocks are already
                                                                                                                                                       generally funded by private landowners.
                                 public buildings.                                                                                                                                                                  proving unpopular. In the 1980’s Thatcher government
                                                                                      - First set of building control clauses is published in                                                                       sell- off council houses under the ‘Right to buy’ scheme
                                                                                                                                                       The Victorian era linked social and health issues to the
                                 - Some early regulation monitored by the Dean of     Edinburgh in 1674, this adresses fire safety, protection of                                                                   and housing policy is no longer as important. High rise
                                                                                                                                                       built environment and a full set of building regulations
                                 the Guild. They would control alterations and        private property and the introduction of a land use register.                                                                 and peripheral estates fail and are hot beds for social
                                                                                                                                                       was introduced by the 1890’s. Building regulations came
                                 additions to the town as well as ensure uniform      However, adoption of the regulations was not compulsory                                                                       problems, industrial decline creates social tensions
                                                                                                                                                       too late and the cost of compliance was too much for
                                 appearance and disposal of waste. Mainly             and was often ignored.                                           some landlords.Conditions of new buildings improved
                                 concerned with protection                                                                                                                                                          1900- 2000’s - Modern slums are as problematic as
                                                                                                                                                       while older ones declined further.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    victorian ones and begin to be demolished. A return to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    traditional urban form is seen.




AC1.indd 8-9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18/12/2009 13:31:27
demographic of scotland today + future predictions
            location map                                                                                                                 14



                                                                                                                                                                                    - 17 %
                                                                                                                                                                                             Scotland’s population is relatively the same as it was in the 1950’s with no major change expected until the 2030’s. However
                                                                                                                                                                                             the demographic has altered. This will pose challenges to the economy and planning considerations of the future. The current
                                                                                                                                                                                             population of 5,144,200 [june 07], marks the fifth consecutive year of growth. The population is expected to gradually rise
                                                                                                                                                                                             until the end of the next decade . It is then expected to reverse and decline to 5.07 million in 2031, lowering to the 5 million
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                                                                                                                                                                                             mark by 2036.
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                                                                                                                                                                                             Since the 1960’s the standard of living has improved considerably. This is expected to continue and a change of lifestyle                         t
                                                                                                                                                                                             anticipated. Key facts affecting future demographic:

                                                                   15
                                                                                                                                                                                             ageing population                                                                                                                                 11
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> people are living longer - one in eight people will be over 75 by 2031
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> women are having less children - children under 16 will fall from 18% now to 15.7% in 2031

                                                                                                                                                                                             smaller families
                                                                    + 10.5 %                  highland                                                                                       --> family size has been reducing for the last 50 years leading to a decreasing available workforce - working age population will
                                                                                                                                                                                             decline from 62.7% in 2006 to 58.5% in 2031
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> former “typical” family household of (at least) two adults and two or more children will account for only one household in eight
                                                                                                                                 moray                                    + 3.9 %
                                                                                                                                                                                             in 2024
                                                                                                                                                   aberdeenshire              + 25.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                             migration
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> traditionally Scotland has been a net out-migration country with loss of population to England or overseas destinations however
                                                                                                                                                                                             the trend for migration of eastern europeans to Scotland over recent years has reversed this.
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> internal movements now dominate with the rural areas losing population to the north east.
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> highest out-migration regions 1996 - 2006 were the Shetland Islands, Aberdeen City and Dundee city.
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> highest in-migration regions 1996 - 2006 were Perth + Kinross, East and West Lothian.

                                                                                                                                              angus             + 3.5 %
          1      inverclyde                                                                                                                                                                  employment
                                                                                                                   perth + kinross                          + 15 %                           Industrial job losses of the 1980’s hit Scotland hard, particularly town and village communities.
          2      midlothian
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> this left large amounts of derelict land; 50% of which was still unrecovered in 2004.
          3      north lanarkshire                                                                                                                                                           --> 1981 - 2001 the manufacturing and primary industrys lost 36.8% and 34.7 % of their employment respectively.
          4      east renfrewshire                                                                                                                                                           --> by 2011 it is predicted that 2/3 of the above industries will have vanished
                                                              + 0.5 %               argyll + bute
                                                                                                                                         fife               + 5.1 %                          --> in 2006, 44.67% of the population aged 16-74 were in employment with 3.97% classed as unemployed.
          5      clackmannanshire                                       + 9.4 %                           stirling
                                                                                                                          5                               + 1.4 %
          6      edinburgh, city of                                                                                                                                                          urban structure - households
          7      falkirk                                                                                 16       7                      + 3.1                                               The above categories of ageing population and smaller families both impact on the structure of households
                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                                     6          east                + 15 %      + 3.9 %      --> the population is not expected to markedly change up until 2024 however predictions state that there will be in 11% increase in
                                                          - 19.4 %                                  1          3     12                         lothian
          8      north ayrshire                                                                       13 11                                                                                  the number of households
                                                                                                                                         2                            - 5.1 %
          9                                                              + 11.9 %                       4                                                                                    --> the number of single person households is expected to increase by 33% for women and 47% for men in the next 16 yrs.
                 shetland islands                                                                                                                                - 5.2 %
                                                                          - 1.3 %                   8       south                                                                            --> by 2024 single person households are expected to make up 42 % of all households
          10 east dunbartonshire                                                      - 0.7 %               lanarkshire
                                                                                                                                     scottish borders               + 8.9 %                  --> even when the overall population is expected to decrease around 2031 the no. of households is still predicted to increase
          11 glasgow city                                                                                     east
                                      not included in study




                                                                                        - 6.3 %               ayrshire
          12 west lothian                                                                                                                                                                    uk perspective
                                                                                                  south
                                                                                    - 1.3 %       ayrshire                                                                                   --> Scotland is the only of the 4 countries that is expected to decline from 2031
          13 renfrewshire
                                                                                                                                                                                             [England is expected to reach approximately 57 million by 2031 which is an increase of 6million. This pattern is expected to then
          14 orkney                                                                                                                                                                          continue, reaching 61.4 by 2074]
                                                                                                              dumfries + galloway                     + 1.7 %                                --> Scotland doesn’t follow British trends it follows european population trends
          15 eileen star
                                                                                                                                                                                             --> Scotland’s proportion of the UK population has consistantly fallen since 1861, by 2071 it is projected to decline to 6.1 %.
          16 west dumbartonshire
                                                                                                                                                                                             All facts presented on this page are from the following documents;
                                                                                                                                                                                             [The Register General, (2007) Annual review of demographic trends, Scotland’s population 2006.]
           % shown = growth 1981 - 2006                                                                                                                                                      [The Register General, (2008) Mid-2007 Population Estimates Scotland.]
                                                                                                                                                                                             [Scottish Parliament, (2006) Scotland with an ageing population: economic and demographic challenges we should have met by 2031]




AC1.indd 10-11                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18/12/2009 13:31:28
how to read this book. . . .                                                                                                                                                            mk
                                                                                                                                                                                                         a
                 key            % non flatted accomodation                photo timeline                                         table: growth diagrams                                                   e
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ry
                                                                                                                                                                                                         k

                       £
                                                                                                                                                                                                         e
                                average house price
                                                                                                                                                                                                         t
                                                                           indicates population unknown
                                area [ha]


                                number of dwellings                                                                                      original core                                                   13

                                                                             indicates known population                                        secondary growth
                                density [u/ha]
                                                                                                                                                              current boundaries


                                                                               populations have been taken from 1851, 1901, 1950 + 2006 census figures
                 timeline         population
                                                 date of map                   maps have been sourced as closely as possible to these 50 year intervals



                 tables                     individual town type tables

                                            [type of employment] --> top three types based on % breakdown of working population
                                            [% in employment] --> represents all people aged 16 - 74 in employment
                       education            [% with a quailification] --> includes; standard grades, highers, HND, SVQ [or equilivant] + degree level
                                            [% good general health] --> refers to health rated as good or fairly good over the 12 months prior to census
                                                                           day (29 April 2001)
                       real estate          [average house price] --> refers to percentage above or below the scottish average; current, 7th august 2008
                                            [owner occupied] --> includes those who own outright, owns with a mortgage or loan + shared ownership
                                            [railway station] --> refers to towns with an active railway station; current august 2008
                       retail               [30 miles from larger settlement] --> distance measured to settlements with populations of 30 000 or above
                                            [% growth] --> percentage difference calculated between the 1950 + 2006 census data
                                            [s.a.] = scottish average
                       health +
                       social work
                                                 indicates better than the scottish average                             indicates worse than the scottish average                  p indicates
                       hotels +
                                                 [excluding growth which just indicates positive or negative which no relationship to the scottish average]                          previous railway
                       restaurants
                                            final table - comparison of town types
                       manufacture          [type of employment] --> represents the top employment type only



                                                                                }
                                            [% in employment]
                                            [% with a quailification]
                                            [% good general health]      average has been calculated using data from each town in the category
                       public admin
                                            [% owner occupied]
                                            [average house price] --> % of towns in the category rating above the scottish average
                       construction         [railway station]
                                            [30 miles from larger settlement                   }
                                                                                  % of towns in the category with
                                            [% growth] --> % of towns in the category with positive growth




AC1.indd 12-13                                                                                                                                                                            18/12/2009 13:31:29

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market towns                          have played an
                 important role in Scotland’s rural communities
                 throughout history. The legal right to hold a market
                 distinguished these towns from other settlements and
                 signified their importance. This role not only protected
                 the towns but allowed them trading privileges leading
                 to growth.


                 case studies - brechin, clackmannan, cupar,
                 dingwall, forres, kelso, kirkcudbright, lanark + tain.




AC1.indd 14-15                                                            18/12/2009 13:31:29
population                          8210                                                        10444                                                                   8203                                                                              6950

                   date of map                  1856                                                       1903                                                                     1959                                                                              2008




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17




                         brechin
        Brechin has a long history. The reason for its existence is its cathedral originating in
                                                                                                                      56.74%

        the 12th century. The town struggled in its early years until it was awarded Royal
        Burgh Status in the 1400’s. This allowed the town the right to hold a market and
        provided the town with great wealth. By the 19th century the town became an associ-
        ated with the textile industry and there were four major mills in the town. Further-
                                                                                                                  £   £132,091
                                                                                                                                           10 000
                                                                                                                                                    1400 royal burgh at cathedral          1850 textile industry and trade centre   1950 industry declines          2008 town becomes tourist centre

        more distilleries provided a vital source of employment. Subsequently between 1851
        and 1900 the population grew by over 2000. Railways came to the town in 1895.                                 267ha
        Industry did not sustain the town throughout the 20th century and the population
        decreased considerably between 1900 and 1950. This decline has continued but
        slowed down in subsequent years with a population loss of 100 between 1950 and                                3364
        2006. Passenger rail services have left the town. However Brechin is home to the
        Caledonian Railway, a steam train run by enthusiasts for tourists during the summer
        months.                                                                                                       12.59 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 16-17                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           18/12/2009 13:31:49
population                        3002                                                           2501                                                                   3024                                                                                    3420

                 date of map                  1850                                                         1920                                                                     1958                                                                                  2008




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             19




 clackmannan
                                                                                                                      82.55%
   Clackmannan’s early role was that of a port where the River Black Devon met the River Forth.
   The location was also home to Clackmannan Tower, built in the 9th Century. However the

                                                                                                                  £                                800 town established at castle          1800 admin. centre and weaving town 1900 industry/population declines      2008 pleasant town retains residents
   port silted up and the town came to dominance as the administrative centre of Clackman-
   nanshire. The towns tollbooth built in 1592 was the main administration building in the                            £129,499
                                                                                                                                          10 000
   county containing a court and prison. This enjoyed a prominant position in the town’s market
   place. Here also stands The Clack - an ancient stone dating back to Celtic times. The town’s
   role continued to be that of an administrative centre throughout its history. Although, some                       104ha
   industry was present during the 18th and 19th C, such as shallow shaft coal mines, an iron
   foundry and a distillery. However, the town’s prosperity did not continue and many people left
   to seek work in other locations, especially in neighbouring Alloa where there was a booming                        1453
   manufacturing industry. By 1901 the population of the town had halved. The 20th Century
   saw the towns grow both physically and in terms of population. This may be due to its loca-
   tion along the A907 to Stirling.                                                                                   13.9 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 18-19                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18/12/2009 13:32:00
population                          7427                                                           6766                                                                  8085                                                                                    8800

                  date of map                   1856                                                         1896                                                                  1938                                                                                      2008




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 21




                         cupar                                                                                          63.36 %
        In 12th century Cupar was established as the county town of Fife. It prospered in its early
        days on the back of the wool industry and later grew as a market town and administra-
        tive centre. It served a huge population encompassing much of south east fife. The 19th
        Century saw Cupar at its most fortunate. The early part of the century saw it establish                     £   £245,220
                                                                                                                                            10 000
                                                                                                                                                     1850 county town of fife             1900 cupar thrives as financial centre   1950 town continues to prosper          2008 retains market town character
        itself in financial services and as home to the county newspaper. Further development
        occurred with the arrival of the railway in 1847. The population of the town grew steadily
                                                                                                                        355ha
        throughout the century from 4463 in 1800 to 6766 in 1901. Due to its wealth the town
        housed numerous fine buildings and churches many of which can still be seen today.
        Although stripped of its role of county town in 1974 when the council gave the title to
        the new town of Glenrothes, the town has continued to prosper and grow. This may                                3805
        have been aided by the retention of the railway and location close to the M90 motorway.

                                                                                                                        10.7 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 20-21                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18/12/2009 13:32:20

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This document is a forwarded email thread discussing a Croatian journalist. It contains the original message criticizing the journalist for having a mother who was a communist, as well as subsequent forwards of that message between various parties for sharing. The document criticizes the journalist and calls for there to be "one less idiot in Croatia".

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population                           2364                                                          2758                                                                3604                                                                     5080

                   date of map                  1876                                                         1906                                                                1959                                                                     2008




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           23




                 dingwall                                                                                               78.86%
       It is believed that Dingwall was first established around 1050 lying in a strategic position
       at the head of Cromarty forth. In 1814 the bridging of the rivers Conon and Buely and
       the construction of the parliamentary roads, lead to Dingwall becoming the centre of
       communications for the north. It became the administrative centre for much of northern
       Scotland. In 1820 the harbour arrived and it became a port. Agricultural change in the
                                                                                                                    £   £207,111
                                                                                                                                            10 000
                                                                                                                                                     1820 became a port                 1862 railway arrived   1900’s high street part of the A9      2008 bustling market town

       1800’s lead to commercial farming and brought new business to the town. The arrival of
       the railway in 1862 lead to further growth and the town established itself as an agricul-                        326 ha
       tural market place. In 1890 the town set up permanent livestock markets however these
       have since been relocated to allow for a large superstore in the town centre. Originally in
       the 1900’s the high street was part of the A9. The creation of the Cromarty Firth bridge                         2163
       redirected this and relieved the town of the heavy traffic it experienced in the 19th cen-
       tury when it was the busiest route centre in Northwest Scotland.
                                                                                                                        6.64 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 22-23                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18/12/2009 13:32:37
population                          4069                                                              5241                                                                5231                                                 8990

                  date of map                   1873                                                            1906                                                                1959                                                 2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           m
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           25




                         forres
   Forres is one of the oldest towns in Scotland, holding Royal Burgh status since 1140. With lim-
                                                                                                                           83.37 %

   ited growth from the 17th century, Forres entered a period of development beginning in 1810
   and by the 1820’s the town experienced rapid expansion with new developments emerging
   on the outskirts of town. Nestled on the flood plane of river Findhorn, the great flood of 1829
   transformed the town with many of the population seeking high ground and relocating to the
                                                                                                                       £   £170,600
                                                                                                                                               10 000
                                                                                                                                                        1820’s large expansion         1910 market town   1985bypass introduced     2008 town centre largly unchanged

   Cluny Hills. However despite this natural disaster Forres transformed in the 19th century with
   the help of the introduction of the railway. This strengthened the economy, allowing export                             381 ha
   of agriculture by rail, which in turn brought improved road connections and infrastructure
   investment. Today the composition of the town remains relatively unchanged having retained
   the original layout of the medieval town plan. The market history of the town is still evident, the                     3801
   high street widening where the market was originally held. Many fine buildings also remain in-
   cluding the tolbooth and mercat cross. Through retaining it heritage and tradition Forres today
   is an attractive place to visit, famous for its floral displays.                                                        9.97 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 24-25                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18/12/2009 13:33:02
population                          5634                                                      4525                                                                  4518                                                                             5380

                   date of map                  1862                                                    1899                                                                  1938                                                                             2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  m
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27




                         kelso
       Located where the rivers Tweed and Teviot meet, Kelso developed from a small
                                                                                                                   64.7%

       hamlet as a direct result of the Kelso Abbey which was established in 1128. Upon
       completion, the town flourished and attracted monks who were skilled craftsmen,
       this helped the population to expand. However there were large scale fires in 1645                      £   £192,753
                                                                                                                                       10 000
                                                                                                                                                1128developed with creation of abbey 1803 first bridge constructed   1905 largest market square in scotland 2008 a charming town
       and 1742 which destroyed the central part of town. Controlled predominately by
       the abbey the wealth and power declined in the 16th century yet the construction of
       the Kelso Bridge in 1754 lead to Kelso becoming an important stop on the London                             151 ha
       to Edinburgh coach route. During the 18th and 19th centuries stately homes were
       built outside the town centre due to the growth of a richer middle class. Today the
       town retains the original central layout with four cobbled streets merging into a                           2363
       central cobbled market square. Most of the current town centre features Georgian or
       Victorian architecture with the town hall from 1816 sitting on the site of the original
       tollbooth.                                                                                                  15.6 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 26-27                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     18/12/2009 13:33:20
population                          3555                                                           3309                                                                      3316                                                                                            3240

                  date of map                  1854                                                          1909                                                                      1951                                                                                             2008




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            29




kirkcudbright
                                                                                                                        80.33%
       Situated on the River Dee, Kirkcudbright achieved Royal Burgh status in 1455. This gave
       the town the right to trade with ports outside Scotland an emphasised the importance of
       the harbour. The original town was built around the high street. The River Dee protected its
       castle, habour and moat on all sides giving security which lead to the town prospering. The
                                                                                                                    £   £273,720
                                                                                                                                             10 000
                                                                                                                                                      1854 arrival of railway                 1900 high street is wrapped 2 sides of core 1950 town retains character as artist town 2008 scenic scottish fishing town
       town gained considerable wealth in the early centuries and during the 1400’s a quarter
       of all Scotland’s cloth exports left from Kircudbright’s harbour. The town then faced a
                                                                                                                        152 ha
       time of decline in the 1600 and 1700’s however the arrival of the railway in 1864 allowed
       Kircudbright to make its mark as a centre for artists and maintain a steady population
       through the 19th and 20th century. The high street in kirkcudbright is unusual as it wraps
                                                                                                                        1620
       around the two sides of the town core rather than forming a central thoroughfare, this can
       be clearly seen in the figure grounds above. Many old town houses still line the high street
       hinting to kirkcudbright’s history.
                                                                                                                        10.65 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 28-29                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               18/12/2009 13:33:34

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population                           8243                                                            8103                                                                 9250                                                                     8200

                   date of map                   1864                                                          1898                                                                   1958                                                                     2008




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31




                          lanark
       Becoming a Royal Burgh in 1140, Lanark has been an important market town since
       medieval times and was the location of the first Scottish parliament meeting in 978. 1785
                                                                                                                          70.25 %

       brought large change when the water power of the river Clyde was harnessed by the
       cotton mills built at New Lanark (located one mile from the existing town). Whilst Lanark
       served as a focus for the wider rural community New Lanark drove the local economy. In
                                                                                                                      £   £200,741
                                                                                                                                              10 000
                                                                                                                                                       1785 mercat cross demolished          1855 railway arrived   1950 town continued to flourish          2008 retains market town character
       1845 the railway arrived and Lanark flourished as a market town holding regular livestock
       markets. The mills in New Lanark closed in 1968 & 74 which threatened its existence and
                                                                                                                          268 ha
       the economy of the surrounding areas. However, it began a process of regeneration and
       survived. Today the older buildings lining the high street reveal Lanark’s character as a
       market town. There has been a considerable amount of investment in Lanark over recent
                                                                                                                          3656
       years, though the narrow streets and vennels have prevented major redevelopment of the
       shops. The site of the original mercat cross marks the foot of the high street and is still
       known as ‘the cross’. Today there is little industry although it still holds one of Scotland’s
       largest farming markets.                                                                                           13.6 dwellings/ha



AC1.indd 30-31                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     18/12/2009 13:33:55
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An Comann

  • 1. An Comann 50 Small Towns in Scotland Architecture+DesignScotland Ailtearachd is Dealbhadh na h-Alba ISBN 978-0-947649-70-8
  • 2. m p a r r e k f an comann e a t c e fifty small towns in scotland 1 by laura hart + joanna hooi an comann in scots gaelic means ‘in society, a collection, group or bringing together’ preface Small towns are an important part in the urban fabric of Scotland. This document de-constructs 50 case studies over a 150 year period. Using figure ground illustrations it provides a graphical record of their physical development to reveal patterns of growth. This is accompanied by background research looking at siginificant historic events and trends. Current socio economic statistics are used to establish a broad picture of each town today, to illustrate how the past has impacted on the present performance of each settlement. The purpose of this study is to identify key factors that have led to past failure or success. These towns are categorised selected and grouped to show a correlation between typology and performance. The town types included are; market, industrial, planned, coastal, commuter and tourist. There seems to be a link between historical type and the current success of the settlements. This connection is shown visually through the town’s figure ground. This study seems to show that across the case studies a crucial factor in the development of our towns is function. The demise of industrial towns which after the loss of their main employer have struggled to adjust to the 21st century. Conversely, those towns that have adapted to suit modern lifestyles appear to be thriving. Above all, this study illustrates that important trends of the past can provide the foundation to steer future development whilst respecting the integrity of our towns. The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the United Kingdom Copyright Acts as qualified by University of Strathclyde Regulation 3.49. Due acknowledgement must always be made of the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this document. AC1.indd 1 18/12/2009 13:31:26
  • 3. Introduction contents 3 c m o a n r t k e e n t t Scotland over time 7 Part A - Past s Scottish small town and planning history 8-9 Part B - Present + Future Location map + regional growth 10 3 Demographic of Scotland today and future predictions 11 How to read this book 13 Case Studies Market towns 15 Case studies 16 - 33 Analysis + Conclusion 35 - 41 Industrial towns 43 Case studies 44 - 67 Analysis + Conclusion 68 - 75 Planned towns 77 Case studies 78 - 89 Analysis + Conclusion 90 - 95 Coastal towns 97 Case studies 98 - 111 Analysis + Conclusion 112 - 117 Commuter towns 119 Case studies 120 - 137 Analysis + Conclusion 138 - 145 Tourist towns 147 Case studies 148 - 161 Analysis + Conclusion 162 - 167 Summary of results 169 Results Table 170 - 171 Summary 172 - 173 Conclusion 174 Bibliography 175 -176 AC1.indd 2-3 18/12/2009 13:31:26
  • 4. introduction i m n a t r r o k d u e c t t Small towns are very much part of the urban landscape of Scotland. They provide not only a historical legacy i but are important drivers for the economy, activity and culture; they are an important focal point for rural o communities. Creating a successful town can have significant effects for its hinterland and protect the country- n side from unnecessary development. 5 Over the course of the twentieth century, many of Scotland’s small towns have been threatened by decline. Loss of industry and employment has taken the heart out of some of our small towns leaving a legacy of derelict buildings and a commuting workforce. Subsequently the identity, purpose and pride of many small towns are under threat and the economic potential and benefits these towns can offer the rest of the country is not being realised. Conversely, some towns appear to be thriving. This document aims to investigate the factors that influence these situations by providing a comprehensive graphical resource to show the evolution of small towns in Scotland over the past 150 years. A variety of town types and sizes throughout Scotland is analysed to give a broad range of patterns and trends. Historical figure grounds are used to provide a visual record of development over time and to compare and contrast the growth of towns at 50 year intervals. These are then paired with current socio-eco- nomic statistics in order to establish the effects that historical development has had on the present status of the selected case studies. As we enter a new age of urban renaissance the way our towns grow and are shaped may be markedly different than the past fifty years. The document is based on the concept that to appreciate small towns and how these may be best adapted in the future, it is important to fully understand how they have evolved over time. It is a morphological study of the built form and the people and processes that have shaped it. The document is divided in to four sections: Section one – Methodology - process undertaken to compile this book Section two – Background Research Scotland over time - [1] History of small towns and planning Scotland [2] Statistical analysis of current demographic trends. Section three - Case studies and analysis - Market towns Industrial towns Planned towns Coastal towns Commuter towns Tourist towns Section four - Results AC1.indd 4-5 18/12/2009 13:31:26
  • 5. T scotland over time Part 1- History of Small Towns and Planning. Part 2 - Demographic of Scotland Today and Tomor row. This chapter is in two parts. The first section looks at the past giving a brief history of small towns and the Scottish planning system over time. The second part gives an account of current socio-economic conditions and demographics. It then predicts how these may change in the future. AC1.indd 6-7 18/12/2009 13:31:26
  • 6. 12th - 15th centuries 16th & 17th centuries 18th & 19th centuries 20th & 21st centuries scotland through time m p a a r s 12th century - Market towns were the first type of 16th Century - Developments in quarrying techniques leads - The Union of the Parliments in 1707 joined Scotland and - Legacy of the industrial revolution century left k t settlement to emerge. They were designed in a to a change in building material & stone takes over from England. Peace allowed the country to develop. Scotland’s urban communities in an appalling condition. defensive pattern, with high streets often tightly timber construction. This allowed important buildings to e arranged along routes to Castles. become more prominent. - Scotland entered a new era in economics and wealth - First part of the century was dominated by the first t brought on by the progress in manufacturing and engi- and second World Wars, through which Scotland - Introduction of Royal Charters. These titles were - Foreign Trade prospered and development continued with neering methods. continued as an industrial nation. appointed to settlements giving them trading a further 77 royal burghs forming throughout the 16th monopolies and access to ports (Royal Burgh, Burgh century. - Towns emerged as industrial settlements, a new second - 20th century drew a great blow to Scotland. From the of Barony etc). rank of town after the Royal Burghs. 1970’s onward traditional industries that had brought 9 17th Century - Period of development with over 160 small great wealth through the 18th and 19th century began - 13th century - Expansion of trade and discovery of villages elevated to burgh status, however only a few of - New settlements were often villages that had merged to decline, mainly through competition from foreign water power introducing mills and the textile indus- these succeeded. together or extensions of existing rural parishes. They did counties. try. not manage to assume any of the power of the Royal - Industrialisation began with factories appearing in Burghs, but instead formed as single function industrial - Between 1981 and 2001 70% of all jobs in the primary - 14th/15th centuries - Success achieved in the 12th Glasgow and Greenock and smaller burghs venturing into towns. and manufacturing industries had been lost and vast and 13th century came to an abrupt stop in 1296. glass and pottery. quantities of industrial land has been left vacant and For 21 weeks Edward I of England launched a cam- - Early 19th century saw the arrival of railways, this had undeveloped. paign on Scotland, sweeping through the country - New buildings and institutions, such as banks, were huge consequences for Scotland’s towns. A mobile popula- taking every notable castle. required to support new industry. Royal Burghs formed; tion created the tourism market and the transport of goods - Economy becomes based upon service industry with they accommodated most of these becoming administrative vastly improved industrial productivity. Cities and towns 4/5 jobs expected to be in this sector by 2010. Some - Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries numerous and financial centres. multiplied. communities struggle still with industrial decline towns were burnt to the ground on the commands of the English kings, sparing nothing. This period was - War with England lead to a depreciation in trade as intermingled with war, famine and economic decline. commerce with the country ceased, the two competed for overseas trade. - In an effort to mend the failing economy laws were introduced regarding clothing, drinking times and - Plague and famine devastated Scotland leading to a 20 % sport. In the later half of 15th century, empty sites loss in population 1909 Housing Act started an era associated with Public were given grants to repopulate areas where trade Housing Policy. 1919 Housing Act followed - this pro- was depressed. 40- 50 new Burghs formed between moted an ideal model for housing, the garden city. Dean of the Guilds established to enforce regulations. the 14th and 15th century. Many local authorities chose not to have one as it 1930 Housing Act - allows for slum clearance and the hindered devlopment and financial gain. Number of Dean construction of New Towns. Nothing is constructed until of the Guild Courts reduced form 49 to 12 by 1869. the end of the second world war. 1947 housing acts Distastrous consequences for built environment followed creates modern planning system. Vast estates are built. with overcrowded, unsanitary, disease ridden conditions In cities, tenement slums are demolished and replaced by emerging as people flocked to towns for work. Urban tower blocks or population sent to new towns. Small population was housed in traditional tenements, often towns see lower density terraced estates form. overcrowded. 1970/80s - Policy change to rehabilitate rather than planning - Towns designed by surveyors appointed by King, - Dean of the Guild evolve from being concerned with Some planned settlements emerged, but these were layouts related to defence and the protection of mainly mercantile interests to protecting the public. demolish existing slums. Tower blocks are already generally funded by private landowners. public buildings. proving unpopular. In the 1980’s Thatcher government - First set of building control clauses is published in sell- off council houses under the ‘Right to buy’ scheme The Victorian era linked social and health issues to the - Some early regulation monitored by the Dean of Edinburgh in 1674, this adresses fire safety, protection of and housing policy is no longer as important. High rise built environment and a full set of building regulations the Guild. They would control alterations and private property and the introduction of a land use register. and peripheral estates fail and are hot beds for social was introduced by the 1890’s. Building regulations came additions to the town as well as ensure uniform However, adoption of the regulations was not compulsory problems, industrial decline creates social tensions too late and the cost of compliance was too much for appearance and disposal of waste. Mainly and was often ignored. some landlords.Conditions of new buildings improved concerned with protection 1900- 2000’s - Modern slums are as problematic as while older ones declined further. victorian ones and begin to be demolished. A return to traditional urban form is seen. AC1.indd 8-9 18/12/2009 13:31:27
  • 7. demographic of scotland today + future predictions location map 14 - 17 % Scotland’s population is relatively the same as it was in the 1950’s with no major change expected until the 2030’s. However the demographic has altered. This will pose challenges to the economy and planning considerations of the future. The current population of 5,144,200 [june 07], marks the fifth consecutive year of growth. The population is expected to gradually rise until the end of the next decade . It is then expected to reverse and decline to 5.07 million in 2031, lowering to the 5 million m p a r r e k s 9 e e mark by 2036. t n Since the 1960’s the standard of living has improved considerably. This is expected to continue and a change of lifestyle t anticipated. Key facts affecting future demographic: 15 ageing population 11 --> people are living longer - one in eight people will be over 75 by 2031 --> women are having less children - children under 16 will fall from 18% now to 15.7% in 2031 smaller families + 10.5 % highland --> family size has been reducing for the last 50 years leading to a decreasing available workforce - working age population will decline from 62.7% in 2006 to 58.5% in 2031 --> former “typical” family household of (at least) two adults and two or more children will account for only one household in eight moray + 3.9 % in 2024 aberdeenshire + 25.1% migration --> traditionally Scotland has been a net out-migration country with loss of population to England or overseas destinations however the trend for migration of eastern europeans to Scotland over recent years has reversed this. --> internal movements now dominate with the rural areas losing population to the north east. --> highest out-migration regions 1996 - 2006 were the Shetland Islands, Aberdeen City and Dundee city. --> highest in-migration regions 1996 - 2006 were Perth + Kinross, East and West Lothian. angus + 3.5 % 1 inverclyde employment perth + kinross + 15 % Industrial job losses of the 1980’s hit Scotland hard, particularly town and village communities. 2 midlothian --> this left large amounts of derelict land; 50% of which was still unrecovered in 2004. 3 north lanarkshire --> 1981 - 2001 the manufacturing and primary industrys lost 36.8% and 34.7 % of their employment respectively. 4 east renfrewshire --> by 2011 it is predicted that 2/3 of the above industries will have vanished + 0.5 % argyll + bute fife + 5.1 % --> in 2006, 44.67% of the population aged 16-74 were in employment with 3.97% classed as unemployed. 5 clackmannanshire + 9.4 % stirling 5 + 1.4 % 6 edinburgh, city of urban structure - households 7 falkirk 16 7 + 3.1 The above categories of ageing population and smaller families both impact on the structure of households 10 6 east + 15 % + 3.9 % --> the population is not expected to markedly change up until 2024 however predictions state that there will be in 11% increase in - 19.4 % 1 3 12 lothian 8 north ayrshire 13 11 the number of households 2 - 5.1 % 9 + 11.9 % 4 --> the number of single person households is expected to increase by 33% for women and 47% for men in the next 16 yrs. shetland islands - 5.2 % - 1.3 % 8 south --> by 2024 single person households are expected to make up 42 % of all households 10 east dunbartonshire - 0.7 % lanarkshire scottish borders + 8.9 % --> even when the overall population is expected to decrease around 2031 the no. of households is still predicted to increase 11 glasgow city east not included in study - 6.3 % ayrshire 12 west lothian uk perspective south - 1.3 % ayrshire --> Scotland is the only of the 4 countries that is expected to decline from 2031 13 renfrewshire [England is expected to reach approximately 57 million by 2031 which is an increase of 6million. This pattern is expected to then 14 orkney continue, reaching 61.4 by 2074] dumfries + galloway + 1.7 % --> Scotland doesn’t follow British trends it follows european population trends 15 eileen star --> Scotland’s proportion of the UK population has consistantly fallen since 1861, by 2071 it is projected to decline to 6.1 %. 16 west dumbartonshire All facts presented on this page are from the following documents; [The Register General, (2007) Annual review of demographic trends, Scotland’s population 2006.] % shown = growth 1981 - 2006 [The Register General, (2008) Mid-2007 Population Estimates Scotland.] [Scottish Parliament, (2006) Scotland with an ageing population: economic and demographic challenges we should have met by 2031] AC1.indd 10-11 18/12/2009 13:31:28
  • 8. how to read this book. . . . mk a key % non flatted accomodation photo timeline table: growth diagrams e ry k £ e average house price t indicates population unknown area [ha] number of dwellings original core 13 indicates known population secondary growth density [u/ha] current boundaries populations have been taken from 1851, 1901, 1950 + 2006 census figures timeline population date of map maps have been sourced as closely as possible to these 50 year intervals tables individual town type tables [type of employment] --> top three types based on % breakdown of working population [% in employment] --> represents all people aged 16 - 74 in employment education [% with a quailification] --> includes; standard grades, highers, HND, SVQ [or equilivant] + degree level [% good general health] --> refers to health rated as good or fairly good over the 12 months prior to census day (29 April 2001) real estate [average house price] --> refers to percentage above or below the scottish average; current, 7th august 2008 [owner occupied] --> includes those who own outright, owns with a mortgage or loan + shared ownership [railway station] --> refers to towns with an active railway station; current august 2008 retail [30 miles from larger settlement] --> distance measured to settlements with populations of 30 000 or above [% growth] --> percentage difference calculated between the 1950 + 2006 census data [s.a.] = scottish average health + social work indicates better than the scottish average indicates worse than the scottish average p indicates hotels + [excluding growth which just indicates positive or negative which no relationship to the scottish average] previous railway restaurants final table - comparison of town types manufacture [type of employment] --> represents the top employment type only } [% in employment] [% with a quailification] [% good general health] average has been calculated using data from each town in the category public admin [% owner occupied] [average house price] --> % of towns in the category rating above the scottish average construction [railway station] [30 miles from larger settlement } % of towns in the category with [% growth] --> % of towns in the category with positive growth AC1.indd 12-13 18/12/2009 13:31:29
  • 9. market towns have played an important role in Scotland’s rural communities throughout history. The legal right to hold a market distinguished these towns from other settlements and signified their importance. This role not only protected the towns but allowed them trading privileges leading to growth. case studies - brechin, clackmannan, cupar, dingwall, forres, kelso, kirkcudbright, lanark + tain. AC1.indd 14-15 18/12/2009 13:31:29
  • 10. population 8210 10444 8203 6950 date of map 1856 1903 1959 2008 m a r k e t 17 brechin Brechin has a long history. The reason for its existence is its cathedral originating in 56.74% the 12th century. The town struggled in its early years until it was awarded Royal Burgh Status in the 1400’s. This allowed the town the right to hold a market and provided the town with great wealth. By the 19th century the town became an associ- ated with the textile industry and there were four major mills in the town. Further- £ £132,091 10 000 1400 royal burgh at cathedral 1850 textile industry and trade centre 1950 industry declines 2008 town becomes tourist centre more distilleries provided a vital source of employment. Subsequently between 1851 and 1900 the population grew by over 2000. Railways came to the town in 1895. 267ha Industry did not sustain the town throughout the 20th century and the population decreased considerably between 1900 and 1950. This decline has continued but slowed down in subsequent years with a population loss of 100 between 1950 and 3364 2006. Passenger rail services have left the town. However Brechin is home to the Caledonian Railway, a steam train run by enthusiasts for tourists during the summer months. 12.59 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 16-17 18/12/2009 13:31:49
  • 11. population 3002 2501 3024 3420 date of map 1850 1920 1958 2008 m a r k e t 19 clackmannan 82.55% Clackmannan’s early role was that of a port where the River Black Devon met the River Forth. The location was also home to Clackmannan Tower, built in the 9th Century. However the £ 800 town established at castle 1800 admin. centre and weaving town 1900 industry/population declines 2008 pleasant town retains residents port silted up and the town came to dominance as the administrative centre of Clackman- nanshire. The towns tollbooth built in 1592 was the main administration building in the £129,499 10 000 county containing a court and prison. This enjoyed a prominant position in the town’s market place. Here also stands The Clack - an ancient stone dating back to Celtic times. The town’s role continued to be that of an administrative centre throughout its history. Although, some 104ha industry was present during the 18th and 19th C, such as shallow shaft coal mines, an iron foundry and a distillery. However, the town’s prosperity did not continue and many people left to seek work in other locations, especially in neighbouring Alloa where there was a booming 1453 manufacturing industry. By 1901 the population of the town had halved. The 20th Century saw the towns grow both physically and in terms of population. This may be due to its loca- tion along the A907 to Stirling. 13.9 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 18-19 18/12/2009 13:32:00
  • 12. population 7427 6766 8085 8800 date of map 1856 1896 1938 2008 m a r k e t 21 cupar 63.36 % In 12th century Cupar was established as the county town of Fife. It prospered in its early days on the back of the wool industry and later grew as a market town and administra- tive centre. It served a huge population encompassing much of south east fife. The 19th Century saw Cupar at its most fortunate. The early part of the century saw it establish £ £245,220 10 000 1850 county town of fife 1900 cupar thrives as financial centre 1950 town continues to prosper 2008 retains market town character itself in financial services and as home to the county newspaper. Further development occurred with the arrival of the railway in 1847. The population of the town grew steadily 355ha throughout the century from 4463 in 1800 to 6766 in 1901. Due to its wealth the town housed numerous fine buildings and churches many of which can still be seen today. Although stripped of its role of county town in 1974 when the council gave the title to the new town of Glenrothes, the town has continued to prosper and grow. This may 3805 have been aided by the retention of the railway and location close to the M90 motorway. 10.7 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 20-21 18/12/2009 13:32:20
  • 13. population 2364 2758 3604 5080 date of map 1876 1906 1959 2008 m a r k e t 23 dingwall 78.86% It is believed that Dingwall was first established around 1050 lying in a strategic position at the head of Cromarty forth. In 1814 the bridging of the rivers Conon and Buely and the construction of the parliamentary roads, lead to Dingwall becoming the centre of communications for the north. It became the administrative centre for much of northern Scotland. In 1820 the harbour arrived and it became a port. Agricultural change in the £ £207,111 10 000 1820 became a port 1862 railway arrived 1900’s high street part of the A9 2008 bustling market town 1800’s lead to commercial farming and brought new business to the town. The arrival of the railway in 1862 lead to further growth and the town established itself as an agricul- 326 ha tural market place. In 1890 the town set up permanent livestock markets however these have since been relocated to allow for a large superstore in the town centre. Originally in the 1900’s the high street was part of the A9. The creation of the Cromarty Firth bridge 2163 redirected this and relieved the town of the heavy traffic it experienced in the 19th cen- tury when it was the busiest route centre in Northwest Scotland. 6.64 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 22-23 18/12/2009 13:32:37
  • 14. population 4069 5241 5231 8990 date of map 1873 1906 1959 2008 m a r k e t 25 forres Forres is one of the oldest towns in Scotland, holding Royal Burgh status since 1140. With lim- 83.37 % ited growth from the 17th century, Forres entered a period of development beginning in 1810 and by the 1820’s the town experienced rapid expansion with new developments emerging on the outskirts of town. Nestled on the flood plane of river Findhorn, the great flood of 1829 transformed the town with many of the population seeking high ground and relocating to the £ £170,600 10 000 1820’s large expansion 1910 market town 1985bypass introduced 2008 town centre largly unchanged Cluny Hills. However despite this natural disaster Forres transformed in the 19th century with the help of the introduction of the railway. This strengthened the economy, allowing export 381 ha of agriculture by rail, which in turn brought improved road connections and infrastructure investment. Today the composition of the town remains relatively unchanged having retained the original layout of the medieval town plan. The market history of the town is still evident, the 3801 high street widening where the market was originally held. Many fine buildings also remain in- cluding the tolbooth and mercat cross. Through retaining it heritage and tradition Forres today is an attractive place to visit, famous for its floral displays. 9.97 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 24-25 18/12/2009 13:33:02
  • 15. population 5634 4525 4518 5380 date of map 1862 1899 1938 2008 m a r k e t 27 kelso Located where the rivers Tweed and Teviot meet, Kelso developed from a small 64.7% hamlet as a direct result of the Kelso Abbey which was established in 1128. Upon completion, the town flourished and attracted monks who were skilled craftsmen, this helped the population to expand. However there were large scale fires in 1645 £ £192,753 10 000 1128developed with creation of abbey 1803 first bridge constructed 1905 largest market square in scotland 2008 a charming town and 1742 which destroyed the central part of town. Controlled predominately by the abbey the wealth and power declined in the 16th century yet the construction of the Kelso Bridge in 1754 lead to Kelso becoming an important stop on the London 151 ha to Edinburgh coach route. During the 18th and 19th centuries stately homes were built outside the town centre due to the growth of a richer middle class. Today the town retains the original central layout with four cobbled streets merging into a 2363 central cobbled market square. Most of the current town centre features Georgian or Victorian architecture with the town hall from 1816 sitting on the site of the original tollbooth. 15.6 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 26-27 18/12/2009 13:33:20
  • 16. population 3555 3309 3316 3240 date of map 1854 1909 1951 2008 m a r k e t 29 kirkcudbright 80.33% Situated on the River Dee, Kirkcudbright achieved Royal Burgh status in 1455. This gave the town the right to trade with ports outside Scotland an emphasised the importance of the harbour. The original town was built around the high street. The River Dee protected its castle, habour and moat on all sides giving security which lead to the town prospering. The £ £273,720 10 000 1854 arrival of railway 1900 high street is wrapped 2 sides of core 1950 town retains character as artist town 2008 scenic scottish fishing town town gained considerable wealth in the early centuries and during the 1400’s a quarter of all Scotland’s cloth exports left from Kircudbright’s harbour. The town then faced a 152 ha time of decline in the 1600 and 1700’s however the arrival of the railway in 1864 allowed Kircudbright to make its mark as a centre for artists and maintain a steady population through the 19th and 20th century. The high street in kirkcudbright is unusual as it wraps 1620 around the two sides of the town core rather than forming a central thoroughfare, this can be clearly seen in the figure grounds above. Many old town houses still line the high street hinting to kirkcudbright’s history. 10.65 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 28-29 18/12/2009 13:33:34
  • 17. population 8243 8103 9250 8200 date of map 1864 1898 1958 2008 m a r k e t 31 lanark Becoming a Royal Burgh in 1140, Lanark has been an important market town since medieval times and was the location of the first Scottish parliament meeting in 978. 1785 70.25 % brought large change when the water power of the river Clyde was harnessed by the cotton mills built at New Lanark (located one mile from the existing town). Whilst Lanark served as a focus for the wider rural community New Lanark drove the local economy. In £ £200,741 10 000 1785 mercat cross demolished 1855 railway arrived 1950 town continued to flourish 2008 retains market town character 1845 the railway arrived and Lanark flourished as a market town holding regular livestock markets. The mills in New Lanark closed in 1968 & 74 which threatened its existence and 268 ha the economy of the surrounding areas. However, it began a process of regeneration and survived. Today the older buildings lining the high street reveal Lanark’s character as a market town. There has been a considerable amount of investment in Lanark over recent 3656 years, though the narrow streets and vennels have prevented major redevelopment of the shops. The site of the original mercat cross marks the foot of the high street and is still known as ‘the cross’. Today there is little industry although it still holds one of Scotland’s largest farming markets. 13.6 dwellings/ha AC1.indd 30-31 18/12/2009 13:33:55