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  KNIGHTS OVER EUROPE  
 
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
"Mankind went to die in air as had done for centuries on land and
sea, killing one another.
The conquest of the skies was completed at last"
                                                                                                                      Renè Chambre (Au temps des carabines) 
       
The first use of airplanes in war occurred in 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War  with the Italian Army Air Corps bombing a Turkish camp
at Ain Zara, Libya. 
Between 1914‐1918 aviation developed considerably under the pressure of the conflict. From that day at Kill Devil 
Hills (first flight of the flyer in 1903) when aircrafts were called "heavier than air", until the days when WWI was still a 
"rumor", aviation was a matter for a few reckless pilots, dreaming inventors; but this event brought a revolution in 
this rising field. 
From a few hundred aircrafts (up to that time for pioneers (achieving the crossing of the English Channel)) the number 
had increased and reached the thousands, and their use nearly attained daily usage. Restricted to war scope, WWI for 
the  first  time  contributed  to  define  the  roles  and  purposes  that  aircrafts  could  perform,  causing  also  the 
differentiation  in  projecting different airplanes  for different  purposes, with  a  reflection  even  in  later  history.   The 
flying aces who fought above the Western Front also contributed to shoring up the idea of "contemptuous of danger" 
that already hovered around pilots. 
	
The	first	impact	with	the	established	Art	of	War	
AT THE SERVICE OF THE ARMY ‐ The prewar pioneers, among whom figures Roland 
Garros, enlisted, following their patriotic fervor, as soon as they could, but the army of 
every  faction  was  hesitant  as  to  how  to  use  them.  Soldiers  in  every  army  were 
numbered  in  thousands  while  the  aircrafts  were  no  more  than  500,  fragile  and 
unarmed. 
Roland Garros - The first
pilot who overthrew an
enemy using guns that fire
through propeller blades.
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
DRIVERS OF THE SKIES ‐ Pilots of the army were essentially drivers who, in the rear seat, brought the higher officers as 
passengers and let them, by flying above the battlefield, to prevent troops' movements and then all information was 
then reported on the ground with the help of notes and sketches noted down during the flight, or pictures taken with 
cameras. 
SONS OF THE CAVALRY ‐ Although it was an extremely dangerous task, that of air 
patrolling wasn't a well regarded resource by the more conservative generals of 
the army, who didn't trust the information that came with patrols preferring that 
of  another  important  machine  of  patrolling,  the  cavalry.  It  was  still  a  quite 
widespread use that of horsemen in WWI, and it's fun to remember how the best 
patrol pilots came after service in cavalry squadrons.  After 1915, aircrafts almost 
completely replaced the cavalry exploration squadrons, whose role was utterly 
irrelevant on the Western Front, thank to aircrafts' efficiency in exploring greater 
areas in less time. 
The	first	task:	Patrol		
WATCH, NOT FIGHT ‐ At the beginning of WWI, the German general staff would have described the main purpose of a 
pilot with the sentence "an aviator must watch, not fight". By the way, it's interesting how such an important purpose 
was demanded of aircrafts neither so powerful nor safe such 
as the "TAUBE". 
WATCH OUT FOR THE HOLES ‐ During the war of the 
trenches, despite the high cost in human lives, the use of air 
patrolling gave great help. The use of artillery was simplified 
and made more efficient with the help of air patrols that by 
spotting the holes on the ground made by the bombs, let the 
officers make the 
appropriate correction to the 
shots. The system was 
furthermore improved with 
the introduction of the clock 
system.   
Aircrafts	embrace	arms		
We have references that the first use of an object in the air 
as carrier of a weapon of any kind dates from around the 
age of the ancient Chinese dynasties, who used a kite 
carrying a barrel of gunpowder.   
The pilots who were asked to patrol put on pressure and 
asked for more reliable planes, more efficient engines, but 
most of all for a device that would have make them able to 
defend themselves against enemy fighters. The answer to 
pilots and patrollers was the introduction on airplanes of 
machine‐guns. German designer A. Fokker invented a system 
that was able to synchronize the firing rate with the rotation 
of the propeller blades so that the bullets didn't hit them. The 
Outdated even at the very beginning of the war, 
the Austrian  "RUMPLER TAUBE" flew at the 
speed of 97 km/h, and the light material it was 
made of, rendered it a very vulnerable aircraft.
ARCHIE ‐ was the name 
given by  the British Royal 
Flying Corps to the 
German counter‐aircraft 
stations. 
MG 08 with syncro gear
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
superior power that offensive guns brought to aircrafts contributed to the definition of a new kind of plane that 
brought with it new tactics of warfare.  
The fighter was born and while at the very beginning of its introduction it served as a lone wolf chasing for enemy 
aircraft, during the battles of Verdun and the Somme, generals wanted them to fly and fight in formation, a warfare 
that reflects the tearing battle on ground, with its loss in terms of lives, too. 
A	war	not	only	on	the	battlefields	
In parallel with the battles on the front, the "war" increased between the different aircraft industries. Agreements 
made those that once have been small factories, such as Nieuport, Fiat, Renault, Fokker, into relevant industrial poles 
whose turnover was counted in millions (1916).  
The "Allies" of the "Triple Agreement" counted on a unprecedented amount of production of aircrafts (30 000 every 
year), while the "Mittelmächte" focused on the double target of maximizing the production and performance, 
unfortunately the unfair amount of Allied aircrafts caused the loss of the war by the German coalition.  
The best example of the combination between production and quality sought by the Germans was the ALBATROS D.V 
(built in 3000 units between 1917‐18). 
 
kies  above  the  Western  Front  were  a  sort  of  a  "Darwinian"  habitat  where 
airplanes,  in  order  to  survive,  were  forced  into  a  continous  evolution, 
sometimes  achieved  by  copying  each  other.  In  1917  the  British  SOPWITH 
TRIPLANE  impressed  German  aviators,  thanks  to  its  agility  while  flying,  so 
much  that  the  Fokker  Industry  copied  it  and  created  the  DrI  Triplane,  the 
ALBATROS D. V - Despite the wide-
body fuselage, essential but elegant
shape, this German fighter was
considered already outdated as soon as
it reached the battlefields in 1917, if
compared to other Allied aircrafts.
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
plane that  Manfred von Richthofen made a legend in the history of flight. 
USA	enters	WWI	
The idea that the entry of the USA into WWI 
would have brought a change of superiority 
to the advantage of the Allied forces, didn't 
take account of the extreme backwardness 
of USA in what concerns the aircraft 
industry. on the contrary, Americans 
developed an efficient production such as 
the assembly line. The idea was to introduce 
the way of production to aircraft 
manufacture. Unfortunately a project is 
always simpler than its realization, so USA 
sent only 1400 fighters, and the same 
inefficiency happened to the production of 
engines,too. The Liberty engine was, 
bacause of the difference of standards 
between Europe and the USA, in its first edition outdated, in the second version so pawerful, that at maximum power 
(400CV) solicitations would have caused the wreck of the airplane it was mounted on. 
Kaiserschlacht	
On 21 March 1918 Germany with the help of aircrafts as supporters for infantry succeeded in unlocking the nerve‐
racking  trench‐war, breaking enemy lines and forcing them to retreat towards Paris. 
Victory was near but the early success was soon stopped because of lack in fuel. While the Germans were forced to 
cut  airborne missions, Allied Forces had time ro rise their power again. Thousands of pilots came from USA and at the 
end of 1918 France fit out 700 fighter and bombers so, during the battle of Saint‐Mihiel American General William 
Mitchell counted on more than 1500 aircrafts recruited from all the Allied Forces.  
The	end	of	WWI	
Exausted and near the depletion of fuel, German aviators never stopped flying and, although overwelmed by the 
Allies, caused more deaths than those that they suffered. 
WWI  ended with the defeat of the "Mittelmächte" and the death of 9 000 000  people, among them 15 000 
aviators, whose life expectancy during the fight  was the same as that of infantry in the trenches.  
AVIATION CAME OF AGE DURING A WAR THAT HAS BEEN SHOWN AS A SLAUGHTER,  LED WITH TECHNOLOGIES MADE 
AVAILABLE BY INDUSTRY. ALTHOUGH PILOTS SOARED ABOVE TRENCHES AND MASSACRES, THEY TOO PLAYED THE 
ROLE OF VICTIMS AND HEADSMEN. FLIGHT HAD LOST ITS INNOCENCE.    
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
   
WWI	aces	
WWI was the first conflict that requested human resources in 
their ensemble, finalized for victory. The massacre that 
everyday happened in trenches generated a common sense of 
solidarity with those men, relatives even before being soldiers, 
who face death daily at the Front. Generals understood that although patriotism was extremely widespread it could 
be sooner or later no more sufficient. So airplane pilots started to form an efficient "tank" of heroes for common 
patriotism.       
The French  and the Germans created an official system in order to acknowledge 
victories achieved by pilots and a defined least number to get the title of "ace" (this 
number will increase during the war). British didn't recognize formally aces but still 
confer those pilots who succeeded in many missions as well to those who overthrew an 
high number of enemies  the highest military honor, the Victoria Cross. Aces were 
transformed by patriotic propaganda in true celebrities and national heroes.   
   
FOKKER DR. I - Probably the most well
known aircraft of the whole conflict, the Dr
I helped its pilot M. von Richthofen to
achieve 19 out of 80 of his victories in the
skies. The revolution of introducing the
third wing to the established prototype of
biplane resulted in an increase of lift and
control as well as agility.
Manfred von Richthofen - German ace of the
Luftstreitkrafte is considered the top ace of WWI with
80 officially recognized victories. His airplane painted
red in order to be visible to both allies and enemies
brought him the nickname "Der rote Kampfflieger".
National hero - when in
19171 the French ace
Georges Guynemer died, his
name was engraved on a slab
inside the Pantheon in Paris,
next to those of greatest
French philosophers, poets
and worthy people.
Flying Circus - Because
the colorful liveries
Manfred introduced on the
aircrafts of his squadron,
enemy often called the
German formation "The
von Richthofen's Flying
Circus".
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
 
Above	the	filthy	trenches	
Propaganda also plumped the missing of a war like the ancient ones, more noble and 
fair, utterly contrasting with the shabby trench war. Only aviators morally and 
materially seemed to soar away from the dirt of the Flanders trenches on the 
Western Front, the only soldiers in WWI depicted as holders of virtues of a man in 
battle. Pilots had an high awareness of themselves and during fights they sometimes 
showed up true chivalric manners (not shooting down an enemy whose machine gun 
was not working properly). However were more frequent the opposite manners 
such as when British E.M. Mannok easily shot down 6 airplanes of training cadets 
and their instructor only because they were easy targets. 
However war in trenches and aviation had more in common than what claimed. Also aircrafts and pilots were 
subjected to a constant strain caused in first place by the loss of companions and generally by the shell shock caused 
by the war. in 1917 a pilot life expectancy was only 2 or 3 weeks since he arrives at the Front.  
A	tough	selection	
Many fighter pilots came (like Richthofen) from cavalry now outdated, others had a past in sport, many were only 
once mechanics and the next day pilots. They were always very  young often commanders when only 19 years old.  
A great number of them even never reached the Front. Flight schools were not 
prepared to train such a great number of cadets, and as WWI airplanes were extremely 
difficult to pilot, many of them died at their first flight. It's estimated that the number 
of cadets dead during training was double if compared to that of pilots dead at the 
Front. 
Warfare	evolved	
As the war was evolving  Germany did  its best in order to deny conspicuous loss in terms of pilots and prepare them 
properly with an efficient training. Fighting principles were established and imparted by Boelcke in 1916, than, a 
squadron of trained and highly specialized fighter pilots (Flight Section 62) was created. Although was making its 
appearance the tactic of flying in formation, most of veteran fighters continued to prefer solo flights and missions. 
Only in France there were squadrons of elite formations such as the "Cigognes" (that fought in the battle of 
Verdun).French also introduced in their "group warfare" another squadron, squadron "Lafayette" composed of 7 
American pilots whose purpose was, by actions of insane bravery, to persuade USA to enter the conflict supporting 
the Allied Forces. 
Aces were not only national heroes, they were firstly men at the service of the army with specific tasks to be 
performed (patrolling, pursuing, bombing..). Aces or not however, during the most critical parts of the war, pilots were 
forced to an enormous stress. They were not immune to war shell shock, forced to see their companions die and 
crash. Another case was the absence of a parachute for pilots, not part of the equipment because generals belived 
pilots would have used it even when necessary due to their poor mental conditions during airborne fights, literally 
fleeing  from their enemies.  
   
Respect - when the German
ace Oswald Boelcke was
overthrew and died in 1916,
British, dropped a wreath of
flowers on his tomb with the
label "In memory of Cap.
Boelcke, brave and chivalric
opponent".
Penguins - was the name
given by the French to the
airplanes used to simulate on
ground airborne maneuvers
and tactics.
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
 
   
Fokker D. VII - In 1918 Germany desperately needed a
new single seated fighter in order to replace the outdated
Albatros and Dr I. Powerful (thanks to its new BMW
engine) and extremely sensitive to pilot maneuvering, but
still easy to fly, this airplane brought to Jasta the highest
victory percentages if related to pilots' death. They were
the first aircraft that counted on a parachute and oxygen
stock onboard. Most of 1500 D. VII sent to the Front in
1918 had this innovative livery, extremely efficient
because almost invisible at great distances.
Anthony Fokker - (1890-1939) Born in
Giava before being a contractor has been a
pilot himself. In 1912 opened a factory in
Schwerin and the war and his immense
sense of a affairs did his fortune. was
personally friend to most of German aces
and often asks their opinions before starting
a project with his designer in chief Reinhold
Platz. After WWI left for USA where
started the "Fokker Aircraft Corporation"
for both civilian and military purpose.
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
  
      
Max Immelmann (1890- 1916) - With O. Boelcke was member of
the Flight Section 62, was the first pilot of the Fokker Eindecker. he
invented a maneuver that would have lasted in history, the
Immelmann veer (after an attack from above with a dive the pilot
increases again the pitch and does an half loop, at the top e turns again
pointing the ground redescending again on the enemy ). Was the first
pilot honored with the medal " pour le mèrite" the highest German
military honor. As Immelmann was the first pilot who has received it,
British nicknamed it "blue Max". His death has been celebrated in
hundreds of ways among them figures a piano march named "Der
Adler von Lille" Immelmann nickname.
Oswald Boelcke (1891-1916) - more charismatic than Immelmann,
was instructor, commander and pilot. He personally selected and
trained the pilots grouping them into squadrons called Jasta or
Fagdstaffeln. While was member of Jasta 2 instructed pilots, among
who, there was von Richthofen. Instructed new warfare tactics and
advice for pilots and achieved 40 victories.
Fokker E. III Eindecker
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
  
 
 
Airborne patrolling - in
the photos a "Thornton-
Pickard Type A" camera
used by British officers.
Cameras were firstly hold
in hands by the observers
(usually sitting in the rear
cockpit) who also
controlled the rear machine
guns if present. Artifices
such as securing the
cameras to aircraft fuselage
or the mechanical change
of photographic plates
radically helped watchers
in their job.
Aerial photography - in
order to obtain a complete
photo the pilot must
maintain a leveled and
slow flight, moreover it
requires more than one
passage on the same area
to print the image on the
plate. (below the photo of
an artillery station bombed
as seen from a patrolling
aircraft)
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
 
Bombs from above - as
soon as the pilots and
generals discovered the
potential offensive power
of an armed aircraft, planes
started to be a vital
supporter to infantry and
artillery, as well as an arm
of the deadliest for
enemies. Bombs (in photo
a Marten Hale (2kg)) were
stored in the cockpit and
dropped by hand when
and where necessary by the
pilot. Bunches of small
steel darts were instead
thrown against infantry and
cavalry platoons.
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
   
The eternal battle of
innovation - During the
whole last of WWI
engineers and generals
faced who the willingness
of bring aircraft specs
towards a continue
evolution, who instead
looked forward a radical
conservatism. At the very
beginning of the war
engineers and builders of
airplanes were, as been for
the prewar-pioneers-age,
people and workers of
bikes and manufacturing
industries and companies.
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
 
 
Penally - Small town of
the UK coast, Penally is
the site where is still
visible a hub once used as
train-field for soldiers in
trenches.
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
 
                                                                                              Valerio Saccone (Liceo Augusto) Comenius Project (1‐5 Dec. 2014) 
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AIRCRAFTS	GO	INTO	WAR	
 
Flying suit - Officers and pilots had
different garments, to be used while flying
or as a uniform. Flying suits were padded
with animal fur, the equipment offered an
overcoat, gloves, two caps, boots, trousers,
specs. Oxygen masks and parachutes were
introduced only at the end of war for
German pilots.

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