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• Cognizant 20-20 Insights




Agile/Scrum Implemented in
Large-Scale Distributed Program
   Executive Summary                                    teams decided to go with four-week sprints as we
                                                        still had some open requirement clarifications
   It was early July 2010 when problems were
                                                        which would need to be solved in the Sprint or
   detected while running a large program at one of
                                                        moved out to the support team. The goal was to
   our clients in the insurance industry. The program
                                                        resolve all clarifications within the Sprint teams,
   appeared to be going in circles and was conspicu-
                                                        as speed was required.
   ously stuck in requirements and analyses. It was
   not until late July when it was decided to move
   the program to an Agile/Scrum approach; the          Original Sprint Teams
   plan was to get the program back on track for
   a delivery in May 2012. As expected, numerous                   On-site                Offshore
   questions were raised. Among them: How long                                   Sprint Lead Lead/
                                                         Proxy Sprint Lead
   should the Sprints be? How do we put a backlog                                Scrum Master
   together quickly? How do we get the teams to be       Business Analyst        Business Analyst
   productive as soon as possible? Do we include
   testing within the Sprint teams? How do we finish     Lead Tester             Tester
   the analyses of the outstanding requirements?         UI Architect            Service Architect
   Etc., etc., etc.
                                                         Not Applicable          Five Developers
   Time was of the essence. Therefore, the immediate    Figure 1
   focus was placed on productivity rather than
   trying to answer all questions up front — which
                                                        During the first retrospective, it became apparent
   would have not been feasible in the first place.
                                                        that having the on-site support resources tied
   Nevertheless, the leadership team in the next two
                                                        directly to the Sprint team was not working.
   weeks tried to answer as many of the outstand-
                                                        These resources were moving across both teams,
   ing questions as possible before the first Sprint
                                                        the idea being to help remove blockers and issues
   kicked off. This white paper describes how we met
                                                        that the teams were running into. But since
   the challenge.
                                                        this was not working these support resources,
   The Two-Week Planning                                including the offshore support resources, were
                                                        moved into a new team called the support team.
   Upon further discussion, we decided to have two
                                                        This team spent 50% of its time working for the
   distributed teams between offshore and on-site.
                                                        current Sprint and 50% working on the outstand-
   The Sprints would be four weeks in duration. The




   cognizant 20-20 insights | december 2011
ing analyses items present at the beginning. This      delivery lead were taken from on-site to offshore
proved to be a successful move.                        for four weeks. There were three parts to the first
                                                       Sprint; the two Sprint teams minus the architects
Support Team                                           worked on a very small feature set. This allowed the
                                                       delivery lead (Agile/Scrum coach) and architects
           On-site                 Offshore            to train the Sprint teams. Furthermore, it allowed
                                                       both the architects and business analysts to work
    Sprint Lead/
                              Not Applicable           the product backlog confirming the user stories
    Scrum Master
                                                       were the right size to be completed in one Sprint
    Business Analyst          Business Analyst         and that all issues were logged for the support
                                                       resources to work.
    UI Architect              Service Architect

    Service Architect         UI Architect             After the second Sprint, a support team was
                                                       created and decided that it would need its own
Figure 2                                               product backlog. Two reasons lead to that
                                                       decision:
Efforts were made to cut down on the idle time to
gain efficiency. To achieve this, business analysts
                                                       •   The team’s workload would be managed more
                                                           efficiently and effectively.
and architects offshore were put in place to
speed up the program and were placed close to          •   The Sprint team’s velocity would not be
the Sprint teams performing the work. The goal             impacted should the support team’s tasks be
was to resolve 75% to 90% of all team-raised               created under the feature in the Sprint team’s
issues before the issues came to be on-site. This          backlog.
approach produced better results and velocity
                                                       Sprints
with the Sprint teams.
                                                       During the planning phase, it was decided to go
Testing                                                with four-week Sprints, which allowed time to
Upon looking at the testing, the following issues      complete design, unit testing, user story test case
were carefully reviewed:                               design and test case execution. What was found
                                                       in every retrospective for the first six Sprints
•   What would be required to complete the             was that the Sprints seemed to operate as mini
    application and roll the application out to        waterfalls.
    production?
                                                       Testing would require everything to be perfect
•   Could we develop user stories in sequence?
                                                       in the environment before executing the test
    >   If we could complete the user stories is se-   cases. It took a little bit of work and training to
        quence, we could execute integration test-     get testing away from this approach. However,
        ing during or in the next Sprint.              another issue arose. Once completed, develop-
                                                       ment was not always releasing the feature/user
Based on the answers to these issues, we decided
                                                       story; they had begun to wait until everything was
that both the unit testing and feature testing
                                                       ready. Communication became critical to make
would be part of the Sprints. System integra-
                                                       things work more efficiently in the Sprint. This
tion and user accepted testing would occur when
                                                       successfully ensured that developers were telling
the program is completed and will follow the
                                                       testing when a feature/user story was ready, thus
client’s current process for applications to go into
                                                       guaranteeing the right focus on test case design.
production.
                                                       Scoping
Product Backlog
                                                       Two days were allocated at the beginning of each
The creation of the product backlog became an
                                                       Sprint for the teams to decide what was in scope
easy answer, or so we thought, as the program
                                                       and the reviewing of the earlier estimates. In
was already in progress and all the work items
                                                       these two days, the teams reviewed the feature,
were broken out into features. We decided to make
                                                       ensuring there were no issues/blockers that
these features the work items or user stories for
                                                       would hold up the Sprint. Should any issues/
the Sprint teams.
                                                       blockers be found, the feature would be marked
The first Sprint kicked off in early August. At that   as blocked and a new feature would be placed on
moment the architects, program sponsor and the         the support team’s backlog to be worked. Next,
                                                       the team would break out the feature into tasks


                        cognizant 20-20 insights       2
that needed to be completed during the Sprint            No demo was done until we had completed four
and estimate these tasks accordingly. The feature        Sprints. This allowed us to get enough substance
then would be allocated to the team and the tasks        to the product before showing it to the executive
would be added to rally for tracking.                    team.

Scrum of Scrum                                           The program had such visibility at the executive
During Sprints one and two, the team’s stand-up          level that requests for demos were pouring in
meeting would include the program’s leadership           almost daily. A line had to be drawn on these
on the phone posing three questions to the team          requests, as they were having a dramatic impact
members:                                                 on the QA environment — especially given that
                                                         the integration and production environments
•   What did you work on yesterday?                      were not ready yet.
•   What will you work on today?
                                                         Next Steps
•   Do you have any issues/blockers keeping you
    from completing your work?                           Planning for day 2 began in late April 2011,
                                                         addressing some of the big issues that arose
Although it was great to hear all the members            during day 1. This was the main objective of this
give their status, this process proved to be very        phase. We decided to address three items at
ineffective. Furthermore, it was costing the team        this time: scoping was taking too long for each
valuable time as the stand-up would go for more          Sprint; demos should be done by the developer
than 30 minutes every day. This approach was             who coded the feature/user story instead of the
soon changed, after the second Sprint, allowing          lead BA; and the retrospective was taking too
the team to hold their stand-up each day without         much time and making it hard for us to hear from
leadership present. After the meeting, the Sprint        everyone.
lead/Scrum master would send out a status
report outline and current status of the Sprint.         Backlog Grooming
Each day the leadership would have a Scrum of            The implementation of the backlog grooming was
Scrum1 meeting where the Sprint leads/Scrum              set to fix the scoping issue. The first step was to
masters would review the current status and raise        get a product owner — or at least a proxy product
any blockers their teams were having. At the end         owner — who could efficiently set business
of this meeting, the on-site delivery lead would         priorities. Although we were not successful
publish a combined status for the Sprint and             getting a product owner, we did get a proxy
action plans for the blockers that were raised in        product owner named.
the Scrum of Scrum meeting.
                                                         To kick this off, we started having a grooming
Retrospective                                            session prior to the completion of day 1 and
At the beginning, we decided that all members            the start of day 2. In these sessions both the
from all teams would participate in one retrospec-       support team and the product owner were
tive. At first, with only two teams, this worked fine.   directly reviewing and ensuring the backlog logs
However, it was a challenge to complete this in an       user stories were the right length and the Sprint
hour. And hearing from everyone was increasing-          teams could accordingly code from them. When
ly difficult as two more Sprint teams were added         any issue was identified, it was immediately sent
and the velocity was picking up. In the mean time,       to the business analysts to be fixed prior to the
other issues were arising in the retrospective of        beginning of day 2. Moreover, we had the proxy
higher importance (or at least they seemed to be         product owner establish the initial business
of higher importance). Thus, the issue of hearing        priority for the user stories and review it with
everyone did not get addressed until we moved            the business analysts, thus making sure we knew
into day 2 of the program. To make things more           what their priority was once day 2 began.
efficient and effective, the “retrospective of ret-
                                                         Furthermore, we decided that during the first
rospective” was created; this is elaborated on in
                                                         couple of Sprints of day 2, twice-weekly meetings
the next steps section.
                                                         were going to be held with a limit of one hour per
Demo                                                     meeting.
Many eyes were on this program from the                  Demos
get-go. Consequently, we decided to have the
                                                         Day 2 was much smaller than day 1: Five Sprints
lead business analyst perform the demos to the
                                                         running four weeks in length compared with 15
leadership team instead of the teams themselves.


                        cognizant 20-20 insights         3
Sprints for day 1. Therefore, the team demos for       following Agile principles with Scrum. The teams
the proxy product owner were implemented and           will be organized in three areas: concept team,
no demos for the leadership team were allowed          delivery team and the system integration test
until the fourth Sprint was completed. Now that        team. The concept team is responsible for the
we had implemented day 1 to production, the            story production/generation, the delivery team
executive team and the leadership team were            will consume the stories and the system integra-
willing to step back some and wait for their           tion test team will validate the stories.
demos.
                                                       When one compares the approach we implement-
Retrospective of Retrospective                         ed at this client to the Daikibo framework, three
A lot of wasted time was experienced in the ret-       differences are clear. First, there is no integration
rospective meeting during day 1, as all team           Sprint following the first development Sprint. The
members involved were trying to give their input.      reason for this, as noted above, is that features/
This in turn made it impossible for everyone to be     user stories were not developed in sequence.
heard in the allotted time given for the meeting.      Second, given how the process was handled
To correct the problem, we decided to have the         during the requirements and analyses phase prior
Sprint leads/Scrum master run their team retro-        to the move to Agile/Scrum, we had no need for
spective. Notes were made on things that worked        a formal Sprint 0. Third, we had a support team
well and did not work.                                 instead of a concept team. This team was distrib-
                                                       uted between on-site and offshore in an attempt
Demos were held at 7:30 a.m. on the last day of        to clear issues/blockers as quickly as possible.
the Sprint on-site and the retrospective of retro-     Daikibo is merely a framework, and therefore will
spective at 8:30 a.m. The retrospective meeting        not work for every program as outlined.
was changed to a similar format as the Scrum of
Scrum. In this new format, the Sprint leads would      Conclusion
represent their teams and only the leadership would    The program was delivered one sprint (or four
be there. This new, effective format was called        weeks) later than originally planned. The second
the Retrospective of Retrospective. It allowed us      phase of the program has been now running for
to focus on what truly worked and what did not.        12 weeks and it is currently ahead of schedule and
Furthermore, we came out from the meeting with         expected to deliver early. This approach opened
an action plan for the top five items.                 up communication at all levels; program sponsors
                                                       knew weekly if we were on schedule or not. The
Diakibo Validated                                      teams were able to raise issues/blockers and
Daikibo is our large-scale Agile/Scrum framework.      know that they would be either removed quickly
Daikibo states that we should separate cross-          or the feature would be moved to another Sprint.
functional teams and bifurcated responsibili-          If the program and organization can be agile with
ties (a producer/consumer model) operating             a little “a” then I would say the program will be
in an incremental/iterative pipeline approach,         successful.




Footnote
1
    http://learnsoftwareprocesses.com/2010/03/02/scrum-of-scrums-a-brief-definition-and-some-details/



About the Author
Dwayne Gifford is an Associate Director in Cognizant’s Advanced Solutions Group and has 20-plus
years of software development experience. He is an experienced Agile practitioner who has led some of
Cognizant’s largest distributed deliveries using Agile. He is working on his masters in computer science at
Troy University. He can be reached at Dwayne.Gifford@cognizant.com.




                       cognizant 20-20 insights         4
About Cognizant
Cognizant (NASDAQ: CTSH) is a leading provider of information technology, consulting, and business process out-
sourcing services, dedicated to helping the world’s leading companies build stronger businesses. Headquartered in
Teaneck, New Jersey (U.S.), Cognizant combines a passion for client satisfaction, technology innovation, deep industry
and business process expertise, and a global, collaborative workforce that embodies the future of work. With over 50
delivery centers worldwide and approximately 130,000 employees as of September 30, 2011, Cognizant is a member of
the NASDAQ-100, the S&P 500, the Forbes Global 2000, and the Fortune 500 and is ranked among the top performing
and fastest growing companies in the world. Visit us online at www.cognizant.com or follow us on Twitter: Cognizant.




                                         World Headquarters                  European Headquarters                 India Operations Headquarters
                                         500 Frank W. Burr Blvd.             1 Kingdom Street                      #5/535, Old Mahabalipuram Road
                                         Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA               Paddington Central                    Okkiyam Pettai, Thoraipakkam
                                         Phone: +1 201 801 0233              London W2 6BD                         Chennai, 600 096 India
                                         Fax: +1 201 801 0243                Phone: +44 (0) 20 7297 7600           Phone: +91 (0) 44 4209 6000
                                         Toll Free: +1 888 937 3277          Fax: +44 (0) 20 7121 0102             Fax: +91 (0) 44 4209 6060
                                         Email: inquiry@cognizant.com        Email: infouk@cognizant.com           Email: inquiryindia@cognizant.com


© Copyright 2011, Cognizant. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission from Cognizant. The information contained herein is
subject to change without notice. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.

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Agile/Scrum Implemented in Large-Scale Distributed Program

  • 1. • Cognizant 20-20 Insights Agile/Scrum Implemented in Large-Scale Distributed Program Executive Summary teams decided to go with four-week sprints as we still had some open requirement clarifications It was early July 2010 when problems were which would need to be solved in the Sprint or detected while running a large program at one of moved out to the support team. The goal was to our clients in the insurance industry. The program resolve all clarifications within the Sprint teams, appeared to be going in circles and was conspicu- as speed was required. ously stuck in requirements and analyses. It was not until late July when it was decided to move the program to an Agile/Scrum approach; the Original Sprint Teams plan was to get the program back on track for a delivery in May 2012. As expected, numerous On-site Offshore questions were raised. Among them: How long Sprint Lead Lead/ Proxy Sprint Lead should the Sprints be? How do we put a backlog Scrum Master together quickly? How do we get the teams to be Business Analyst Business Analyst productive as soon as possible? Do we include testing within the Sprint teams? How do we finish Lead Tester Tester the analyses of the outstanding requirements? UI Architect Service Architect Etc., etc., etc. Not Applicable Five Developers Time was of the essence. Therefore, the immediate Figure 1 focus was placed on productivity rather than trying to answer all questions up front — which During the first retrospective, it became apparent would have not been feasible in the first place. that having the on-site support resources tied Nevertheless, the leadership team in the next two directly to the Sprint team was not working. weeks tried to answer as many of the outstand- These resources were moving across both teams, ing questions as possible before the first Sprint the idea being to help remove blockers and issues kicked off. This white paper describes how we met that the teams were running into. But since the challenge. this was not working these support resources, The Two-Week Planning including the offshore support resources, were moved into a new team called the support team. Upon further discussion, we decided to have two This team spent 50% of its time working for the distributed teams between offshore and on-site. current Sprint and 50% working on the outstand- The Sprints would be four weeks in duration. The cognizant 20-20 insights | december 2011
  • 2. ing analyses items present at the beginning. This delivery lead were taken from on-site to offshore proved to be a successful move. for four weeks. There were three parts to the first Sprint; the two Sprint teams minus the architects Support Team worked on a very small feature set. This allowed the delivery lead (Agile/Scrum coach) and architects On-site Offshore to train the Sprint teams. Furthermore, it allowed both the architects and business analysts to work Sprint Lead/ Not Applicable the product backlog confirming the user stories Scrum Master were the right size to be completed in one Sprint Business Analyst Business Analyst and that all issues were logged for the support resources to work. UI Architect Service Architect Service Architect UI Architect After the second Sprint, a support team was created and decided that it would need its own Figure 2 product backlog. Two reasons lead to that decision: Efforts were made to cut down on the idle time to gain efficiency. To achieve this, business analysts • The team’s workload would be managed more efficiently and effectively. and architects offshore were put in place to speed up the program and were placed close to • The Sprint team’s velocity would not be the Sprint teams performing the work. The goal impacted should the support team’s tasks be was to resolve 75% to 90% of all team-raised created under the feature in the Sprint team’s issues before the issues came to be on-site. This backlog. approach produced better results and velocity Sprints with the Sprint teams. During the planning phase, it was decided to go Testing with four-week Sprints, which allowed time to Upon looking at the testing, the following issues complete design, unit testing, user story test case were carefully reviewed: design and test case execution. What was found in every retrospective for the first six Sprints • What would be required to complete the was that the Sprints seemed to operate as mini application and roll the application out to waterfalls. production? Testing would require everything to be perfect • Could we develop user stories in sequence? in the environment before executing the test > If we could complete the user stories is se- cases. It took a little bit of work and training to quence, we could execute integration test- get testing away from this approach. However, ing during or in the next Sprint. another issue arose. Once completed, develop- ment was not always releasing the feature/user Based on the answers to these issues, we decided story; they had begun to wait until everything was that both the unit testing and feature testing ready. Communication became critical to make would be part of the Sprints. System integra- things work more efficiently in the Sprint. This tion and user accepted testing would occur when successfully ensured that developers were telling the program is completed and will follow the testing when a feature/user story was ready, thus client’s current process for applications to go into guaranteeing the right focus on test case design. production. Scoping Product Backlog Two days were allocated at the beginning of each The creation of the product backlog became an Sprint for the teams to decide what was in scope easy answer, or so we thought, as the program and the reviewing of the earlier estimates. In was already in progress and all the work items these two days, the teams reviewed the feature, were broken out into features. We decided to make ensuring there were no issues/blockers that these features the work items or user stories for would hold up the Sprint. Should any issues/ the Sprint teams. blockers be found, the feature would be marked The first Sprint kicked off in early August. At that as blocked and a new feature would be placed on moment the architects, program sponsor and the the support team’s backlog to be worked. Next, the team would break out the feature into tasks cognizant 20-20 insights 2
  • 3. that needed to be completed during the Sprint No demo was done until we had completed four and estimate these tasks accordingly. The feature Sprints. This allowed us to get enough substance then would be allocated to the team and the tasks to the product before showing it to the executive would be added to rally for tracking. team. Scrum of Scrum The program had such visibility at the executive During Sprints one and two, the team’s stand-up level that requests for demos were pouring in meeting would include the program’s leadership almost daily. A line had to be drawn on these on the phone posing three questions to the team requests, as they were having a dramatic impact members: on the QA environment — especially given that the integration and production environments • What did you work on yesterday? were not ready yet. • What will you work on today? Next Steps • Do you have any issues/blockers keeping you from completing your work? Planning for day 2 began in late April 2011, addressing some of the big issues that arose Although it was great to hear all the members during day 1. This was the main objective of this give their status, this process proved to be very phase. We decided to address three items at ineffective. Furthermore, it was costing the team this time: scoping was taking too long for each valuable time as the stand-up would go for more Sprint; demos should be done by the developer than 30 minutes every day. This approach was who coded the feature/user story instead of the soon changed, after the second Sprint, allowing lead BA; and the retrospective was taking too the team to hold their stand-up each day without much time and making it hard for us to hear from leadership present. After the meeting, the Sprint everyone. lead/Scrum master would send out a status report outline and current status of the Sprint. Backlog Grooming Each day the leadership would have a Scrum of The implementation of the backlog grooming was Scrum1 meeting where the Sprint leads/Scrum set to fix the scoping issue. The first step was to masters would review the current status and raise get a product owner — or at least a proxy product any blockers their teams were having. At the end owner — who could efficiently set business of this meeting, the on-site delivery lead would priorities. Although we were not successful publish a combined status for the Sprint and getting a product owner, we did get a proxy action plans for the blockers that were raised in product owner named. the Scrum of Scrum meeting. To kick this off, we started having a grooming Retrospective session prior to the completion of day 1 and At the beginning, we decided that all members the start of day 2. In these sessions both the from all teams would participate in one retrospec- support team and the product owner were tive. At first, with only two teams, this worked fine. directly reviewing and ensuring the backlog logs However, it was a challenge to complete this in an user stories were the right length and the Sprint hour. And hearing from everyone was increasing- teams could accordingly code from them. When ly difficult as two more Sprint teams were added any issue was identified, it was immediately sent and the velocity was picking up. In the mean time, to the business analysts to be fixed prior to the other issues were arising in the retrospective of beginning of day 2. Moreover, we had the proxy higher importance (or at least they seemed to be product owner establish the initial business of higher importance). Thus, the issue of hearing priority for the user stories and review it with everyone did not get addressed until we moved the business analysts, thus making sure we knew into day 2 of the program. To make things more what their priority was once day 2 began. efficient and effective, the “retrospective of ret- Furthermore, we decided that during the first rospective” was created; this is elaborated on in couple of Sprints of day 2, twice-weekly meetings the next steps section. were going to be held with a limit of one hour per Demo meeting. Many eyes were on this program from the Demos get-go. Consequently, we decided to have the Day 2 was much smaller than day 1: Five Sprints lead business analyst perform the demos to the running four weeks in length compared with 15 leadership team instead of the teams themselves. cognizant 20-20 insights 3
  • 4. Sprints for day 1. Therefore, the team demos for following Agile principles with Scrum. The teams the proxy product owner were implemented and will be organized in three areas: concept team, no demos for the leadership team were allowed delivery team and the system integration test until the fourth Sprint was completed. Now that team. The concept team is responsible for the we had implemented day 1 to production, the story production/generation, the delivery team executive team and the leadership team were will consume the stories and the system integra- willing to step back some and wait for their tion test team will validate the stories. demos. When one compares the approach we implement- Retrospective of Retrospective ed at this client to the Daikibo framework, three A lot of wasted time was experienced in the ret- differences are clear. First, there is no integration rospective meeting during day 1, as all team Sprint following the first development Sprint. The members involved were trying to give their input. reason for this, as noted above, is that features/ This in turn made it impossible for everyone to be user stories were not developed in sequence. heard in the allotted time given for the meeting. Second, given how the process was handled To correct the problem, we decided to have the during the requirements and analyses phase prior Sprint leads/Scrum master run their team retro- to the move to Agile/Scrum, we had no need for spective. Notes were made on things that worked a formal Sprint 0. Third, we had a support team well and did not work. instead of a concept team. This team was distrib- uted between on-site and offshore in an attempt Demos were held at 7:30 a.m. on the last day of to clear issues/blockers as quickly as possible. the Sprint on-site and the retrospective of retro- Daikibo is merely a framework, and therefore will spective at 8:30 a.m. The retrospective meeting not work for every program as outlined. was changed to a similar format as the Scrum of Scrum. In this new format, the Sprint leads would Conclusion represent their teams and only the leadership would The program was delivered one sprint (or four be there. This new, effective format was called weeks) later than originally planned. The second the Retrospective of Retrospective. It allowed us phase of the program has been now running for to focus on what truly worked and what did not. 12 weeks and it is currently ahead of schedule and Furthermore, we came out from the meeting with expected to deliver early. This approach opened an action plan for the top five items. up communication at all levels; program sponsors knew weekly if we were on schedule or not. The Diakibo Validated teams were able to raise issues/blockers and Daikibo is our large-scale Agile/Scrum framework. know that they would be either removed quickly Daikibo states that we should separate cross- or the feature would be moved to another Sprint. functional teams and bifurcated responsibili- If the program and organization can be agile with ties (a producer/consumer model) operating a little “a” then I would say the program will be in an incremental/iterative pipeline approach, successful. Footnote 1 http://learnsoftwareprocesses.com/2010/03/02/scrum-of-scrums-a-brief-definition-and-some-details/ About the Author Dwayne Gifford is an Associate Director in Cognizant’s Advanced Solutions Group and has 20-plus years of software development experience. He is an experienced Agile practitioner who has led some of Cognizant’s largest distributed deliveries using Agile. He is working on his masters in computer science at Troy University. He can be reached at Dwayne.Gifford@cognizant.com. cognizant 20-20 insights 4
  • 5. About Cognizant Cognizant (NASDAQ: CTSH) is a leading provider of information technology, consulting, and business process out- sourcing services, dedicated to helping the world’s leading companies build stronger businesses. Headquartered in Teaneck, New Jersey (U.S.), Cognizant combines a passion for client satisfaction, technology innovation, deep industry and business process expertise, and a global, collaborative workforce that embodies the future of work. With over 50 delivery centers worldwide and approximately 130,000 employees as of September 30, 2011, Cognizant is a member of the NASDAQ-100, the S&P 500, the Forbes Global 2000, and the Fortune 500 and is ranked among the top performing and fastest growing companies in the world. Visit us online at www.cognizant.com or follow us on Twitter: Cognizant. World Headquarters European Headquarters India Operations Headquarters 500 Frank W. Burr Blvd. 1 Kingdom Street #5/535, Old Mahabalipuram Road Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA Paddington Central Okkiyam Pettai, Thoraipakkam Phone: +1 201 801 0233 London W2 6BD Chennai, 600 096 India Fax: +1 201 801 0243 Phone: +44 (0) 20 7297 7600 Phone: +91 (0) 44 4209 6000 Toll Free: +1 888 937 3277 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7121 0102 Fax: +91 (0) 44 4209 6060 Email: inquiry@cognizant.com Email: infouk@cognizant.com Email: inquiryindia@cognizant.com © Copyright 2011, Cognizant. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission from Cognizant. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.