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Scrum
in five minutes
Scrum and agile methodS
are hot topicS theSe dayS



                             “older methods focus on staying on
  “a simple method
                              track; Scrum is aimed at delivering
for the management of
                                business value all the time …”
 complex projects ...”




           “the market is changing more
           rapidly, external factors are becoming
           increasingly more complex – and Scrum
           makes it possible to adapt…”

                             “it has been documented to
“… a hyper-
                           dramatically improve productivity
productivity
                           in teams previously paralyzed by
tool!”
                               heavier methodologies …”



   “embrace change,
    release creativity,
                                    “Scrum is steered
 increase productivity ”
                                    toward the people in
                                    the project, not the
                                    technology…”
“a smart combination of tried-and-tested methods
– that’s Scrum in a nutshell!”
aSk yourSelf the
following queStionS



1   do you want to handle changing requirements more
    efficiently, boost your designers’ motivation and im-
    prove communication between customer and project?




2   are you ready to introduce a new leadership culture
    that means altered roles and a new way of working as
    well as transferring some of the responsibility from the
    managers to the project team?




3   are you willing to follow in the footsteps of compa-
    nies like iBm, microsoft and Xerox, and successfully
    address the failings of your software development
    process?



if you anSwer “yeS” you
Should definitely keep
reading!
Scrum
– an introduction
Scrum is based on what is called a Sprint – a focused effort for
a 30-day period toward fixed goals.




                                             24
                                                  ho
                                                       urs



                                    2–
Pro
                                         4w
Ba duc
  ckl t
                                           ee
     og
           Sp
                                                  ks
          Ba rint
            ckl
                og




                            S
                                P
                                    R
                                         IN
                                                 T
a Product Owner compiles all the changes planned for the
product and prioritizes the possible functionalities.

the result of the product owner’s work is a Product
Backlog – a to-do list that is constantly reprioritized. Before
each Sprint, the highest prioritized goals are transferred to a
Sprint Backlog.

together with a user, the project members form a Scrum
Team consisting of 5–9 people. during discussions with the
product owner, the goal of the Sprint is determined and the
prioritized functionality is broken down into detailed tasks.
the team is self-organized and the members have a joint
responsibility for the results.

The Scrum Master coaches the development team, removes
any possible impediments and constantly works to ensure that
the team has the best possible circumstances for realizing the
goals fixed for the Sprint.

each Sprint enhances the product’s market value and adds
new functions and improvements that can be delivered to the
customer.




     De
        live
            rab
               le
roleS
The ScruM TeaM
… performs the actual work of problem solvers and designers.
the team normally consists of 5-9 people – a group size that
experience and research has shown to be best for this type of
work.
   the team members decide how the work is arranged and
how assignments are distributed.there are no set project roles
– everyone should be able to swap tasks with another member.
naturally, this does not prevent individual members from being
experts in a field.
PrOducT Owner
…represents the voice of the customer and
ensures that the Scrum team works with the
right things from a business perspective.the
product owner administers a product Back-
log – a current to-do list where all the speci-
fications for a product are listed according to
how profitable they are deemed to be.the
document is visible to the entire organization
so that everyone is aware of what to expect in
future releases of the product.
   the product owner is often a customer,
but can also be part of the internal organiza-
tion.the task requires comprehensive knowl-
edge about engineering, marketing and busi-
ness processes.

ScruM MaSTer
…is a combination of coach, fixer and gate-
keeper.the Scrum master meets with the
team every day in brief meetings, daily Scrums.
when someone outside the project has an
important issue to discuss with the team, the
Scrum master tries to ensure that the design-
ers are disturbed as little as possible in their
work.
   the Scrum master always adopts a here-
and-now perspective to the work.the focus
is always on providing the team with the best
possible circumstances for realizing the goals
fixed for the Sprint.
   after each Sprint, the Scrum master holds
an evaluation meeting with the Scrum team
– a Sprint retrospective – during which ex-
periences and conclusions are reviewed.the
purpose is to elevate the team’s level of knowl-
edge and heighten motivation prior to the
next Sprint.
proceSS
creaTing a BacklOg
the product owner compiles all the requests and specifications
that are the basis of the changes of the product, such as new
functions and bug fixes. after the goals have been defined, the en-
tirety is broken down into segments. each such segment should
in part create business value and in part be sub-deliverable.
    a prioritized list is made at the same time – the product
owner personally makes the decisions at this point. in what or-
der should the changes be made and delivered? the result is a to-
do list arranged according to how the market’s demands and cus-
tomer’s requests change over time.when it is time to start a new
Sprint, the product owner “freezes” the foremost items on the
to-do list and summons the Scrum team to a meeting.

The SPrinT PhaSe
of the Sprint’s 30 calendar days, the first are set aside to create
a Sprint Backlog.when the tasks and required time has been de-
termined, the product owner lets go.
    as of now the Scrum team works under its own responsibil-
ity. if the group has been properly composed, the work will be
self organizing.

daily ScruM
every day, at the same time, the Scrum master and the Scrum
team have a brief meeting.the purpose is to eliminate all speed
impediments for the group. each of the participants should in
some way answer three questions:
   • what have you done since the last meeting?
   • what will you do between now and the next meeting?
   • is there anything preventing you from doing what you have
     planned?
   the first two questions give the meeting participants full in-
sight into how the project is progressing.the third question
provides a basis for problem solving – ranging from a new com-
puter mouse to organizational changes at the company.
anyone may attend and listen at the meeting, but only the
Scrum master and the team members may speak.

deMOnSTraTiOn and evaluaTiOn
each Sprint finishes with a demonstration during which func-
tioning software is run before a larger group consisting of, be-
sides the product owner, users and representatives for corpo-
rate management, for example.this is the basis for an evaluation
meeting that in turn is the starting block for the next Sprint.
                                      B u rn d o w n    C h art - C 5



            700

                                                                               Budget
            600
                                                                               E s t. E ffo r t
            500
Man Hours




            400

            300

            200


            100

              0

                  1   3   5   7   9   11   13   15   17    19   21   23   25     27     29    31

                                            S p r in t D a y




A burn-down chart is used to mark day-by-day how much remains
of the scheduled work.The diagram clearly illustrates the rate the re-
maining hours of a Sprint are “burned down”.
agile development
methodS
Scrum is classed as what is called agile development
– a set of work methods and tool boxes aimed at
  • improving the ability to respond quickly to needs
     and requests from the market
  • cutting down waste and waiting periods
  • reducing employee stress while simultaneously in-
     creasing productivity.

those who adhere to the agile methods in their work are
highly enthusiastic. it is no exaggeration to say that the entire
global it industry is experiencing an agile wave. the philosophy
is summarized in the following table:


important                                 More important
• processes and tools                     • individuals and interaction
• detailed documentation                  • functioning software
• contract negotiations                   • collaboration with the
• following a plan                          customer
                                          • adapting to changes
            (Source: Manifesto for Agile Software Development http://agilemanifesto.org/)



the agile methods are a reaction to the processes that look
good in theory but that do not hold up in practice. the agile
methods are therefore described as empirical – they are based
entirely on practical experiences and work methods that are
proven to work.
   a central concept for agile methods is adaptation to chang-
ing external factors.where older methods are predictive and
attempt to foresee future needs, the agile methods are adaptive
and quickly adapt to new demands, adhering to the “embrace
change!” motto.the only measurement of success is functioning
products.
another important principle is simplicity and lean thinking.
according to the agile thinking concept, large-scale projects for
example are not in themselves desirable. instead, it is more pref-
erable to maximize the amount of work that does not need to
be done.this includes for instance not spending time writing
unnecessary documentation – the project form creates good
conditions for fast mouth-to-mouth communication.

Other agile methods
extreme programming (Xp) is the most known agile method
alongside Scrum. Xp has a different approach - it is more a
method that deals with how to work in the project. the basis
consists of twelve practices, where pair programming and test
case production before coding are two examples.
   another agile method is lean development, which stems
from the manufacturing industry’s Just-in-time and lean pro-
duction concepts. lean development deals more with how to
organize the entire company’s development activities at man-
agement level.
   these agile methods can therefore be considered comple-
mentary, where
• lean development deals with which comprehensive
   principles should apply for the entire development
   organization
• Scrum deals with how the project is organized and planned
• Xp deals with how to work with programming.
common queStionS aBout
Scrum and agile
isn’t there a significant risk that Scrum runs wild with
everyone doing as they like?
experience from a multitude of various projects shows that this
does not happen.the reason is that the principles are easy to
understand and the team has visible deliveries every 30 days.
the shared responsibility for all parts of the code also makes
the Scrum team’s members more motivated to adhere to set
routines and rules.

can Scrum only be used for smaller projects?
no, the method can be up-scaled by putting together sev-
eral smaller projects to form one larger. a so-called Scrum of
Scrums can include hundred of programmers, organized in doz-
ens of Scrum teams.

how do you start?
a common way of starting is to send one or more people on
a course to become a certified Scrum master. many companies
offer these types of courses nowadays.
   another alternative is to start a pilot project and let someone
with experience from a previous Scrum project serve as mentor
for the team, Scrum master and product owner.

what happens if you don’t finish on time?
Scrum does not allow a delivery date to be altered! if you are
behind, you delete items in the Scrum team’s Sprint Backlog and
if you are ahead you can ask the product owner for more tasks.

does a Sprint have to be 30 days?
not necessarily, but it should be the same length throughout the
entire project. plus, experience shows that 30 days (about 1,000
effective hours for an experienced group) is a good compromise
between a comfortable work pace and adaptability.
what’s happened to the project manager?
Scrum has no role with that title. a project manager that leans
toward administration is commonly found in the role of prod-
uct owner.those best suited to coaching will probably be more
comfortable as a Scrum master.

how does Scrum and cM mix?
well functioning cm routines are needed in a Scrum project,
but normally there is no dedicated cm role.the operative cm
process is handled by the self-organized development team.
to slim the cm process, continuous integration and automatic
tests are used to automate as much as possible.

is Scrum a method just for software development?
not at all! the method can be adapted for all different types of
projects – for instance newspaper production or medical engi-
neering development.

where does the word Scrum come from?
Scrum is a rugby term for the close-knit shoulder-to-shoulder
formation a rugby team forms to jointly move the ball forward.
   the word was first used by takeuchi and nonaka in a famous
article published in the harvard Business review in which they
described the most successful product development projects in
Japan.
gloSSary
adaptive, adjustable – in this context, that project goals or
schedules are adjusted in line with how the external factors
change.
Burn-down chart, a diagram that monitors how much
work remains to implement a segment of the software being
developed during a Sprint.
daily Scrum, brief, daily meetings (about 15 min) between
the Scrum master and the Scrum team. the purpose is to keep
work flowing smoothly and eliminate any impediments.
empirical, based on experience.
agile development, a methodology for software
development which emphasizes, among other things,
adaptability, short paths between ideas and implementation, and
simplified forms of collaboration. examples of agile methods
include extreme programming (Xp) and Scrum.
Sprint retrospective, meeting (about 3 hours) held after
each Sprint. the Scrum master and the Scrum team review
both what went well and what should be improved in the next
Sprint.
Predictive, foresighted – in this context, project goals and
schedules based on a prognosis of external factors made at the
beginning of the project.
Product Backlog, current “to-do list” that contains the
project’s goals and priorities. managed by the Product Owner.
Product Owner, the person responsible for the product’s
Product Backlog and that the project is working with the right
things from a business perspective.
release Backlog, the same as a Product Backlog, but restricted
to a release of the product.
Scrum Master, “the team leader” for the Scrum team.
Scrum Team, ”the work force” – in this case, software
designers – in a Scrum project. organizes its work itself and
lacks a formal group manager.
Sprint, the iteration comprised (normally) of thirty days during
which the Scrum team concentrates on realizing the goals
defined by the project’s current Sprint Backlog.
Sprint Backlog, a to-do list for a Sprint. consists of the
assignments that the product owner has defined as having the
highest priority. is given its final structure during the Sprint’s
first day at a meeting between the product owner and the
Scrum team.
Sprint review, an informal meeting (about 4 hours) at
the end of a Sprint during which the team presents (and
demonstrates, if relevant) for management, customers and the
product owner what has been created during the Sprint.
Timebox, a period during which something is to be carried
out. a Sprint is a result of timebox thinking. deadlines may not
be exceeded – parts of the assignment are deleted instead.
Scrum – Smarter
         proJect
         management
         Scrum is a method for project management
         that is becoming increasingly more common
         in the software industry. Small teams con-
         sisting of a maximum 6-8 people divide their
         work into “mini projects” that have a duration
         of about one month during which a limited
         number of detailed tasks are solved.
         where traditional methods focus on staying on
         track, Scrum is aimed at – like other agile meth-
         ods - delivering business value.




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Learn Scrum Engineering in 5 minutes

  • 2. Scrum and agile methodS are hot topicS theSe dayS “older methods focus on staying on “a simple method track; Scrum is aimed at delivering for the management of business value all the time …” complex projects ...” “the market is changing more rapidly, external factors are becoming increasingly more complex – and Scrum makes it possible to adapt…” “it has been documented to “… a hyper- dramatically improve productivity productivity in teams previously paralyzed by tool!” heavier methodologies …” “embrace change, release creativity, “Scrum is steered increase productivity ” toward the people in the project, not the technology…” “a smart combination of tried-and-tested methods – that’s Scrum in a nutshell!”
  • 3. aSk yourSelf the following queStionS 1 do you want to handle changing requirements more efficiently, boost your designers’ motivation and im- prove communication between customer and project? 2 are you ready to introduce a new leadership culture that means altered roles and a new way of working as well as transferring some of the responsibility from the managers to the project team? 3 are you willing to follow in the footsteps of compa- nies like iBm, microsoft and Xerox, and successfully address the failings of your software development process? if you anSwer “yeS” you Should definitely keep reading!
  • 4. Scrum – an introduction Scrum is based on what is called a Sprint – a focused effort for a 30-day period toward fixed goals. 24 ho urs 2– Pro 4w Ba duc ckl t ee og Sp ks Ba rint ckl og S P R IN T
  • 5. a Product Owner compiles all the changes planned for the product and prioritizes the possible functionalities. the result of the product owner’s work is a Product Backlog – a to-do list that is constantly reprioritized. Before each Sprint, the highest prioritized goals are transferred to a Sprint Backlog. together with a user, the project members form a Scrum Team consisting of 5–9 people. during discussions with the product owner, the goal of the Sprint is determined and the prioritized functionality is broken down into detailed tasks. the team is self-organized and the members have a joint responsibility for the results. The Scrum Master coaches the development team, removes any possible impediments and constantly works to ensure that the team has the best possible circumstances for realizing the goals fixed for the Sprint. each Sprint enhances the product’s market value and adds new functions and improvements that can be delivered to the customer. De live rab le
  • 6. roleS The ScruM TeaM … performs the actual work of problem solvers and designers. the team normally consists of 5-9 people – a group size that experience and research has shown to be best for this type of work. the team members decide how the work is arranged and how assignments are distributed.there are no set project roles – everyone should be able to swap tasks with another member. naturally, this does not prevent individual members from being experts in a field.
  • 7. PrOducT Owner …represents the voice of the customer and ensures that the Scrum team works with the right things from a business perspective.the product owner administers a product Back- log – a current to-do list where all the speci- fications for a product are listed according to how profitable they are deemed to be.the document is visible to the entire organization so that everyone is aware of what to expect in future releases of the product. the product owner is often a customer, but can also be part of the internal organiza- tion.the task requires comprehensive knowl- edge about engineering, marketing and busi- ness processes. ScruM MaSTer …is a combination of coach, fixer and gate- keeper.the Scrum master meets with the team every day in brief meetings, daily Scrums. when someone outside the project has an important issue to discuss with the team, the Scrum master tries to ensure that the design- ers are disturbed as little as possible in their work. the Scrum master always adopts a here- and-now perspective to the work.the focus is always on providing the team with the best possible circumstances for realizing the goals fixed for the Sprint. after each Sprint, the Scrum master holds an evaluation meeting with the Scrum team – a Sprint retrospective – during which ex- periences and conclusions are reviewed.the purpose is to elevate the team’s level of knowl- edge and heighten motivation prior to the next Sprint.
  • 8. proceSS creaTing a BacklOg the product owner compiles all the requests and specifications that are the basis of the changes of the product, such as new functions and bug fixes. after the goals have been defined, the en- tirety is broken down into segments. each such segment should in part create business value and in part be sub-deliverable. a prioritized list is made at the same time – the product owner personally makes the decisions at this point. in what or- der should the changes be made and delivered? the result is a to- do list arranged according to how the market’s demands and cus- tomer’s requests change over time.when it is time to start a new Sprint, the product owner “freezes” the foremost items on the to-do list and summons the Scrum team to a meeting. The SPrinT PhaSe of the Sprint’s 30 calendar days, the first are set aside to create a Sprint Backlog.when the tasks and required time has been de- termined, the product owner lets go. as of now the Scrum team works under its own responsibil- ity. if the group has been properly composed, the work will be self organizing. daily ScruM every day, at the same time, the Scrum master and the Scrum team have a brief meeting.the purpose is to eliminate all speed impediments for the group. each of the participants should in some way answer three questions: • what have you done since the last meeting? • what will you do between now and the next meeting? • is there anything preventing you from doing what you have planned? the first two questions give the meeting participants full in- sight into how the project is progressing.the third question provides a basis for problem solving – ranging from a new com- puter mouse to organizational changes at the company.
  • 9. anyone may attend and listen at the meeting, but only the Scrum master and the team members may speak. deMOnSTraTiOn and evaluaTiOn each Sprint finishes with a demonstration during which func- tioning software is run before a larger group consisting of, be- sides the product owner, users and representatives for corpo- rate management, for example.this is the basis for an evaluation meeting that in turn is the starting block for the next Sprint. B u rn d o w n C h art - C 5 700 Budget 600 E s t. E ffo r t 500 Man Hours 400 300 200 100 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 S p r in t D a y A burn-down chart is used to mark day-by-day how much remains of the scheduled work.The diagram clearly illustrates the rate the re- maining hours of a Sprint are “burned down”.
  • 10. agile development methodS Scrum is classed as what is called agile development – a set of work methods and tool boxes aimed at • improving the ability to respond quickly to needs and requests from the market • cutting down waste and waiting periods • reducing employee stress while simultaneously in- creasing productivity. those who adhere to the agile methods in their work are highly enthusiastic. it is no exaggeration to say that the entire global it industry is experiencing an agile wave. the philosophy is summarized in the following table: important More important • processes and tools • individuals and interaction • detailed documentation • functioning software • contract negotiations • collaboration with the • following a plan customer • adapting to changes (Source: Manifesto for Agile Software Development http://agilemanifesto.org/) the agile methods are a reaction to the processes that look good in theory but that do not hold up in practice. the agile methods are therefore described as empirical – they are based entirely on practical experiences and work methods that are proven to work. a central concept for agile methods is adaptation to chang- ing external factors.where older methods are predictive and attempt to foresee future needs, the agile methods are adaptive and quickly adapt to new demands, adhering to the “embrace change!” motto.the only measurement of success is functioning products.
  • 11. another important principle is simplicity and lean thinking. according to the agile thinking concept, large-scale projects for example are not in themselves desirable. instead, it is more pref- erable to maximize the amount of work that does not need to be done.this includes for instance not spending time writing unnecessary documentation – the project form creates good conditions for fast mouth-to-mouth communication. Other agile methods extreme programming (Xp) is the most known agile method alongside Scrum. Xp has a different approach - it is more a method that deals with how to work in the project. the basis consists of twelve practices, where pair programming and test case production before coding are two examples. another agile method is lean development, which stems from the manufacturing industry’s Just-in-time and lean pro- duction concepts. lean development deals more with how to organize the entire company’s development activities at man- agement level. these agile methods can therefore be considered comple- mentary, where • lean development deals with which comprehensive principles should apply for the entire development organization • Scrum deals with how the project is organized and planned • Xp deals with how to work with programming.
  • 12. common queStionS aBout Scrum and agile isn’t there a significant risk that Scrum runs wild with everyone doing as they like? experience from a multitude of various projects shows that this does not happen.the reason is that the principles are easy to understand and the team has visible deliveries every 30 days. the shared responsibility for all parts of the code also makes the Scrum team’s members more motivated to adhere to set routines and rules. can Scrum only be used for smaller projects? no, the method can be up-scaled by putting together sev- eral smaller projects to form one larger. a so-called Scrum of Scrums can include hundred of programmers, organized in doz- ens of Scrum teams. how do you start? a common way of starting is to send one or more people on a course to become a certified Scrum master. many companies offer these types of courses nowadays. another alternative is to start a pilot project and let someone with experience from a previous Scrum project serve as mentor for the team, Scrum master and product owner. what happens if you don’t finish on time? Scrum does not allow a delivery date to be altered! if you are behind, you delete items in the Scrum team’s Sprint Backlog and if you are ahead you can ask the product owner for more tasks. does a Sprint have to be 30 days? not necessarily, but it should be the same length throughout the entire project. plus, experience shows that 30 days (about 1,000 effective hours for an experienced group) is a good compromise between a comfortable work pace and adaptability.
  • 13. what’s happened to the project manager? Scrum has no role with that title. a project manager that leans toward administration is commonly found in the role of prod- uct owner.those best suited to coaching will probably be more comfortable as a Scrum master. how does Scrum and cM mix? well functioning cm routines are needed in a Scrum project, but normally there is no dedicated cm role.the operative cm process is handled by the self-organized development team. to slim the cm process, continuous integration and automatic tests are used to automate as much as possible. is Scrum a method just for software development? not at all! the method can be adapted for all different types of projects – for instance newspaper production or medical engi- neering development. where does the word Scrum come from? Scrum is a rugby term for the close-knit shoulder-to-shoulder formation a rugby team forms to jointly move the ball forward. the word was first used by takeuchi and nonaka in a famous article published in the harvard Business review in which they described the most successful product development projects in Japan.
  • 14. gloSSary adaptive, adjustable – in this context, that project goals or schedules are adjusted in line with how the external factors change. Burn-down chart, a diagram that monitors how much work remains to implement a segment of the software being developed during a Sprint. daily Scrum, brief, daily meetings (about 15 min) between the Scrum master and the Scrum team. the purpose is to keep work flowing smoothly and eliminate any impediments. empirical, based on experience. agile development, a methodology for software development which emphasizes, among other things, adaptability, short paths between ideas and implementation, and simplified forms of collaboration. examples of agile methods include extreme programming (Xp) and Scrum. Sprint retrospective, meeting (about 3 hours) held after each Sprint. the Scrum master and the Scrum team review both what went well and what should be improved in the next Sprint. Predictive, foresighted – in this context, project goals and schedules based on a prognosis of external factors made at the beginning of the project. Product Backlog, current “to-do list” that contains the project’s goals and priorities. managed by the Product Owner. Product Owner, the person responsible for the product’s Product Backlog and that the project is working with the right things from a business perspective. release Backlog, the same as a Product Backlog, but restricted to a release of the product. Scrum Master, “the team leader” for the Scrum team.
  • 15. Scrum Team, ”the work force” – in this case, software designers – in a Scrum project. organizes its work itself and lacks a formal group manager. Sprint, the iteration comprised (normally) of thirty days during which the Scrum team concentrates on realizing the goals defined by the project’s current Sprint Backlog. Sprint Backlog, a to-do list for a Sprint. consists of the assignments that the product owner has defined as having the highest priority. is given its final structure during the Sprint’s first day at a meeting between the product owner and the Scrum team. Sprint review, an informal meeting (about 4 hours) at the end of a Sprint during which the team presents (and demonstrates, if relevant) for management, customers and the product owner what has been created during the Sprint. Timebox, a period during which something is to be carried out. a Sprint is a result of timebox thinking. deadlines may not be exceeded – parts of the assignment are deleted instead.
  • 16. Scrum – Smarter proJect management Scrum is a method for project management that is becoming increasingly more common in the software industry. Small teams con- sisting of a maximum 6-8 people divide their work into “mini projects” that have a duration of about one month during which a limited number of detailed tasks are solved. where traditional methods focus on staying on track, Scrum is aimed at – like other agile meth- ods - delivering business value. SofthouSe conSulting | Stormgatan 14 | Se-211 20 malmö Sweden | phone: +46 (0)40 664 39 00 faX: +46 (0)40 664 39 19 | info@SofthouSe.Se | www.SofthouSe.Se