SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 34
Reactor Engineering

NE – 4 (Lecture - 22) AHWR
     S. Dayal ACE KM
AHWR
• Developed to use Thorium for generation of
  commercial nuclear power
• 300 MWe
• Pressure Tube type reactor: vertical PT
• Boiling Light Water: BLW
• Passive Safety Features



09/10/12             RE-4, Le-22               2
Safety Features AHWR
• negative void coefficient of reactivity.
• Passive safety systems
• Heat sink in the form of Gravity Driven Water
  Pool GDWP
• Removal of core heat by natural circulation.
• ECCS injection directly inside the fuel. .
• Two independent shutdown systems.

09/10/12              RE-4, Le-22                 3
+ Features of AHWR
• No Hi Pressure D2O as coolant, no leakage
  loss / recovery systems
• Recovery of heat generated in Moderator
  System for feed-water heating
• Shop assembled coolant channels, quick
  replacement of pressure-tube



09/10/12             RE-4, Le-22              4
+ Features of AHWR
• Steam Drums in place of steam-generators
• Higher Steam pressure than in PHWR
• Production of 500 m3/day of DM Water in
  Desalination Plant, by using steam from LP
  Turbine
• Design Life : 100 Years
• No exclusion Zone, due to advanced safety
  features
09/10/12             RE-4, Le-22               5
Specifications of AHWR
•   Power: 920 MWth, 300 MWe
•    Core: Vertical, Pr. Tube; ID: 120 mm
•                   Coolant: Boiling Light Water
•   No. of Coolant Channels: 452
•   Fuel Pins: 54 = 24 (Th+Pu) + 30 (Th+U233)
•   Fuel Length: 3.5 m
•   Core Flow Rate: 2230 kg/s

09/10/12               RE-4, Le-22                 6
Specifications of AHWR
• Coolant Inlet: 259 Deg. Cel.; Outlet: 130 Deg.
  Cel.
• Steam Quality: 18.6 %
• Steam Generation Rate: 414.4 kg.
• Steam Pressure: 70 bar
• PSS: 40 Shutoff Rods (Boron Carbide)
• SSS: Liquid Poison Injection in Moderator
• Control Rods: 13
09/10/12              RE-4, Le-22              7
Specifications of AHWR
• Lattice Pitch: 245 mm
• Discharge Burnup: 24000 MWd/t
           • -- up-to 40,000
• Dysprosium is used as burnable poison Dy2O3
  in ZrO2
• Natural Dysprosium has 5 isotopes 160 – 164



09/10/12                       RE-4, Le-22      8
Fuel
• 54 pins
      – Innermost Ring: 12 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment
        3.0 %
      – Middle Ring: 18 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment
        3.75 %
      – Outermost Ring: 24 Pins (Th Pu)O2, Pu
        enrichment 2.5% in upper-half & 4.0% in lower-
        half
      – Central Rod has burnable poison Dy2O3
09/10/12                     RE-4, Le-22                   9
Fuel Cluster




  09/10/12     RE-4, Le-22   10
Cross Section of Fuel Cluster




  09/10/12          RE-4, Le-22   11
PHW Reactor Components
•   Inlet header
•   Feeders
•   Coolant Channel
•   Outlet feeders called “tail-pipes”
      – End-Shield
      – Feeder Vault
      – Calandria Vault


09/10/12                  RE-4, Le-22    12
09/10/12   RE-4, Le-22   13
Reactor Structure
• Cylindrical Aluminum Tank: 330cm ID & 500
  cm high
• Tank is adequately sized to provide 40 cm D2O
  radial reflector around the core




09/10/12             RE-4, Le-22              14
Calandria Vault
• Concrete block, for shielding
• Two movable shield trolleys, at the top
• Water Filled Reactor Vault Tank, open at top




09/10/12              RE-4, Le-22                15
General arrangement




  09/10/12            RE-4, Le-22   16
Moderator System
• D2O will be used
• Cover Gas
      – Helium




09/10/12               RE-4, Le-22   17
Instrument & Control
• Neutron (flux) Power measurement
      – For reactor regulation and Control
      – Detectors are located in Graphite fillers below
        Reactor
      – In-Core: flux mapping system
           • 25 LEU based, fission counters
      – Source range monitors: pulse channels
• Conventional Instrumentation
      – Flow, Pressure, Temperature & Level
      – To generate: ALARM (Hi, V-Hi), TRIP
09/10/12                           RE-4, Le-22            18
Range overlap of channels
Source Range: Pulse Channel
Inter. & Power Range: Six DC Channels
(Multi Range DC Channel: MRDC)




09/10/12          RE-4, Le-22           19
Shutdown Devices
• Shut-Off rods
      – Six: Cadmium (encased in Al) Rods
      – 68 mk –ive reactivity addition




09/10/12                   RE-4, Le-22      20
5                                                                         AHWR
                2

                              3
            6                         4
                     17
                                                                   1 Secondary Containment
                                                                    2 Primary Containment
                                              15                    3 Gravity Driven Water Pool
                                  8                                4 Isolation Condenser
                                                                  5 Passive Containment Isolation Duct
            7            10                                       6 Vent Pipe
                                                                   7 Tail Pipe Tower
                                              1                   8 Steam Drum
                    11
                                                                  9 100 M Floor
                                          9
                              13                                 10 Fuelling Machine
                                                                 11 Deck Plate
                    12                                           12 Calandria with End Shield
                              14
                                                                 13 Header
                                                                 14 Pile Supports
                                                                 15 Advanced Accumulator
                                                                 16 Pre - Stressing Gallery
           16
                                                                  17 Passive Containment Cooler


09/10/12                                           RE-4, Le-22                                    21
Status
• Structured peer review completed
• Pre-licensing design safety appraisal by AERB
  in progress




09/10/12              RE-4, Le-22                 22
AHWR: a quick, safe, secure and proliferation resistant
                         solution
AHWR is a 300 MWe vertical pressure tube type, boiling light water cooled and D 2O moderated
reactor (A configuration to provide low risk nuclear energy using available technologies)

                                Major design objectives

                                  Significant fraction of Energy from
                                   Thorium                                  Top Tie Plate
                                                                                Displacer
                                                                          Water Rod
                                  Several passive features               Tube
                                       3 days grace period                Fuel
                                       No radiological impact              Pin

  AHWR can be
  configured to accept a          Passive shutdown system to
  range of fuel types              address insider threat scenarios.
  including LEU, U-
  Pu , Th-Pu , LEU-Th             Design life of 100 years.
  and 233U-Th in full                                                          Bottom Tie
                                                                                          P   late

  core                            Easily replaceable coolant channels.
                                                                            AHWR Fuel assembly
PSA Level 3 calculations for AHWR indicate low
         probability of impact in public domain

Plant familiarization &              Level-3 Atmospheric Dispersion
identification of design               With Consequence Analysis
aspects important to
severe accident
                                           Release from Containment

     PSA level-1
Identification of
significant events with               Level-2 : Source Term (within
large contribution to                Containment) Evaluation through
Core Damage                          Analysis
Frequency
                      Level-1, 2 & 3 PSA activity block diagram


                                                                       24
SWS: Service Water
                              System (63 %)
                              APWS: Active Process
                              Water System
                              ECCS HDRBRK:
                              ECCS Header Break
                              SLOCA: 15 %
                              LLOCA: Large Break
                              LOCA
Contribution to CDF           MSLBOB: Main Steam
                              Line Break Outside
 09/10/12       RE-4, Le-22
                              Containment        25
AHWR 300-LEU is a 300 MWe system fuelled with LEU-Thorium
   fuel, has passive safety features, high degree of operator
forgiving characteristics, no adverse impact in public domain,
high proliferation resistance and inherent security strength.




   Peak clad temp. hardly rises even in the complete station blackout and
                failure of primary and secondary systems.
Reactor Block components




09/10/12             RE-4, Le-22      27
Shut Off Rod drive mechanism, Typical Rod-drop
profile




09/10/12             RE-4, Le-22             28
Main HT System




  09/10/12       RE-4, Le-22   29
Emergency Core
    Cooling System




09/10/12             RE-4, Le-22   30
ECCS
• Passive mode during first 15 minutes, from
  accumulators
   – 4 Accumulators, 240 m3, Nitrogen at 5.0 MPa
• From Gravity driven water pool for next three-
  days (low pressure injection)
      – Passivity is obtained by “Fluidic Flow Control
         Device”
      – 6000 m3 of water
      – 4 loops. HX, pump, filter, IX & chemical addition
09/10/12 tank in each loop   RE-4, Le-22                    31
Gravity Driven water Pool [GDWP]




  09/10/12          RE-4, Le-22    32
AHWR: Design evaluation by INPRO
method

  • IAEA initiated project on, International Project
    on Innovative Nuclear Reactors & Fuel Cycles
  • Evaluation criteria in six areas
        – Economics       -- Environment & Sustainability
        – Safety          -- Waste Management
        – Proliferation   -- Cross cutting issues
  • Reports have been sent to IARA for AHWR


  09/10/12                  RE-4, Le-22                     33
End of RE – 4 Lecture – 22




09/10/12              RE-4, Le-22       34

More Related Content

What's hot

Burner Management Flame Detection Requirements and Exceptions
Burner Management Flame Detection Requirements and ExceptionsBurner Management Flame Detection Requirements and Exceptions
Burner Management Flame Detection Requirements and ExceptionsKevin Maki
 
Dissolved gas analysis of power transformer oil
Dissolved gas analysis of power transformer oilDissolved gas analysis of power transformer oil
Dissolved gas analysis of power transformer oilSHIVAJI CHOUDHURY
 
steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)
steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)
steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)Billa ParameswaraRao
 
Control valves for thermal power plants
Control valves for thermal power plantsControl valves for thermal power plants
Control valves for thermal power plantsSHIVAJI CHOUDHURY
 
Transformer Maintenance
Transformer Maintenance Transformer Maintenance
Transformer Maintenance Molla Morshad
 
Coal mill pulverizer in thermal power plants
Coal mill pulverizer in thermal power plantsCoal mill pulverizer in thermal power plants
Coal mill pulverizer in thermal power plantsSHIVAJI CHOUDHURY
 
Feedwater heaters in thermal power plants
Feedwater heaters in thermal power plantsFeedwater heaters in thermal power plants
Feedwater heaters in thermal power plantsSHIVAJI CHOUDHURY
 
Fire protection in thermal power station
Fire protection in thermal power stationFire protection in thermal power station
Fire protection in thermal power stationMOORTHY ASSOCIATES
 
05_Acoustic PD detection.pdf
05_Acoustic PD detection.pdf05_Acoustic PD detection.pdf
05_Acoustic PD detection.pdfRajKiran25392
 
Upgrading gen protect and grounding
Upgrading gen protect and groundingUpgrading gen protect and grounding
Upgrading gen protect and groundingmichaeljmack
 
Types of Nuclear Reactors
Types of Nuclear ReactorsTypes of Nuclear Reactors
Types of Nuclear ReactorsSunny Chauhan
 
turbine governing oil system
turbine governing oil systemturbine governing oil system
turbine governing oil systempradeep chotia
 

What's hot (20)

Burner Management Flame Detection Requirements and Exceptions
Burner Management Flame Detection Requirements and ExceptionsBurner Management Flame Detection Requirements and Exceptions
Burner Management Flame Detection Requirements and Exceptions
 
Conductivity Analyzer
Conductivity AnalyzerConductivity Analyzer
Conductivity Analyzer
 
Industrial fan(ID FD Fans)
Industrial fan(ID FD Fans)Industrial fan(ID FD Fans)
Industrial fan(ID FD Fans)
 
Dissolved gas analysis of power transformer oil
Dissolved gas analysis of power transformer oilDissolved gas analysis of power transformer oil
Dissolved gas analysis of power transformer oil
 
EH Oil System.pptx
EH Oil System.pptxEH Oil System.pptx
EH Oil System.pptx
 
Thermax Quality circle ppt
Thermax Quality circle pptThermax Quality circle ppt
Thermax Quality circle ppt
 
steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)
steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)
steam turbine turbine interlocks for (KWU turbine)
 
Nuclear reactor
Nuclear reactorNuclear reactor
Nuclear reactor
 
Control valves for thermal power plants
Control valves for thermal power plantsControl valves for thermal power plants
Control valves for thermal power plants
 
Transformer Maintenance
Transformer Maintenance Transformer Maintenance
Transformer Maintenance
 
Control Valves
Control ValvesControl Valves
Control Valves
 
1 vibration basics0
1 vibration basics01 vibration basics0
1 vibration basics0
 
Coal mill pulverizer in thermal power plants
Coal mill pulverizer in thermal power plantsCoal mill pulverizer in thermal power plants
Coal mill pulverizer in thermal power plants
 
Feedwater heaters in thermal power plants
Feedwater heaters in thermal power plantsFeedwater heaters in thermal power plants
Feedwater heaters in thermal power plants
 
Fire protection in thermal power station
Fire protection in thermal power stationFire protection in thermal power station
Fire protection in thermal power station
 
05_Acoustic PD detection.pdf
05_Acoustic PD detection.pdf05_Acoustic PD detection.pdf
05_Acoustic PD detection.pdf
 
Upgrading gen protect and grounding
Upgrading gen protect and groundingUpgrading gen protect and grounding
Upgrading gen protect and grounding
 
Types of Nuclear Reactors
Types of Nuclear ReactorsTypes of Nuclear Reactors
Types of Nuclear Reactors
 
turbine governing oil system
turbine governing oil systemturbine governing oil system
turbine governing oil system
 
Heat rate of coal fired power plant
Heat rate of coal fired power plantHeat rate of coal fired power plant
Heat rate of coal fired power plant
 

Viewers also liked

178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdf
178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdf178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdf
178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdfmanojg1990
 
Gass cooled reactor
Gass cooled reactorGass cooled reactor
Gass cooled reactorB.k. Das
 
Understanding Volatility and What it means to your Portfolio
Understanding Volatility and What it means to your PortfolioUnderstanding Volatility and What it means to your Portfolio
Understanding Volatility and What it means to your Portfoliosorenk
 
Matter powerpoint
Matter powerpointMatter powerpoint
Matter powerpointclevengerk
 
Tulane talkmay2013 final_pdf
Tulane talkmay2013 final_pdfTulane talkmay2013 final_pdf
Tulane talkmay2013 final_pdfCharles Figley
 
Share2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliver
Share2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliverShare2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliver
Share2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliver21apps
 
SPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project Governance
SPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project GovernanceSPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project Governance
SPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project Governance21apps
 
My life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharya
My life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharyaMy life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharya
My life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharyaBhim Upadhyaya
 
Isha forest flower jan 2014
Isha forest flower jan 2014Isha forest flower jan 2014
Isha forest flower jan 2014Bhim Upadhyaya
 
10 zig presentation
10 zig presentation10 zig presentation
10 zig presentationsubtitle
 
Bhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of works
Bhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of worksBhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of works
Bhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of worksBhim Upadhyaya
 
Rangkuman mineral dan batuan
Rangkuman mineral dan batuanRangkuman mineral dan batuan
Rangkuman mineral dan batuanMirzha Rihadini
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Gas cooled reactors
Gas cooled reactorsGas cooled reactors
Gas cooled reactors
 
178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdf
178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdf178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdf
178875555 fast-breeder-reactors-pdf
 
Gas cooled reactors
Gas cooled reactorsGas cooled reactors
Gas cooled reactors
 
Gass cooled reactor
Gass cooled reactorGass cooled reactor
Gass cooled reactor
 
Gas-Cooled Reactor
Gas-Cooled ReactorGas-Cooled Reactor
Gas-Cooled Reactor
 
Understanding Volatility and What it means to your Portfolio
Understanding Volatility and What it means to your PortfolioUnderstanding Volatility and What it means to your Portfolio
Understanding Volatility and What it means to your Portfolio
 
Unit 4, Lesson 1
Unit 4, Lesson 1Unit 4, Lesson 1
Unit 4, Lesson 1
 
Clothing items
Clothing itemsClothing items
Clothing items
 
Matter powerpoint
Matter powerpointMatter powerpoint
Matter powerpoint
 
Tulane talkmay2013 final_pdf
Tulane talkmay2013 final_pdfTulane talkmay2013 final_pdf
Tulane talkmay2013 final_pdf
 
Share2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliver
Share2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliverShare2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliver
Share2012 - Hybrid Organizations - How SharePoint Online can deliver
 
Small cells
Small cellsSmall cells
Small cells
 
SPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project Governance
SPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project GovernanceSPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project Governance
SPIW03 Taking the Geek out of SharePoint Project Governance
 
Unit4, Lesson3
Unit4, Lesson3Unit4, Lesson3
Unit4, Lesson3
 
My life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharya
My life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharyaMy life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharya
My life its legacy and message by pandit shreeram sharma acharya
 
Ch08
Ch08Ch08
Ch08
 
Isha forest flower jan 2014
Isha forest flower jan 2014Isha forest flower jan 2014
Isha forest flower jan 2014
 
10 zig presentation
10 zig presentation10 zig presentation
10 zig presentation
 
Bhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of works
Bhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of worksBhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of works
Bhutan code-of-ethics-for-engineers by ministry of works
 
Rangkuman mineral dan batuan
Rangkuman mineral dan batuanRangkuman mineral dan batuan
Rangkuman mineral dan batuan
 

Similar to Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

Nuclear Power Plant PPT
Nuclear Power Plant PPTNuclear Power Plant PPT
Nuclear Power Plant PPTDinesh Panchal
 
Nuclear power plants - Introduction
Nuclear power plants - IntroductionNuclear power plants - Introduction
Nuclear power plants - IntroductionHashim Hasnain Hadi
 
CANDU6 Reactor at a Glance
CANDU6 Reactor at a GlanceCANDU6 Reactor at a Glance
CANDU6 Reactor at a GlanceHitesh Sahu
 
Admens Effect 2655.pdf
Admens Effect 2655.pdfAdmens Effect 2655.pdf
Admens Effect 2655.pdfSajitBathilia
 
One Planet Reno Presentation
One Planet Reno PresentationOne Planet Reno Presentation
One Planet Reno PresentationEmma Blakely
 
AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...
AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...
AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...Global CCS Institute
 
Narora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training Report
Narora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training ReportNarora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training Report
Narora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training ReportVivek Varshney
 
Enterprise High Desity Cooling
Enterprise High Desity CoolingEnterprise High Desity Cooling
Enterprise High Desity Coolingmartyp01
 
et-161025082542 (1).pdf
et-161025082542 (1).pdfet-161025082542 (1).pdf
et-161025082542 (1).pdfShivaniBayas2
 
LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008
LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008
LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008jdbess
 
Nuclear reactor anupam
Nuclear reactor anupamNuclear reactor anupam
Nuclear reactor anupamtranslateds
 
Parabolic trough collectors comparison
Parabolic trough collectors comparisonParabolic trough collectors comparison
Parabolic trough collectors comparisonSolar Reference
 

Similar to Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (20)

Nuclear Power Plant PPT
Nuclear Power Plant PPTNuclear Power Plant PPT
Nuclear Power Plant PPT
 
Candu reactor
Candu reactorCandu reactor
Candu reactor
 
Nuclear power plants - Introduction
Nuclear power plants - IntroductionNuclear power plants - Introduction
Nuclear power plants - Introduction
 
CANDU6 Reactor at a Glance
CANDU6 Reactor at a GlanceCANDU6 Reactor at a Glance
CANDU6 Reactor at a Glance
 
Nuclear reactor
Nuclear reactorNuclear reactor
Nuclear reactor
 
Admens Effect 2655.pdf
Admens Effect 2655.pdfAdmens Effect 2655.pdf
Admens Effect 2655.pdf
 
Palkit badala
Palkit badalaPalkit badala
Palkit badala
 
One Planet Reno Presentation
One Planet Reno PresentationOne Planet Reno Presentation
One Planet Reno Presentation
 
AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...
AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...
AEP Mountaineer - Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage Project Phase 1 L...
 
Narora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training Report
Narora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training ReportNarora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training Report
Narora Atomic Power Plant Vocational Training Report
 
Enterprise High Desity Cooling
Enterprise High Desity CoolingEnterprise High Desity Cooling
Enterprise High Desity Cooling
 
et-161025082542 (1).pdf
et-161025082542 (1).pdfet-161025082542 (1).pdf
et-161025082542 (1).pdf
 
Compressor Valves
Compressor ValvesCompressor Valves
Compressor Valves
 
genographi gg12.pdf
genographi gg12.pdfgenographi gg12.pdf
genographi gg12.pdf
 
Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear  ReactorsNuclear  Reactors
Nuclear Reactors
 
Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear  ReactorsNuclear  Reactors
Nuclear Reactors
 
Urea 2000plus
Urea 2000plusUrea 2000plus
Urea 2000plus
 
LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008
LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008
LEGO Reactor - ICAPP 2008
 
Nuclear reactor anupam
Nuclear reactor anupamNuclear reactor anupam
Nuclear reactor anupam
 
Parabolic trough collectors comparison
Parabolic trough collectors comparisonParabolic trough collectors comparison
Parabolic trough collectors comparison
 

Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

  • 1. Reactor Engineering NE – 4 (Lecture - 22) AHWR S. Dayal ACE KM
  • 2. AHWR • Developed to use Thorium for generation of commercial nuclear power • 300 MWe • Pressure Tube type reactor: vertical PT • Boiling Light Water: BLW • Passive Safety Features 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 2
  • 3. Safety Features AHWR • negative void coefficient of reactivity. • Passive safety systems • Heat sink in the form of Gravity Driven Water Pool GDWP • Removal of core heat by natural circulation. • ECCS injection directly inside the fuel. . • Two independent shutdown systems. 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 3
  • 4. + Features of AHWR • No Hi Pressure D2O as coolant, no leakage loss / recovery systems • Recovery of heat generated in Moderator System for feed-water heating • Shop assembled coolant channels, quick replacement of pressure-tube 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 4
  • 5. + Features of AHWR • Steam Drums in place of steam-generators • Higher Steam pressure than in PHWR • Production of 500 m3/day of DM Water in Desalination Plant, by using steam from LP Turbine • Design Life : 100 Years • No exclusion Zone, due to advanced safety features 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 5
  • 6. Specifications of AHWR • Power: 920 MWth, 300 MWe • Core: Vertical, Pr. Tube; ID: 120 mm • Coolant: Boiling Light Water • No. of Coolant Channels: 452 • Fuel Pins: 54 = 24 (Th+Pu) + 30 (Th+U233) • Fuel Length: 3.5 m • Core Flow Rate: 2230 kg/s 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 6
  • 7. Specifications of AHWR • Coolant Inlet: 259 Deg. Cel.; Outlet: 130 Deg. Cel. • Steam Quality: 18.6 % • Steam Generation Rate: 414.4 kg. • Steam Pressure: 70 bar • PSS: 40 Shutoff Rods (Boron Carbide) • SSS: Liquid Poison Injection in Moderator • Control Rods: 13 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 7
  • 8. Specifications of AHWR • Lattice Pitch: 245 mm • Discharge Burnup: 24000 MWd/t • -- up-to 40,000 • Dysprosium is used as burnable poison Dy2O3 in ZrO2 • Natural Dysprosium has 5 isotopes 160 – 164 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 8
  • 9. Fuel • 54 pins – Innermost Ring: 12 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment 3.0 % – Middle Ring: 18 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment 3.75 % – Outermost Ring: 24 Pins (Th Pu)O2, Pu enrichment 2.5% in upper-half & 4.0% in lower- half – Central Rod has burnable poison Dy2O3 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 9
  • 10. Fuel Cluster 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 10
  • 11. Cross Section of Fuel Cluster 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 11
  • 12. PHW Reactor Components • Inlet header • Feeders • Coolant Channel • Outlet feeders called “tail-pipes” – End-Shield – Feeder Vault – Calandria Vault 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 12
  • 13. 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 13
  • 14. Reactor Structure • Cylindrical Aluminum Tank: 330cm ID & 500 cm high • Tank is adequately sized to provide 40 cm D2O radial reflector around the core 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 14
  • 15. Calandria Vault • Concrete block, for shielding • Two movable shield trolleys, at the top • Water Filled Reactor Vault Tank, open at top 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 15
  • 16. General arrangement 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 16
  • 17. Moderator System • D2O will be used • Cover Gas – Helium 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 17
  • 18. Instrument & Control • Neutron (flux) Power measurement – For reactor regulation and Control – Detectors are located in Graphite fillers below Reactor – In-Core: flux mapping system • 25 LEU based, fission counters – Source range monitors: pulse channels • Conventional Instrumentation – Flow, Pressure, Temperature & Level – To generate: ALARM (Hi, V-Hi), TRIP 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 18
  • 19. Range overlap of channels Source Range: Pulse Channel Inter. & Power Range: Six DC Channels (Multi Range DC Channel: MRDC) 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 19
  • 20. Shutdown Devices • Shut-Off rods – Six: Cadmium (encased in Al) Rods – 68 mk –ive reactivity addition 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 20
  • 21. 5 AHWR 2 3 6 4 17 1 Secondary Containment 2 Primary Containment 15 3 Gravity Driven Water Pool 8 4 Isolation Condenser 5 Passive Containment Isolation Duct 7 10 6 Vent Pipe 7 Tail Pipe Tower 1 8 Steam Drum 11 9 100 M Floor 9 13 10 Fuelling Machine 11 Deck Plate 12 12 Calandria with End Shield 14 13 Header 14 Pile Supports 15 Advanced Accumulator 16 Pre - Stressing Gallery 16 17 Passive Containment Cooler 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 21
  • 22. Status • Structured peer review completed • Pre-licensing design safety appraisal by AERB in progress 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 22
  • 23. AHWR: a quick, safe, secure and proliferation resistant solution AHWR is a 300 MWe vertical pressure tube type, boiling light water cooled and D 2O moderated reactor (A configuration to provide low risk nuclear energy using available technologies) Major design objectives  Significant fraction of Energy from Thorium Top Tie Plate Displacer Water Rod  Several passive features Tube  3 days grace period Fuel  No radiological impact Pin AHWR can be configured to accept a  Passive shutdown system to range of fuel types address insider threat scenarios. including LEU, U- Pu , Th-Pu , LEU-Th  Design life of 100 years. and 233U-Th in full Bottom Tie P late core  Easily replaceable coolant channels. AHWR Fuel assembly
  • 24. PSA Level 3 calculations for AHWR indicate low probability of impact in public domain Plant familiarization & Level-3 Atmospheric Dispersion identification of design With Consequence Analysis aspects important to severe accident Release from Containment PSA level-1 Identification of significant events with Level-2 : Source Term (within large contribution to Containment) Evaluation through Core Damage Analysis Frequency Level-1, 2 & 3 PSA activity block diagram 24
  • 25. SWS: Service Water System (63 %) APWS: Active Process Water System ECCS HDRBRK: ECCS Header Break SLOCA: 15 % LLOCA: Large Break LOCA Contribution to CDF MSLBOB: Main Steam Line Break Outside 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 Containment 25
  • 26. AHWR 300-LEU is a 300 MWe system fuelled with LEU-Thorium fuel, has passive safety features, high degree of operator forgiving characteristics, no adverse impact in public domain, high proliferation resistance and inherent security strength. Peak clad temp. hardly rises even in the complete station blackout and failure of primary and secondary systems.
  • 28. Shut Off Rod drive mechanism, Typical Rod-drop profile 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 28
  • 29. Main HT System 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 29
  • 30. Emergency Core Cooling System 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 30
  • 31. ECCS • Passive mode during first 15 minutes, from accumulators – 4 Accumulators, 240 m3, Nitrogen at 5.0 MPa • From Gravity driven water pool for next three- days (low pressure injection) – Passivity is obtained by “Fluidic Flow Control Device” – 6000 m3 of water – 4 loops. HX, pump, filter, IX & chemical addition 09/10/12 tank in each loop RE-4, Le-22 31
  • 32. Gravity Driven water Pool [GDWP] 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 32
  • 33. AHWR: Design evaluation by INPRO method • IAEA initiated project on, International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors & Fuel Cycles • Evaluation criteria in six areas – Economics -- Environment & Sustainability – Safety -- Waste Management – Proliferation -- Cross cutting issues • Reports have been sent to IARA for AHWR 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 33
  • 34. End of RE – 4 Lecture – 22 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 34

Editor's Notes

  1. Developed to use Thorium for generation of commercial nuclear power 300 MWe Pressure Tube type reactor: vertical PT Boiling Light Water: BLW Passive Safety Features
  2. Slightly negative void coefficient of reactivity. . Passive safety systems working on natural laws. . Large heat sink in the form of Gravity Driven Water Pool with an inventory of 6000 m3 of water, located near the top of the Reactor Building. . Removal of heat from core by natural circulation. . Emergency Core Cooling System injection directly inside the fuel. . Two independent shutdown systems.
  3. Idetify each AHW Reactor Component in the diagram
  4. Reactor Block The reactor is housed in a concrete reactor block. The concrete wall of the reactor block provides shielding in radial direction. Shielding in axial direction is provided by two motor-operated movable shield trolleys provided at the top. The reactor block is located inside a reactor building. The reactor tank, square box and lattice girders which support fuel and control assemblies are housed inside a cavity in the reactor block. The reactor tank accommodates the fuel, moderator and shut off rods. The tank is open at the top to facilitate connection with a square box through an elastomer expansion joint. The square box houses the lattice girder assemblies. The bottom plate of the square box has a 3300 mm diameter opening in the centre to provide full access to the reactor tank. The top assemblies and reactivity control devices and offer flexibility of configuring the desired core lattice, at the required pitch. The lattice girder assemblies can be spaced as desired with the help of centre zero scale provided along the side of stainless steel rail beams.
  5. Moderator and Cover gas system For the initial set of experiments heavy water will be used as the moderator and the reflector. Nitrogen gas is used as the cover gas for the heavy water. The system is designed to supply the required inventory of heavy water in a controlled manner to the reactor tank to attain reactor criticality for various core configurations / reactor experiments. Since the reactor is designed to operate at a very low power level, no dedicated core cooling system has been provided. The small amount of heat generated in the core is transferred to the moderator and cover gas and gets eventually dissipated into atmosphere by natural convection.
  6. Control Instrumentation For reliable neutronic power measurement and reactor protection, neutron detectors and associated electronics have been used with sufficient redundancy. The neutron detectors are located in the graphite fillers below the reactor tank as there is substantial difference in expected critical heights of AHWR and PHWR core configurations. For reactor start up from source range two pulse channels are provided. For power measurements and protection in intermediate & power range, six DC channels, Range Overlap Diagram of Nuclear channels consisting of -- three Log-linear channels (for providing Log-rate and Linear Power signals for manual regulation of the reactor power), -- two safety channels and a multi-range DC channel (having seven ranges with full scale values of 0.5 mW to 500 W), are provided. Conventional instrumentation is provided to monitor and record the process parameters such as -- flows, -- pressures, -- temperatures, -- levels, etc. and to generate trips/alarms. An in-core flux mapping system consisting of an array of 25 LEU-based miniature fission counters, working in pulse mode, will provide three dimensional flux distribution in the core.
  7. Shutdown Devices The fast-acting shut off rods are used as primary shutdown system. Fast shut down of the reactor on a trip signal is achieved by gravity fall of six-cadmium (Cd encased in Al) shut off rods into the core. The shut-down system is designed to provide sufficient negative reactivity insertion reliably, for fast reduction of reactor power to render the reactor sub-critical following a reactor trip. The shut off rods are normally parked above the core region. The total worth of the shut off rods is about 68 mk and can vary depending on the core configuration. Shut off rods can be withdrawn from the core, one at a time in a predefined sequence, only when the trip is reset, and are parked in their normal parking positions. On a reactor trip signal, in addition to the insertion of the shut-off rods, moderator is also dumped from the reactor tank up to a predefined level by opening two fast-acting dump valves to provide adequate shut down margin, independent of the shut off rods, in the most reactive core.
  8. Increase thickness of child thyroid dose line. No need for legend there – it misleads to 1 Sv point.