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Addressing the Needs of
  an Aging Workforce
       Infonex Workshop
             Calgary
   10:30 – 11:30 am Aug 22rd

        Chris Hylton, MA

          403 264 5288
         chris@hylton.ca
              CG Hylton        1
Introduction
2



       Chris Hylton, MA
         HR& Benefits Background
          Workshops
          EAP
          Getting older




                              CG Hylton
“If you want one year of prosperity, grow
       grain. If you want ten years of
prosperity, grow trees. If you want 100 years
                of prosperity,
                grow people.”

                  — Ancient Chinese Proverb

                               3
Learning Outcomes
4




    What we hope to achieve today:
     Define what an aging workplace will
      look like
     Identify what ers and governments
      can do
     Identify possible challenges to
      becoming an er of choice for an
      aging workforce
     See more graphs than you ever
      wanted to see            CG Hylton
Agenda
5


       Why accommodating and responding to the
        needs of an aging workforce is more of an issue
        now than ever before
       Understanding the needs and motivations of an
        aging workforce
       What are the benefits of keeping an aging
        employee workforce
       Designing an age-friendly workplace
       Rethinking the work-life balance: strategies and
        programs for accommodating an aging workforce
                                  CG Hylton
This is your show
6


       Are there any issues you would like me to
        specifically address in the talk today?




                                CG Hylton
Canada’s Population 1978, 2038
experience promoting healthy
aging




* Projected population.
                          Source: Statistics Canada.




                                                       7
Retirement Patterns Over Time:
           US Labor Force Participation Rate of Workers 65+, 1948-2007
         Retirement Is Becoming Less
         Common30

                              25
  Percent of Population 65+




                              20
     In the Labor Force




                              15

                              10

                               5
                               1948   1958   1968    1978       1989     1999

8                                                   CG Hylton
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
US National Supply and Demand Projections for
                         RNs


                        2,900
                        2,700
                        2,500                              Projected
                                                           shortage of over
    FTE’s (Thousands)




                        2,300                              1,000,000 nurses
                        2,100                              in 2020
                        1,900
                        1,700
                        1,500
                                2000   2005     2010    2015        2020

9                                                              CG Hylton
INDIVIDUAL & POPULATION
10
     AGING
        Life expectancy: Number of years the average person
         can expect to live
        Has increased steadily in Canada during the 20th century
        Canadians can also expect to live longer after age 65
         than generations before them
        Canadians born today can expect to live 20 years longer
         than if they had been born in 1920
        Increased life expectancy into old age is distinguished
         from previous historical period
        Never before in history did vast majority of people in a
         particular country expect to live to old age

                                         CG Hylton
LIFE EXPECTANCY IN
CANADA, 1920–2005




                CG Hylton
CANADIAN POPULATION AGE
STRUCTURE, 1851, 1901, 1951, 2006




                       CG Hylton
13




     Myth:
     Aboriginal
     population
     Is small in
     numbers
14


     Can someone tell be the difference
     between Saskatchewan and
     Alberta
     regarding proportion of seniors
     please?
     Where do you find the lowest ratio
     in Canada?
                       CG Hylton
15


      Saskatchewan has the highest proportion
       of seniors (15.4 per cent) among the
       provinces
      its neighbour to the west, Alberta, has the

       lowest (10.7 per cent)
      Only about one in 20 people living in the
       Territories is a senior citizen


                              CG Hylton
If I may digress, what else is
16
     special about SK?




                         CG Hylton
Hint :
17


        It relates to this graph




                                    CG Hylton
Saskatchewan
        Population Pyramid, 1996 (%)
18



      65 +

     55-64
                                                                    Non-Aboriginal
     45-54

     35-44

     25-34

     20-24

     15-19

     10-14
                                                                     Aboriginal
      5-9

      0-4

        -10.0   -8.0   -6.0   -4.0   -2.0   0.0   2.0   4.0   6.0     8.0   10.0
Saskatchewan Population 1995 to
 2045
                                              Percentage of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal
                                                       People in Saskatchewan
By 2045, Aboriginal
People will make
                                              100%
up approximately


                      Percent of Population
                                               80%                                   Non-
ONE THIRD of SK                                                                      Aboriginal
                                                      86.7
population                                     60%            80.0                   Aboriginal
                                                                            67.5
compared to                                    40%
approximately one
                                               20%
tenth in 1995                                                           32.5
                                                      13.3 20.0
                                                0%
                                                       1995

                                                              2015

                                                                     Year   2045            19
So how is this helpful to SK?




                                CG Hylton20
Filling Vacancies:
         Four Ways We Will Avoid a Crisis
21




        Immigration                 Politics?
        Automation                  Cost?
        Outsourcing                 Feasible?
        Retaining older workers who
          Have skills and experience to get the job done
          Need (and may want) to work




                                      CG Hylton
Older Workers Need to Work:
             Insufficient Savings
22

                        50
                        40
Percentage of Workers




                        30
                        20
                        10
                         0
                             1992-93       1996-97             2000           2007

                                  Defined Contribution           Defined Benefit
                                                         CG Hylton
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Older Workers Need to Work:
     Average Out of Pocket Costs for Health Care
23

                                $1,600
     Avg Annual Out of Pocket




                                $1,400
         Costs in US, 2003




                                $1,200
                                $1,000
                                 $800
                                 $600
                                 $400
                                  $200
                                    $0
                                         <18     19-64        65
                                               Age Group

                                                  CG Hylton
Older Workers Want to Work
   Top Three Reasons for Working During Retirement
24 US




 1. Need the money (61%)
 2. A desire to stay mentally active (54%)
 3. The need for health benefits (52%)




                              CG Hylton
Replacement Ratio
US Ratio of People 65+ to People 18-64, %

                                            50

                                            40

                                            30
                                                                                                1 old /
                                                                                                2.5 young
                                            20

                                             10                              1 old /
                                                                             5 young
                                              0
                                                        1960   1980   2000       2040   2060   2080
25                                          CG Hylton
Older workers a drain? Not a chance,
Oxford study finds
()

        ―Meet the new tax gusher: the golden-age
         employee. Working Canadians between the ages of
         60 and 79 contribute more than $2.2-billion each
         year in tax payments on employment income –
        and there is every indication that the populous baby
         boom generation coming up behind them intends to
         stay even more connected to work, HSBC Bank
         Canada said issuing the results of a global survey
         conducted by Oxford University's Institute of
         Ageing…‖
In the past…
   During downturns employers targeted elderly
    workers in order to cut expenses
   Elderly people often faced job discrimination as
    they were expected to retire at age 65
   Is this true today or in the future?
   Any comments please?
Old, older, oldest
 Young-old ( 65-74 ) are very active
 Middle-old ( 75-84 )

 Old-old ( 85 + )

 In U.S. in 2005, 70,000 centenarians

  Canada: 4,600 centenarians in 2007
Employer Solutions
29




                     CG Hylton
Passing on Expertise
30
     Aerospace
        Boeing has started a program to transfer older
         workers' knowledge to the next generation.
        And when an employee announces he'd like to
         retire, "we ask them why," said Duane
         Schireman, director of human resources for Boeing's
         787 "Dreamliner" program.
        Sometimes the person would like to keep working, just
         not 40 hours a week. On a case-by-case
         basis, Schireman said, managers and the employee
         explore such options as job sharing, telecommuting
         and contract work.
        Boeing, in collaboration with other aerospace
         employers, also is trying to remove barriers that may
         force people into retirement before they're really
         ready.                         CG Hylton
Nursing
31


        Group Health is addressing the issue after
         learning that 42 percent of its 890 registered
         nurses are age 55 or older.
        To extend their careers, the health-care
         organization is offering nurses who are five
         years from retirement opportunities to mentor
         and teach, as well as do part-time work after
         retirement.
        It's also making sure older nurses, who are at
         greater risk of injury on the job, have the best
         equipment for handling patients.
                                  CG Hylton
A gradual retirement -
32
     Weyerhaeuser
      new delayed-retirement project, called
       Gray Matters, is grounded in research
       about the attitudes of its employees age
       55 and over.
      The vast majority say they want to work

       longer rather than completely retire.
      But they want it all — a flexible

       schedule, health-care benefits and no
       negative financial impact
      And they want the work to be meaningful.
                              CG Hylton
A gradual retirement
33

        Gray Matters offers select ees opportunity to retire
         gradually, but they must average 25 hours of work
         a week in order to keep health benefits. The part-
         time work also shouldn't go on for too many years or
         it could negatively impact their pension.
        they're expected to create a plan to transfer
         knowledge and mentor younger workers.
        The company also is participating in a talent
         bank, to be run by an outside firm, that will offer
         retirees a chance to work on a temporary basis.
         "What we all want as employers is the best talent we
         can have," said Hass, retirement educator at
         Weyerhaeuser. "And what we ought to recognize is
         that the best talent can come at any age."
                                     CG Hylton
Most Ers are Unprepared
34


        most unprepared or don't have the luxury of
         dealing with the aging work force, often
         because they're embroiled in shorter-term
         economic crises
        "Furthest from their minds is putting more
         money into retaining older workers because
         they don't even know what the business
         horizon is," said Valerie Paganelli, a Seattle-
         based retirement consulting actuary and
         researcher on aging workforce
        "Still, they may well need, to in order to bridge
                                     CG Hylton
         their way to the next level of success"
Would you agree?
35




                    CG Hylton
Adapting the Workplace
36




                     CG Hylton
Smart Canes
37


        Another invention called Smart Canes, will
         allow real-time feedback on proper gait and
         alert a worker’s colleagues by text if a fall
         occurs.
        ―It’s a floor that’s compliant enough to prevent
         injury in case of a fall, but hard enough that
         you can do normal activities on it,‖ noted
         Feldman.
        Initial tests show that it could reduce hip
         fractures up to 80 per cent.
                                   CG Hylton
Adapting the workplace
38


       Falls are the leading cause
        of hospitalization due to injury for
        Canadians 65+
       one in three expected to experience this

        life altering moment this year alone
       offices with flexi-floors, when those falls
        do occur, special new ―bouncy floors‖
        could reduce the risk of serious injury

                               CG Hylton
Air bags
39


      Older workers will also have
       the option of wearing a belt
       with built-in air bags that will
       deploy when the sensor
       detects a fall
      Those with balance problems
       could wear them as part of
       their regular office wear

                               CG Hylton
The Work Environment

                          The spaces where we
                           work affect how we age
                          We have control over how
                           workplaces are designed
                          Work environment issues
                           are aging issues
                              Physical demands of work
                              Lighting and vision
                              Cognitive demands of work
                          We can design age
                           friendly workplaces

                                                  CG Hylton40
ERGONOMIC PROBLEM-
SOLVING STRATEGIES
   Seated work with larger parts involves interacting
    with objects that may be too large to manipulate
    manually, associated with assembly & welding
    jobs.
   Problems are typically related to
    posture, illumination, reach, and lifting
   Use technology to lift & position the
    work for easy access that does not require
    bending, twisting & reaching.
   Use supplemental lighting.
   Use adjustable chairs/work surfaces
CUMULATIVE TRAUMA
DISORDERS (CTDS)
   Frequent and, for some, constant computer
    use has led to an explosion of injuries that until
    now were seen mostly in the meatpacking
    industry.
     Collectively,   these injuries are known as CTDs.
   CTD is an umbrella term covering injuries
    caused by forceful or awkward
    movements, repeated frequently over time.
     CTDs   occur to the muscles, nerves, and tendons
      of the hands, arms, shoulders, and neck.
CUMULATIVE TRAUMA
DISORDERS (CTDS)
   Overworking a tendon
    can cause small tears
    in it, which inflame and
    cause intense pain.
     Known   as tendinitis.

    Other forms of CTDs
    are shown at right.
CUMULATIVE TRAUMA
    DISORDERS (CTDS)
   Preventive strategies that can be applied:
     Teach  employees the warning signs.
     Teach employees how to stretch.
     Teach employees to start slowly.
     Teach employees to limber up, then begin slowly and
      increase their pace gradually.
     Teach employees to position their hands properly
      without using wrist splints.
     Exercise regularly.
     Select tools wisely.
Need for increased wellness
45
     prog
        Why?




                     CG Hylton
Physical health
                 Proportion of population with one or more chronic diseases*,
                             by selected age groups, Canada, 2009




                                                                                          Source: Statistics Canada.




                                                                                                                                      46
* Diseases include angina, asthma, arthritis or rheumatism, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart disease,
  cancer, effects of a stroke, Crohn’s disease, colitis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cataracts, glaucoma, thyroid condition, mood disorder and anxiety disorder.
Mental health
       Projected prevalence of dementia in senior Canadians* by sex,
                           Canada, 2008 to 2038




                                                                                Source: Smetanin, P. et al. Rising Tide: The Impact of Dementia in Canada 2008 to 2038.




                                                                                                                            47
 * The population over the age of 65 was simulated within the current model using data obtained from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.
Health Promotion
   Health promotion:                                 Diabetes and Age
       Prevention
       Detection
                                                20
       Management




                              % with Diabetes
   Promoting health                            15
    throughout life can
    prevent chronic disease                     10
   Promoting health can                         5
    lead to better disease
    management                                  0
                                                     18-44 45-64 65-74 75+
   Health promotion can
    save you money                                        Age Group
                                                                      CG Hylton48
Work & Life BalanceOlder Workers' Preferences for the
                                 "Next Stage"



   It’s time to rethink how
    work and retirement
    function
   Flexible work options
    can benefit you and
    your aging workforce
   Phased retirement
                                   Cycle In and Out   Part-Time
    programs are an
                                   Start a Business   Work Full Time
    example
                                   Never Work Again   Something Else
   Cliff vs phased
                                                            CG Hylton49
    pensions
Addressing the needs of the aging workforce
Adjustments employers make for
       employees to stay in work
                                          Percentage of employers citing each

                               Allowing reduced or different hours                                 29

                     Meetings with employees to discus extra help                                 28

 Measures used in the               Reducing employee workload                                25

last 12 months to help                            Different duties                           22
 keep employees with                                 Extra breaks                       18
  health problems in
                                           Phased return to work                        17
work or facilitate their
    return to work:                         Different chairs/desks                 11

                                           Access to OH services               9

                                     Other specialised equipment           5

                                            Building modifications      4

                                    Job coach/ personal assistant      3

       No measures provided ----           No measures provided                                         67

                                                                     Source: Employer Survey, DWP
The bottom line: case studies & wellness
 programs

Parcelforce (4,500 employees)        Digital Outlook (27 employees)
Introduced comprehensive             Implemented a variety of wellbeing initiatives:
wellbeing and health                   • 95% improvement in sickness absence rates:
programmes:                              4 days per year in 2006 down to 0.22 days
                                         in 2008
 •   Sickness absence
     reduced by one                   •   Reduced staff turnover from 34%
     third, saving £55m                   in 2007 to 9% in 2008 making
 •   Compensation claims                  savings in recruitment and
     reduced by two thirds, saving        training costs
     £1m                             British Gas (25,600 employees)

 •   Productivity increased by       Implemented back care workshops:
     12.5%                            • Back-related absence reduced by 43%
 •   Overall: £2.25m investment       • 58% of staff improved their attendance
     yielded £6m in direct cost
     savings                          • Return on investment was £31
                                        for every £1 spent
How does diversity fit into the
aging Workforce?




                       53
Symcor Facts …
                                                                                                      Approximately 7,000 EMPLOYEES
                                                                                                      who serve over 100 CUSTOMERS
                                                                                                                      •
                                                                                                    Located at over 30 sites across North
                                                                                                                  America
                                                                                                                      •
                                                                                                       Processes over THREE BILLION
                                                                                                             CHEQUES annually
                                                                                                                      •
 Vancouver, BC                                                                                          Produces nearly 675 MILLION
     1 site
             Calgary, AB    Winnipeg, MB                                                                   STATEMENTS annually
                2 sites         1 site
                                                                Montreal, QC
                                                                                                                      •
                                                                                    Halifax, NS
                                                                  2 sites              2 sites        Receives and processes over 197
                                                     Toronto, ON
                                                        6 sites
                                                                                                                  MILLION
                                                                            Rutherford, NJ            CUSTOMER PAYMENTS annually
                                         Chicago, IL                             1 site
                                            1 site
                                                                                        Baltimore, MD
                                                                                                                      •
                                                                                             1 site    Manages over 8,600 LOCKBOX
                                       Nashville, TN
                                                                         Richmond, VA
                                                                             1 site
                                                                                                                  accounts
Los Angeles, CA
                                            1 site
                                                                          Durham, NC                          •
     1 site                Memphis, TN                                       1 site
                              1 site
                                                                      Charlotte, NC
                                                                         2 sites
                                                     Atlanta, GA
                               Dallas, TX               2 sites
                                                                Orlando, FL
                                 1 site                            2 sites

                                                                   Miami, FL
                                                                     1 site             54
Diversity in Times of Austerity


―…In a time of belt tightening, the optimal use of
  resources is not just an asset but a question of
  survival. In this respect, employment equity
  becomes a powerful tool for management (and
  marketing) giving a strategic advantage
  to businesses that uphold its
  principles.‖
Canadian National Employment Equity Annual
 Report, 1996
                                55
Why invest in hiring a diverse
    workforce?
   According to Human Resource and Skills
    Development Canada, by the year
    2016, approximately two-thirds of the Canadian
    population aged 15 to 64 will be made up of
    members from the designated groups.
   Members of designated groups make up a great
    pool of skills and talents that organizations must
    have access to succeed in
    competitive, knowledge-based market
   Hiring employees from diverse backgrounds
    broadens the base of qualified individuals for
    employment.                        56
Why invest in hiring a diverse
workforce?
   A good track record from a diversity perspective
    can build upon itself, ensuring organizations
    continue to have the opportunity to hire the best
    and most qualified candidates.
   A commitment to equity and diversity in the
    workplace can help reduce turnover as employees
    have a greater allegiance with, and affinity to, a
    work environment where they feel respected and
    valued.
   By increasing the wide array of perspectives
    resulting from diversity an organization becomes
    more creative, flexible and productive
                                  57
Why invest in hiring a diverse
workforce?
   With the aging of the Canadian population
    during the next 20 years as the baby boom
    generation retires, we will need to fully engage
    all Canadians of working age in the workforce
    because the gradual future retirement of the
    baby boomers will not be fully replaced by the
    smaller number of boom-echo kids
    participating in the workforce.
   A growing economy in the period ahead will
    require full realization of the untapped
    potential of Canadians of working age
                                 58
How to Manage a Diverse
Workforce
   Raise Awareness of the value of diversity among
    your staff and promote it
   Treat everyone as individuals
   Look for opportunities to learn
   Set aside time for team interaction during regular
    meetings
   Regularly assess your environment
   Address concurs immediately
   Implement diversity management training
   Implement work/life balance programs
                                   59
Accommodation
   Symcor will accommodate those who require it
    in a manner which respects their dignity, is
    equitable, and enhances their ability to
    compete for jobs, perform their work, and fully
    participate in employment at Symcor
   Symcor works to achieve a workplace free of
    barriers by providing accommodation for those
    requiring it, in accordance with human rights
    legislation, up to the point where it causes
    undue hardship for Symcor
                                 60
Hiring and Recruitment

 Symcor regularly reviews its recruitment and
  hiring policies and practices to ensure that there
  are no systemic barriers resulting in
  discrimination.
 Symcor ensures the action steps set out in the
  employment equity plan are being taken.
 Symcor ensures that reasonable efforts are
  being made to reach any
underrepresented groups
in our recruitment process.

                                  61
Government Incentives
62




                     CG Hylton
Reduced social security contributions

Spain – er contributions reduced for workers aged 60+ who
    have five years of seniority and for newly hired workers aged
    45+
Norway – er contributions reduced by 4 percentage points (i.e.
    from 12.8% to 8.8%) for all older workers aged 62+
Italy – employers exempt from contributions for one year after
    hiring older workers
Allocating time to train
► Right to train (France) – for ees with over 12 mos’
    service, credit of 20 hours per year worked
► Employer Training Pilots (UK) – wage boost (up to 150%) to
    ers offering paid time off for low-skilled ees so they may train
Pension Changes International
examples

  ► Finland: the part-time pension entitles workers
    aged 56 and over to 50% of the income loss
    due to a reduction in working time, paid
    through the pension system. to improve
    employment opportunities.

  ► Sweden: workers are permitted to draw a
    portion of their pension early while still working
Finland wins award
     Ministry of Social Affairs - Forum
65
     for Well-Being at Work
        the health and safety of work,
        the employees’ physical, psychological and social well-
         being
        the meaningfulness of work
        control of exposure and strain
        development of occupational health care and
         rehabilitation
        the reconciliation of work and leisure
        the role of occupational health and safety at work as a
         productive
        the impact of work as a factor promoting health
        dissemination of best practices Hylton
                                       CG
National Strategy for an Ageing Australia –
     to promote awareness of ageing, advise on
66
     short-and long-term policy.
 Ongoing engagement of mature age workers
  will be important to achieve sustained
  economic growth as the population ages.
  While targeted programs to encourage young
  skilled migrants to come to
 Australia may have some impact on the size
  of the workforce, increased large scale
  immigration is not the answer to Australia’s
  ageing society
                             CG Hylton
National Strategy for an Ageing
67
     Australia
        Improved opportunities for ongoing training
         and professional development of mature age
         workers as well as more flexible working
         conditions to facilitate gradual transition from
         work to retirement will need to be
         accommodated as the workforce ages.
        Mature age workers displaced from the
         workforce will continue to need to be
         supported through the employment and
         income support systems.
                                    CG Hylton
Life Satisfaction by Age and Sex,
                                                        Personal                      Alberta, 2004
                                                                           Wellness by Age and Sex, Alberta,                                         2004
Proportion indicating 'Satisfied or Very Satisfied'



                                                      1.0                       Scale 1
                                                                                (Life in general, self
                                                                                job, leisure, finances,
                                                                                appearance)

                                                      0.8                                                                                            By all means
                                                                                                                                                     marry: If you get
                                                                                                                                                     a good
                                                                                                                                                     spouse, you'll
                                                      0.6
                                                                                                                                                     become happy; if
                                                                                                                                                     you get a bad
                                                                                                                                                     one, you'll
                                                      0.4                                                                                            become a
                                                                                                                                                     philosopher. –

                                                                                                                                                     Socrates
                                                      0.2
                                                            12
                                                                 15
                                                                      20
                                                                           25
                                                                                 30
                                                                                      35
                                                                                           40
                                                                                                45
                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                           55
                                                                                                                60
                                                                                                                     65
                                                                                                                          70
                                                                                                                               75
                                                                                                                                    80
                                                                                                                                         85
                                                                                                                                              90 9
                                                                                                                                                +
                                                             -1
                                                                     -1
                                                                          -2
                                                                               -2
                                                                                    -3
                                                                                          -3
                                                                                               -4
                                                                                                    -4
                                                                                                          -5
                                                                                                               -5
                                                                                                                    -6
                                                                                                                         -6
                                                                                                                              -7
                                                                                                                                   -7
                                                                                                                                        -8
                                                                                                                                             -8
                                                                 4
                                                                      9
                                                                           4
                                                                                9
                                                                                      4
                                                                                           9
                                                                                                4
                                                                                                     9
                                                                                                           4
                                                                                                                9
                                                                                                                     4
                                                                                                                          9
                                                                                                                               4
                                                                                                                                    9
                                                                                                                                         4
                                                                                                Age Group
                 Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2004
Summary
69




               CG Hylton
You have been a wonderful
70
     audience
        If I may assist you in any way please let me
         know.




                                  CG Hylton
Our offer to you
71


        Please call if you have any HR, or workplace
         issue that you are overwhelmed with
        We can help you

        We also are pleased to do Free Workshops for
         your organization (some limits apply) Let us
         know what your needs are and we will make it
         happen!
CG Hylton - Services

   HR Consulting             Benefits, Pensions,
   Job Descriptions           EAP
                              Strategic Planning
   Salary Grids
                              Drug and Alcohol
   Wellness at Work
                               programs
   Staff Morale
                              Dept re-orgs
   Training and
                              Leadership
    Workshops
                               compensation
                Tel 403 264 5288
                chris@hylton.ca
                                              72
Thank you for the opportunity to meet today!


  HR
   Consulting
  Training

  Benefits, Pen

   sions
  EAP

 tel 403 264 5288
 chris@hylton.ca         CG Hylton
                                          73
References
74

    Chief Public Health Officer’s Report on the State of Public Health in
     Canada, 2010 Growing Older – Adding Life to Years
     http://www.publichealth.gc.ca/CPHOreport
    http://www.agefriendlyworkplace.org/links.html
    Leibold, M., & Voelpel, S. (2006). Managing the Aging Workforce.
     Germany: Wiley-VCH
    Rothwell, W.J., Sterns, H.L., Spokus, D.& Reaser, J. (2008). Working
     Longer. New York: AMACOM
    Hedge, J., Borman, W., & Lammlein, S. (2006). The Aging Workforce.
     Washington DC: The American Psychological Association
    http://www.wcb.ab.ca/pdfs/workers/c060_with_instructions.pdf



                                              CG Hylton

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Addressing the needs of the aging workforce

  • 1. Addressing the Needs of an Aging Workforce Infonex Workshop Calgary 10:30 – 11:30 am Aug 22rd Chris Hylton, MA 403 264 5288 chris@hylton.ca CG Hylton 1
  • 2. Introduction 2  Chris Hylton, MA  HR& Benefits Background  Workshops  EAP  Getting older CG Hylton
  • 3. “If you want one year of prosperity, grow grain. If you want ten years of prosperity, grow trees. If you want 100 years of prosperity, grow people.” — Ancient Chinese Proverb 3
  • 4. Learning Outcomes 4 What we hope to achieve today:  Define what an aging workplace will look like  Identify what ers and governments can do  Identify possible challenges to becoming an er of choice for an aging workforce  See more graphs than you ever wanted to see CG Hylton
  • 5. Agenda 5  Why accommodating and responding to the needs of an aging workforce is more of an issue now than ever before  Understanding the needs and motivations of an aging workforce  What are the benefits of keeping an aging employee workforce  Designing an age-friendly workplace  Rethinking the work-life balance: strategies and programs for accommodating an aging workforce CG Hylton
  • 6. This is your show 6  Are there any issues you would like me to specifically address in the talk today? CG Hylton
  • 7. Canada’s Population 1978, 2038 experience promoting healthy aging * Projected population. Source: Statistics Canada. 7
  • 8. Retirement Patterns Over Time: US Labor Force Participation Rate of Workers 65+, 1948-2007 Retirement Is Becoming Less Common30 25 Percent of Population 65+ 20 In the Labor Force 15 10 5 1948 1958 1968 1978 1989 1999 8 CG Hylton Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  • 9. US National Supply and Demand Projections for RNs 2,900 2,700 2,500 Projected shortage of over FTE’s (Thousands) 2,300 1,000,000 nurses 2,100 in 2020 1,900 1,700 1,500 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 9 CG Hylton
  • 10. INDIVIDUAL & POPULATION 10 AGING  Life expectancy: Number of years the average person can expect to live  Has increased steadily in Canada during the 20th century  Canadians can also expect to live longer after age 65 than generations before them  Canadians born today can expect to live 20 years longer than if they had been born in 1920  Increased life expectancy into old age is distinguished from previous historical period  Never before in history did vast majority of people in a particular country expect to live to old age CG Hylton
  • 11. LIFE EXPECTANCY IN CANADA, 1920–2005 CG Hylton
  • 12. CANADIAN POPULATION AGE STRUCTURE, 1851, 1901, 1951, 2006 CG Hylton
  • 13. 13 Myth: Aboriginal population Is small in numbers
  • 14. 14 Can someone tell be the difference between Saskatchewan and Alberta regarding proportion of seniors please? Where do you find the lowest ratio in Canada? CG Hylton
  • 15. 15  Saskatchewan has the highest proportion of seniors (15.4 per cent) among the provinces  its neighbour to the west, Alberta, has the lowest (10.7 per cent)  Only about one in 20 people living in the Territories is a senior citizen CG Hylton
  • 16. If I may digress, what else is 16 special about SK? CG Hylton
  • 17. Hint : 17  It relates to this graph CG Hylton
  • 18. Saskatchewan Population Pyramid, 1996 (%) 18 65 + 55-64 Non-Aboriginal 45-54 35-44 25-34 20-24 15-19 10-14 Aboriginal 5-9 0-4 -10.0 -8.0 -6.0 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
  • 19. Saskatchewan Population 1995 to 2045 Percentage of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal People in Saskatchewan By 2045, Aboriginal People will make 100% up approximately Percent of Population 80% Non- ONE THIRD of SK Aboriginal 86.7 population 60% 80.0 Aboriginal 67.5 compared to 40% approximately one 20% tenth in 1995 32.5 13.3 20.0 0% 1995 2015 Year 2045 19
  • 20. So how is this helpful to SK? CG Hylton20
  • 21. Filling Vacancies: Four Ways We Will Avoid a Crisis 21  Immigration Politics?  Automation Cost?  Outsourcing Feasible?  Retaining older workers who  Have skills and experience to get the job done  Need (and may want) to work CG Hylton
  • 22. Older Workers Need to Work: Insufficient Savings 22 50 40 Percentage of Workers 30 20 10 0 1992-93 1996-97 2000 2007 Defined Contribution Defined Benefit CG Hylton Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  • 23. Older Workers Need to Work: Average Out of Pocket Costs for Health Care 23 $1,600 Avg Annual Out of Pocket $1,400 Costs in US, 2003 $1,200 $1,000 $800 $600 $400 $200 $0 <18 19-64 65 Age Group CG Hylton
  • 24. Older Workers Want to Work Top Three Reasons for Working During Retirement 24 US 1. Need the money (61%) 2. A desire to stay mentally active (54%) 3. The need for health benefits (52%) CG Hylton
  • 25. Replacement Ratio US Ratio of People 65+ to People 18-64, % 50 40 30 1 old / 2.5 young 20 10 1 old / 5 young 0 1960 1980 2000 2040 2060 2080 25 CG Hylton
  • 26. Older workers a drain? Not a chance, Oxford study finds ()  ―Meet the new tax gusher: the golden-age employee. Working Canadians between the ages of 60 and 79 contribute more than $2.2-billion each year in tax payments on employment income –  and there is every indication that the populous baby boom generation coming up behind them intends to stay even more connected to work, HSBC Bank Canada said issuing the results of a global survey conducted by Oxford University's Institute of Ageing…‖
  • 27. In the past…  During downturns employers targeted elderly workers in order to cut expenses  Elderly people often faced job discrimination as they were expected to retire at age 65  Is this true today or in the future?  Any comments please?
  • 28. Old, older, oldest  Young-old ( 65-74 ) are very active  Middle-old ( 75-84 )  Old-old ( 85 + )  In U.S. in 2005, 70,000 centenarians Canada: 4,600 centenarians in 2007
  • 30. Passing on Expertise 30 Aerospace  Boeing has started a program to transfer older workers' knowledge to the next generation.  And when an employee announces he'd like to retire, "we ask them why," said Duane Schireman, director of human resources for Boeing's 787 "Dreamliner" program.  Sometimes the person would like to keep working, just not 40 hours a week. On a case-by-case basis, Schireman said, managers and the employee explore such options as job sharing, telecommuting and contract work.  Boeing, in collaboration with other aerospace employers, also is trying to remove barriers that may force people into retirement before they're really ready. CG Hylton
  • 31. Nursing 31  Group Health is addressing the issue after learning that 42 percent of its 890 registered nurses are age 55 or older.  To extend their careers, the health-care organization is offering nurses who are five years from retirement opportunities to mentor and teach, as well as do part-time work after retirement.  It's also making sure older nurses, who are at greater risk of injury on the job, have the best equipment for handling patients. CG Hylton
  • 32. A gradual retirement - 32 Weyerhaeuser  new delayed-retirement project, called Gray Matters, is grounded in research about the attitudes of its employees age 55 and over.  The vast majority say they want to work longer rather than completely retire.  But they want it all — a flexible schedule, health-care benefits and no negative financial impact  And they want the work to be meaningful. CG Hylton
  • 33. A gradual retirement 33  Gray Matters offers select ees opportunity to retire gradually, but they must average 25 hours of work a week in order to keep health benefits. The part- time work also shouldn't go on for too many years or it could negatively impact their pension.  they're expected to create a plan to transfer knowledge and mentor younger workers.  The company also is participating in a talent bank, to be run by an outside firm, that will offer retirees a chance to work on a temporary basis. "What we all want as employers is the best talent we can have," said Hass, retirement educator at Weyerhaeuser. "And what we ought to recognize is that the best talent can come at any age." CG Hylton
  • 34. Most Ers are Unprepared 34  most unprepared or don't have the luxury of dealing with the aging work force, often because they're embroiled in shorter-term economic crises  "Furthest from their minds is putting more money into retaining older workers because they don't even know what the business horizon is," said Valerie Paganelli, a Seattle- based retirement consulting actuary and researcher on aging workforce  "Still, they may well need, to in order to bridge CG Hylton their way to the next level of success"
  • 35. Would you agree? 35 CG Hylton
  • 37. Smart Canes 37  Another invention called Smart Canes, will allow real-time feedback on proper gait and alert a worker’s colleagues by text if a fall occurs.  ―It’s a floor that’s compliant enough to prevent injury in case of a fall, but hard enough that you can do normal activities on it,‖ noted Feldman.  Initial tests show that it could reduce hip fractures up to 80 per cent. CG Hylton
  • 38. Adapting the workplace 38  Falls are the leading cause of hospitalization due to injury for Canadians 65+  one in three expected to experience this life altering moment this year alone  offices with flexi-floors, when those falls do occur, special new ―bouncy floors‖ could reduce the risk of serious injury CG Hylton
  • 39. Air bags 39  Older workers will also have the option of wearing a belt with built-in air bags that will deploy when the sensor detects a fall  Those with balance problems could wear them as part of their regular office wear CG Hylton
  • 40. The Work Environment  The spaces where we work affect how we age  We have control over how workplaces are designed  Work environment issues are aging issues  Physical demands of work  Lighting and vision  Cognitive demands of work  We can design age friendly workplaces CG Hylton40
  • 41. ERGONOMIC PROBLEM- SOLVING STRATEGIES  Seated work with larger parts involves interacting with objects that may be too large to manipulate manually, associated with assembly & welding jobs.  Problems are typically related to posture, illumination, reach, and lifting  Use technology to lift & position the work for easy access that does not require bending, twisting & reaching.  Use supplemental lighting.  Use adjustable chairs/work surfaces
  • 42. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDS)  Frequent and, for some, constant computer use has led to an explosion of injuries that until now were seen mostly in the meatpacking industry.  Collectively, these injuries are known as CTDs.  CTD is an umbrella term covering injuries caused by forceful or awkward movements, repeated frequently over time.  CTDs occur to the muscles, nerves, and tendons of the hands, arms, shoulders, and neck.
  • 43. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDS)  Overworking a tendon can cause small tears in it, which inflame and cause intense pain.  Known as tendinitis. Other forms of CTDs are shown at right.
  • 44. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDS)  Preventive strategies that can be applied:  Teach employees the warning signs.  Teach employees how to stretch.  Teach employees to start slowly.  Teach employees to limber up, then begin slowly and increase their pace gradually.  Teach employees to position their hands properly without using wrist splints.  Exercise regularly.  Select tools wisely.
  • 45. Need for increased wellness 45 prog  Why? CG Hylton
  • 46. Physical health Proportion of population with one or more chronic diseases*, by selected age groups, Canada, 2009 Source: Statistics Canada. 46 * Diseases include angina, asthma, arthritis or rheumatism, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, effects of a stroke, Crohn’s disease, colitis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cataracts, glaucoma, thyroid condition, mood disorder and anxiety disorder.
  • 47. Mental health Projected prevalence of dementia in senior Canadians* by sex, Canada, 2008 to 2038 Source: Smetanin, P. et al. Rising Tide: The Impact of Dementia in Canada 2008 to 2038. 47 * The population over the age of 65 was simulated within the current model using data obtained from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.
  • 48. Health Promotion  Health promotion: Diabetes and Age  Prevention  Detection 20  Management % with Diabetes  Promoting health 15 throughout life can prevent chronic disease 10  Promoting health can 5 lead to better disease management 0 18-44 45-64 65-74 75+  Health promotion can save you money Age Group CG Hylton48
  • 49. Work & Life BalanceOlder Workers' Preferences for the "Next Stage"  It’s time to rethink how work and retirement function  Flexible work options can benefit you and your aging workforce  Phased retirement Cycle In and Out Part-Time programs are an Start a Business Work Full Time example Never Work Again Something Else  Cliff vs phased CG Hylton49 pensions
  • 51. Adjustments employers make for employees to stay in work Percentage of employers citing each Allowing reduced or different hours 29 Meetings with employees to discus extra help 28 Measures used in the Reducing employee workload 25 last 12 months to help Different duties 22 keep employees with Extra breaks 18 health problems in Phased return to work 17 work or facilitate their return to work: Different chairs/desks 11 Access to OH services 9 Other specialised equipment 5 Building modifications 4 Job coach/ personal assistant 3 No measures provided ---- No measures provided 67 Source: Employer Survey, DWP
  • 52. The bottom line: case studies & wellness programs Parcelforce (4,500 employees) Digital Outlook (27 employees) Introduced comprehensive Implemented a variety of wellbeing initiatives: wellbeing and health • 95% improvement in sickness absence rates: programmes: 4 days per year in 2006 down to 0.22 days in 2008 • Sickness absence reduced by one • Reduced staff turnover from 34% third, saving £55m in 2007 to 9% in 2008 making • Compensation claims savings in recruitment and reduced by two thirds, saving training costs £1m British Gas (25,600 employees) • Productivity increased by Implemented back care workshops: 12.5% • Back-related absence reduced by 43% • Overall: £2.25m investment • 58% of staff improved their attendance yielded £6m in direct cost savings • Return on investment was £31 for every £1 spent
  • 53. How does diversity fit into the aging Workforce? 53
  • 54. Symcor Facts … Approximately 7,000 EMPLOYEES who serve over 100 CUSTOMERS • Located at over 30 sites across North America • Processes over THREE BILLION CHEQUES annually • Vancouver, BC Produces nearly 675 MILLION 1 site Calgary, AB Winnipeg, MB STATEMENTS annually 2 sites 1 site Montreal, QC • Halifax, NS 2 sites 2 sites Receives and processes over 197 Toronto, ON 6 sites MILLION Rutherford, NJ CUSTOMER PAYMENTS annually Chicago, IL 1 site 1 site Baltimore, MD • 1 site Manages over 8,600 LOCKBOX Nashville, TN Richmond, VA 1 site accounts Los Angeles, CA 1 site Durham, NC • 1 site Memphis, TN 1 site 1 site Charlotte, NC 2 sites Atlanta, GA Dallas, TX 2 sites Orlando, FL 1 site 2 sites Miami, FL 1 site 54
  • 55. Diversity in Times of Austerity ―…In a time of belt tightening, the optimal use of resources is not just an asset but a question of survival. In this respect, employment equity becomes a powerful tool for management (and marketing) giving a strategic advantage to businesses that uphold its principles.‖ Canadian National Employment Equity Annual Report, 1996 55
  • 56. Why invest in hiring a diverse workforce?  According to Human Resource and Skills Development Canada, by the year 2016, approximately two-thirds of the Canadian population aged 15 to 64 will be made up of members from the designated groups.  Members of designated groups make up a great pool of skills and talents that organizations must have access to succeed in competitive, knowledge-based market  Hiring employees from diverse backgrounds broadens the base of qualified individuals for employment. 56
  • 57. Why invest in hiring a diverse workforce?  A good track record from a diversity perspective can build upon itself, ensuring organizations continue to have the opportunity to hire the best and most qualified candidates.  A commitment to equity and diversity in the workplace can help reduce turnover as employees have a greater allegiance with, and affinity to, a work environment where they feel respected and valued.  By increasing the wide array of perspectives resulting from diversity an organization becomes more creative, flexible and productive 57
  • 58. Why invest in hiring a diverse workforce?  With the aging of the Canadian population during the next 20 years as the baby boom generation retires, we will need to fully engage all Canadians of working age in the workforce because the gradual future retirement of the baby boomers will not be fully replaced by the smaller number of boom-echo kids participating in the workforce.  A growing economy in the period ahead will require full realization of the untapped potential of Canadians of working age 58
  • 59. How to Manage a Diverse Workforce  Raise Awareness of the value of diversity among your staff and promote it  Treat everyone as individuals  Look for opportunities to learn  Set aside time for team interaction during regular meetings  Regularly assess your environment  Address concurs immediately  Implement diversity management training  Implement work/life balance programs 59
  • 60. Accommodation  Symcor will accommodate those who require it in a manner which respects their dignity, is equitable, and enhances their ability to compete for jobs, perform their work, and fully participate in employment at Symcor  Symcor works to achieve a workplace free of barriers by providing accommodation for those requiring it, in accordance with human rights legislation, up to the point where it causes undue hardship for Symcor 60
  • 61. Hiring and Recruitment  Symcor regularly reviews its recruitment and hiring policies and practices to ensure that there are no systemic barriers resulting in discrimination.  Symcor ensures the action steps set out in the employment equity plan are being taken.  Symcor ensures that reasonable efforts are being made to reach any underrepresented groups in our recruitment process. 61
  • 63. Reduced social security contributions Spain – er contributions reduced for workers aged 60+ who have five years of seniority and for newly hired workers aged 45+ Norway – er contributions reduced by 4 percentage points (i.e. from 12.8% to 8.8%) for all older workers aged 62+ Italy – employers exempt from contributions for one year after hiring older workers Allocating time to train ► Right to train (France) – for ees with over 12 mos’ service, credit of 20 hours per year worked ► Employer Training Pilots (UK) – wage boost (up to 150%) to ers offering paid time off for low-skilled ees so they may train
  • 64. Pension Changes International examples ► Finland: the part-time pension entitles workers aged 56 and over to 50% of the income loss due to a reduction in working time, paid through the pension system. to improve employment opportunities. ► Sweden: workers are permitted to draw a portion of their pension early while still working
  • 65. Finland wins award Ministry of Social Affairs - Forum 65 for Well-Being at Work  the health and safety of work,  the employees’ physical, psychological and social well- being  the meaningfulness of work  control of exposure and strain  development of occupational health care and rehabilitation  the reconciliation of work and leisure  the role of occupational health and safety at work as a productive  the impact of work as a factor promoting health  dissemination of best practices Hylton CG
  • 66. National Strategy for an Ageing Australia – to promote awareness of ageing, advise on 66 short-and long-term policy.  Ongoing engagement of mature age workers will be important to achieve sustained economic growth as the population ages. While targeted programs to encourage young skilled migrants to come to  Australia may have some impact on the size of the workforce, increased large scale immigration is not the answer to Australia’s ageing society CG Hylton
  • 67. National Strategy for an Ageing 67 Australia  Improved opportunities for ongoing training and professional development of mature age workers as well as more flexible working conditions to facilitate gradual transition from work to retirement will need to be accommodated as the workforce ages.  Mature age workers displaced from the workforce will continue to need to be supported through the employment and income support systems. CG Hylton
  • 68. Life Satisfaction by Age and Sex, Personal Alberta, 2004 Wellness by Age and Sex, Alberta, 2004 Proportion indicating 'Satisfied or Very Satisfied' 1.0 Scale 1 (Life in general, self job, leisure, finances, appearance) 0.8 By all means marry: If you get a good spouse, you'll 0.6 become happy; if you get a bad one, you'll 0.4 become a philosopher. – Socrates 0.2 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 9 + -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4 -4 -5 -5 -6 -6 -7 -7 -8 -8 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 Age Group Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2004
  • 69. Summary 69 CG Hylton
  • 70. You have been a wonderful 70 audience  If I may assist you in any way please let me know. CG Hylton
  • 71. Our offer to you 71  Please call if you have any HR, or workplace issue that you are overwhelmed with  We can help you  We also are pleased to do Free Workshops for your organization (some limits apply) Let us know what your needs are and we will make it happen!
  • 72. CG Hylton - Services  HR Consulting  Benefits, Pensions,  Job Descriptions EAP  Strategic Planning  Salary Grids  Drug and Alcohol  Wellness at Work programs  Staff Morale  Dept re-orgs  Training and  Leadership Workshops compensation Tel 403 264 5288 chris@hylton.ca 72
  • 73. Thank you for the opportunity to meet today!  HR Consulting  Training  Benefits, Pen sions  EAP tel 403 264 5288 chris@hylton.ca CG Hylton 73
  • 74. References 74  Chief Public Health Officer’s Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2010 Growing Older – Adding Life to Years http://www.publichealth.gc.ca/CPHOreport  http://www.agefriendlyworkplace.org/links.html  Leibold, M., & Voelpel, S. (2006). Managing the Aging Workforce. Germany: Wiley-VCH  Rothwell, W.J., Sterns, H.L., Spokus, D.& Reaser, J. (2008). Working Longer. New York: AMACOM  Hedge, J., Borman, W., & Lammlein, S. (2006). The Aging Workforce. Washington DC: The American Psychological Association  http://www.wcb.ab.ca/pdfs/workers/c060_with_instructions.pdf CG Hylton

Editor's Notes

  1. Source:http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2007/07/17/census-canada.html
  2. Source: W Weir U Sask
  3. Source: W Weir U Sask
  4. Source: Virginia Galt, Globe and Mail May 23, 2007
  5. Source:http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2007/07/17/census-canada.html (Anguera, 2005)
  6. Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  7. Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  8. Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  9. Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  10. Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  11. Source: http://www.50plus.com/employment/new-technology-could-help-older-workers/161615/ accessed Aug 11, 2012
  12. Things like, mobile medication alerts and injectable heart monitors could eventually allow our job sites to offer a standard of safety at the same level as a care facility.And within five years, workers should be able to wear biometric sensors no bigger than a band aid, that will allow doctors to work remotely to monitor a patient’s health.Fabio Feldman, a Canadian injury-prevention researcher, told Post Media that “this is the kind of thing that will allow people to work into their 70s and 80.”Another invention called Smart Canes, will allow real-time feedback on proper gait and alert a worker’s colleagues by text if a fall occurs.“It’s a floor that’s compliant enough to prevent injury in case of a fall, but hard enough that you can do normal activities on it,” noted Feldman.Initial tests show that it could reduce hip fractures up to 80 per cent.Older workers will also have the option of wearing a belt with built-in air bags that will deploy when the sensor detects a fall. Those with balance problems could wear them as part of their regular office wear.It’s all part of a vision of a future where employees and employers both take on more responsibility for the well being of the worker.Source: http://www.50plus.com/employment/new-technology-could-help-older-workers/161615/ accessed Aug 11, 2012
  13. Source: http://www.50plus.com/employment/new-technology-could-help-older-workers/161615/ accessed Aug 11, 2012
  14. Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  15. Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  16. Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  17. Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  18. Source: Health, Work and Well-being: Where are we now and What is the Future Landscape? , Presentation by Dame Carol Black UK National Director forHealth and Work, Niagara on the Lake, 3 October 2011 Mastromatteo Oration
  19. Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  20. Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  21. Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  22. Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  23. Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  24. Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  25. Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  26. http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=39503&amp;name=DLFE-6307.pdf
  27. Source: http://www.longevity-international.com/assets/National%20Strategy%20for%20an%20Ageing%20Australia.pdf
  28. Source: http://www.longevity-international.com/assets/National%20Strategy%20for%20an%20Ageing%20Australia.pdf