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CHAPTER-2
ACTUATORS
SUVENDU MONDAL
AP,EED,SURTECH
20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 1
• Actuators are devices that convert electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic
energy into mechanical motion or force. They are used to control or move
physical systems or objects. There are several types of actuators, including:
1. Electric actuators
2. Hydraulic actuators
3. Pneumatic actuators
4. Piezoelectric actuators
Actuators have a wide range of applications in various fields, such as
manufacturing, robotics, aerospace, and medicine. They are used to control
and move physical systems or objects, such as robotic arms, valves, and
doors. Actuators are essential components of many systems and play an
important role in ensuring their accuracy, efficiency, and reliability.
20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 2
Dc motors
• DC (direct current) motors are commonly used as actuators in many applications. DC motors use electrical
energy to produce rotational motion, which can be used to control or move physical systems or objects.
• There are two main types of DC motors: brushed and brushless. Brushed DC motors have a rotating
armature and a stationary set of brushes that supply electrical current to the commutator, which switches
the polarity of the armature's coils as it rotates. Brushless DC motors, on the other hand, use electronic
commutation to switch the polarity of the motor's coils and produce rotational motion.
• DC motors are widely used in industrial automation, robotics, automotive, and aerospace applications. They
are used to control and move physical systems or objects, such as conveyor belts, robotic arms, and
automotive window regulators. They are also used in precision positioning systems, such as in CNC machines
and in optical and medical equipment.
• DC motors offer several advantages as actuators, including high torque-to-weight ratio, compact size, and
easy speed control. However, they also have some limitations, such as limited speed range, and can produce
electromagnetic interference (EMI) that may affect nearby electronic equipment.
• Overall, DC motors are versatile and reliable actuators that are widely used in many applications, and they
continue to be improved with new materials and technologies.
20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 3
Servo Motors
• Servo motors are commonly used as actuators in many applications that require precise and accurate control
of position, speed, and torque. A servo motor is a type of DC motor that uses feedback control to achieve
precise and smooth motion control. The feedback control is achieved through a position or speed sensor
that provides continuous feedback to the motor controller, which adjusts the motor's power input and
direction of rotation to achieve the desired motion.
• Servo motors are widely used in industrial automation, robotics, CNC machines, and other applications that
require precise control of motion. They are also used in consumer electronics, such as RC toys and drones,
and in automotive and aerospace applications.
• The main advantages of servo motors as actuators are their high accuracy, fast response time, and ability to
maintain a set position or speed despite external disturbances or load changes. They also offer high torque-
to-weight ratios, which makes them suitable for applications that require high power density.
• Servo motors are available in various sizes and types, such as AC servo motors, DC servo motors, and
brushless servo motors. Each type has its own set of advantages and limitations, and the selection of the
appropriate motor depends on the specific requirements of the application.
• Overall, servo motors are widely used as actuators in many applications that require precise and accurate
motion control, and they play an important role in ensuring the efficiency, safety, and quality of many
processes and products.
20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 4
Stepper Motor
• Stepper motors are another type of DC motor commonly used as actuators in applications that require
precise control of position and speed. Stepper motors are unique in that they move in precise, fixed
increments or steps, which makes them ideal for applications that require accurate positioning and control.
• Stepper motors are widely used in industrial automation, robotics, CNC machines, and other applications
that require precise control of motion. They are also used in consumer electronics, such as printers and
scanners, and in automotive and aerospace applications.
• The main advantages of stepper motors as actuators are their high precision and accuracy, as well as their
ability to maintain a precise position even without feedback sensors. They also offer high torque at low
speeds, which makes them suitable for applications that require high holding torque.
• Stepper motors are available in various sizes and types, such as bipolar and unipolar stepper motors. Bipolar
stepper motors have two coils and require a bipolar driver, while unipolar stepper motors have four or five
coils and require a unipolar driver. Each type has its own set of advantages and limitations, and the selection
of the appropriate motor depends on the specific requirements of the application.
• Overall, stepper motors are widely used as actuators in many applications that require precise control of
position and speed, and they play an important role in ensuring the efficiency, accuracy, and quality of many
processes and products.
20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 5
Piezo electric actuators
• Piezoelectric actuators are a type of actuator that uses the piezoelectric effect to convert
electrical energy into mechanical motion. Piezoelectric materials, such as quartz, lead zirconate
titanate (PZT), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), exhibit the piezoelectric effect, which is the
ability to generate an electric charge in response to a mechanical stress or deformation.
• Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in precision positioning and control applications, such as
in nanotechnology, optics, and biomedical engineering. They are also used in automotive,
aerospace, and industrial applications.
• The main advantages of piezoelectric actuators are their high precision and resolution, fast
response time, and low power consumption. They also offer high force and displacement, which
makes them suitable for applications that require high precision and high frequency motion.
• Piezoelectric actuators are available in various types, such as piezoelectric stack actuators,
piezoelectric bender actuators, and piezoelectric inchworm actuators. Each type has its own set
of advantages and limitations, and the selection of the appropriate actuator depends on the
specific requirements of the application.
• Overall, piezoelectric actuators are widely used in many applications that require precise control
of motion, and they play an important role in ensuring the efficiency, accuracy, and quality of
many processes and products.
20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 6
Pneumatic Actuators
• Pneumatic actuators are devices that use compressed air to generate mechanical
motion. They are widely used in many industries and applications, including
manufacturing, automation, and robotics.
• Pneumatic actuators convert the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion,
which can be used to operate valves, switches, and other mechanical devices. The most
common type of pneumatic actuator is the piston actuator, which consists of a cylinder
with a piston inside. When air is supplied to one side of the piston, it moves in the
opposite direction, generating mechanical force.
• Other types of pneumatic actuators include diaphragm actuators, vane actuators, and
rotary actuators. Diaphragm actuators use a flexible diaphragm to generate motion,
while vane actuators use a rotating vane to produce torque. Rotary actuators are used to
rotate objects, such as valves or shafts.
• Pneumatic actuators are popular because they are relatively simple and reliable, and
they can operate in harsh environments where electric or hydraulic systems may not be
practical. However, they do require a source of compressed air, and they may be less
precise or controllable than other types of actuators.
20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 7

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Actuators.pptx

  • 2. • Actuators are devices that convert electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic energy into mechanical motion or force. They are used to control or move physical systems or objects. There are several types of actuators, including: 1. Electric actuators 2. Hydraulic actuators 3. Pneumatic actuators 4. Piezoelectric actuators Actuators have a wide range of applications in various fields, such as manufacturing, robotics, aerospace, and medicine. They are used to control and move physical systems or objects, such as robotic arms, valves, and doors. Actuators are essential components of many systems and play an important role in ensuring their accuracy, efficiency, and reliability. 20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 2
  • 3. Dc motors • DC (direct current) motors are commonly used as actuators in many applications. DC motors use electrical energy to produce rotational motion, which can be used to control or move physical systems or objects. • There are two main types of DC motors: brushed and brushless. Brushed DC motors have a rotating armature and a stationary set of brushes that supply electrical current to the commutator, which switches the polarity of the armature's coils as it rotates. Brushless DC motors, on the other hand, use electronic commutation to switch the polarity of the motor's coils and produce rotational motion. • DC motors are widely used in industrial automation, robotics, automotive, and aerospace applications. They are used to control and move physical systems or objects, such as conveyor belts, robotic arms, and automotive window regulators. They are also used in precision positioning systems, such as in CNC machines and in optical and medical equipment. • DC motors offer several advantages as actuators, including high torque-to-weight ratio, compact size, and easy speed control. However, they also have some limitations, such as limited speed range, and can produce electromagnetic interference (EMI) that may affect nearby electronic equipment. • Overall, DC motors are versatile and reliable actuators that are widely used in many applications, and they continue to be improved with new materials and technologies. 20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 3
  • 4. Servo Motors • Servo motors are commonly used as actuators in many applications that require precise and accurate control of position, speed, and torque. A servo motor is a type of DC motor that uses feedback control to achieve precise and smooth motion control. The feedback control is achieved through a position or speed sensor that provides continuous feedback to the motor controller, which adjusts the motor's power input and direction of rotation to achieve the desired motion. • Servo motors are widely used in industrial automation, robotics, CNC machines, and other applications that require precise control of motion. They are also used in consumer electronics, such as RC toys and drones, and in automotive and aerospace applications. • The main advantages of servo motors as actuators are their high accuracy, fast response time, and ability to maintain a set position or speed despite external disturbances or load changes. They also offer high torque- to-weight ratios, which makes them suitable for applications that require high power density. • Servo motors are available in various sizes and types, such as AC servo motors, DC servo motors, and brushless servo motors. Each type has its own set of advantages and limitations, and the selection of the appropriate motor depends on the specific requirements of the application. • Overall, servo motors are widely used as actuators in many applications that require precise and accurate motion control, and they play an important role in ensuring the efficiency, safety, and quality of many processes and products. 20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 4
  • 5. Stepper Motor • Stepper motors are another type of DC motor commonly used as actuators in applications that require precise control of position and speed. Stepper motors are unique in that they move in precise, fixed increments or steps, which makes them ideal for applications that require accurate positioning and control. • Stepper motors are widely used in industrial automation, robotics, CNC machines, and other applications that require precise control of motion. They are also used in consumer electronics, such as printers and scanners, and in automotive and aerospace applications. • The main advantages of stepper motors as actuators are their high precision and accuracy, as well as their ability to maintain a precise position even without feedback sensors. They also offer high torque at low speeds, which makes them suitable for applications that require high holding torque. • Stepper motors are available in various sizes and types, such as bipolar and unipolar stepper motors. Bipolar stepper motors have two coils and require a bipolar driver, while unipolar stepper motors have four or five coils and require a unipolar driver. Each type has its own set of advantages and limitations, and the selection of the appropriate motor depends on the specific requirements of the application. • Overall, stepper motors are widely used as actuators in many applications that require precise control of position and speed, and they play an important role in ensuring the efficiency, accuracy, and quality of many processes and products. 20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 5
  • 6. Piezo electric actuators • Piezoelectric actuators are a type of actuator that uses the piezoelectric effect to convert electrical energy into mechanical motion. Piezoelectric materials, such as quartz, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), exhibit the piezoelectric effect, which is the ability to generate an electric charge in response to a mechanical stress or deformation. • Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in precision positioning and control applications, such as in nanotechnology, optics, and biomedical engineering. They are also used in automotive, aerospace, and industrial applications. • The main advantages of piezoelectric actuators are their high precision and resolution, fast response time, and low power consumption. They also offer high force and displacement, which makes them suitable for applications that require high precision and high frequency motion. • Piezoelectric actuators are available in various types, such as piezoelectric stack actuators, piezoelectric bender actuators, and piezoelectric inchworm actuators. Each type has its own set of advantages and limitations, and the selection of the appropriate actuator depends on the specific requirements of the application. • Overall, piezoelectric actuators are widely used in many applications that require precise control of motion, and they play an important role in ensuring the efficiency, accuracy, and quality of many processes and products. 20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 6
  • 7. Pneumatic Actuators • Pneumatic actuators are devices that use compressed air to generate mechanical motion. They are widely used in many industries and applications, including manufacturing, automation, and robotics. • Pneumatic actuators convert the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion, which can be used to operate valves, switches, and other mechanical devices. The most common type of pneumatic actuator is the piston actuator, which consists of a cylinder with a piston inside. When air is supplied to one side of the piston, it moves in the opposite direction, generating mechanical force. • Other types of pneumatic actuators include diaphragm actuators, vane actuators, and rotary actuators. Diaphragm actuators use a flexible diaphragm to generate motion, while vane actuators use a rotating vane to produce torque. Rotary actuators are used to rotate objects, such as valves or shafts. • Pneumatic actuators are popular because they are relatively simple and reliable, and they can operate in harsh environments where electric or hydraulic systems may not be practical. However, they do require a source of compressed air, and they may be less precise or controllable than other types of actuators. 20-04-2023 SurTech, JIS, DumDum 7