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Emotion Stress and
   Relaxation
What is Emotion?



                   Cognition



                   Conation    Response
  Stimulus



                     Affect
Emotional Arousal and Performance
Model of the basic neural systems control of emotions


           Filtering and Evaluation      Effectors


              Neocortical
              processing
                                      Skeletomotor and
                                                          Periphery
Stimulus
                                      Autonomic control
              Subcortical
              processing
Theory of Emotion <1800




                        Cognition
             1
                   2
                                         3
                       Conation/Affect       Response
  Stimulus
Theory of Emotion: James Lange 1884




                                      4
                      Cognition                   Affect

                                              3
               1                          2
                        Conation                  Response
  Stimulus
Cannon Bard Theory: 1920




                                   Fight or Flight
                                   Response

                    Subconscious
  Stimulus            Cognition

                                     Affect
Cannon Bard: Sham Rage Animal
The Hypothalamus Coordinates the Peripheral Expression of
Emotional States : Stephen Ranson 1932, Walter Hess 1940
Hypothalamic control of ANS
Schachter Singer Cognitive Theory of Emotion (1960)
Arnold Appraisal Theory of Emotion




                       Subconscious
  Stimulus                            Response
                         Appraisal



                         Conscious
                                       Affect
                         Appraisal
06c emotion stress and relaxation
The Search for Cortical Representation of Feeling Has Led to
the Limbic System
06c emotion stress and relaxation
Papez Circuit
Papez Circuit of Emotional Response
Limbic system expanded
Kluver Bucy Syndrome 1939


                               Bilateral removal of the temporal
                            lobes in monkeys—including the
                            amygdala and the hippocampal
                            formation, as well as the nonlimbic
                            temporal cortex
                              the monkeys, which had been
                            quite wild before the procedure,
                            became tame and fearless and their
                            emotions flattened
                              Mouthing, Hypersexuality,
                            compulsive visual attention
Seat of Emotion: Amygdala
Learned Emotional Responses Are Processed in the Amygdala
Auditory emotional conditioning pathway
Model of associative learning in the amygdala
The Amygdala Mediates Both the Autonomic Expression and
the Cognitive Experience of Emotion
The Amygdala Is the Part of the Limbic System Most
Specifically Involved With Emotional Experience
The Amygdala May Be Involved in Both Pleasurable and
Fearful Responses to Stimuli
Two Pathway of Emotion
Emotional Pathway
Listening to Heart
The Frontal, Cingulate, and Parahippocampal Cortices Are Involved in
Emotion
Emotional Expressions: Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal Contributions
Nervous system that organize emotional experience and expression
Cortical Lateralization of Emotional Functions
:Plutchik
What is Stress?




•Stress is reaction to something considerd
a challenge or a threat.
•Anything that causes a change in your
life causes stress
•Stress is a natural way for us to adjust to
changes so we can keep in balance
•Change may be real or virtual, good or
bad
STRESS EVENT VALUES
1.    DEATH OF SPOUSE                                                                             100
2.    DIVORCE                                                                                     60
3.    MENOPAUSE                                                                                   60
4.    SEPARATION FROM LIVING PARTNER                                                              60
5.    JAIL TERM OR PROBATION                                                                      60
6.    DEATH OF CLOSE FAMILY MEMBER OTHER THAN SPOUSE                                              60
7.    SERIOUS PERSONAL INJURY OR ILLNESS                                                          45
8.    MARRIAGE OR ESTABLISHING LIFE PARTNERSHIP                                                   45
9.    FIRED AT WORK                                                                               45
10.   MARITAL OR RELATIONSHIP RECONCILIATION                                                      40
11.   RETIREMENT                                                                                  40
12.   CHANGE IN HEALTH OF IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBER                                                 40
13.   WORK MORE THAN 40 HOURS PER WEEK                                                            35
14.   PREGNANCY OR CAUSING PREGNANCY                                                              35
15.   SEX DIFFICULTIES                                                                            35
16.   GAIN OF NEW FAMILY MEMBER                                                                   35
17.   BUSINESS OR WORK ROLE CHANGE                                                                35
18.   CHANGE IN FINANCIAL STATE                                                                   35
19.   DEATH OF A CLOSE FRIEND (not a family member)                                               30
20.   CHANGE IN NUMBER OF ARGUMENTS WITH SPOUSE OR LIFE PARTNER                                   30
21.   MORTGAGE OR LOAN FOR A MAJOR PURPOSE                                                        25
22.   FORECLOSURE OF MORTGAGE OR LOAN                                                             25
23.   SLEEP LESS THAN 8 HOURS PER NIGHT                                                           25
24.   CHANGE IN RESPONSIBILITIES AT WORK                                                          25
25.   TROUBLE WITH IN-LAWS,OR WITH CHILDREN                                                       25
26.   OUTSTANDING PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT                                                            25
27.   SPOUSE BEGINS OR STOPS WORK                                                                 20
28.   BEGIN OR END SCHOOL                                                                         20
29.   CHANGE IN LIVING CONDITIONS (visitors in the home, change in roommates, remodeling house)   20
30.   CHANGE IN PERSONAL HABITS (diet, exercise, smoking, etc.)                                   20
31.   CHRONIC ALLERGIES 20 32.TROUBLE WITH BOSS 20 33.CHANGE IN WORK HOURS OR CONDITIONS          15
32.   MOVING TO NEW RESIDENCE 15 35.PRESENTLY IN PRE-MENSTRUAL PERIOD                             15
33.   CHANGE IN SCHOOLS                                                                           15
34.   CHANGE IN RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES                                                              15
35.   CHANGE IN SOCIAL ACTIVITIES (more or less than before)                                      15
36.   MINOR FINANCIAL LOAN                                                                        10
37.   CHANGE IN FREQUENCY OF FAMILY GET-TOGETHERS                                                 10
38.   VACATION                                                                                    10
39.   PRESENTLY IN WINTER HOLIDAY SEASON                                                          10
40.   MINOR VIOLATION OF THE LAW                                                                  5
Physiology of Stress




Stress
Acute stress


•Acute stress is the reaction to an
immediate threat, commonly known as
the fight or flight response. The threat
can be any situation that is
experienced, even subconsciously or
falsely, as a danger.
    –   noise,
    –   crowding,
    –   isolation,
    –   hunger,
    –   danger,
    –   infection,
    –   imagining a threat or
        remembering a dangerous
        event.
Chronic Stress




  on-going highly pressured work,
  long-term relationship problems,
  loneliness, and
  persistent financial worries
Cardio respiratory response
Immune response
Other responses
Heart Disease




 Precipitates
     –   Angina
     –   Heart attack
     –   Arrhythmias
     –   Sudden death
 Hypertension
Psychological effect




      Depression
      Anxiety
      Sleep disturbance
      Forgetfulness
Other effect of Stress



 Stroke
 Susceptibility to infection
 Immune disorders
 Cancer
 GI Problems
 Endocrine problem
 Metabolic problem
Who are at risk?



        Psychological -Early nurturing, Personality trait
        Genetic factor
        Immunological
        Age – Young and old
        Sex - Women
        Social – minorities, single
        Economical - poor
        Education – Less educated
        Geographical – Cities
Work Risk Factors

 Having no participation in decisions that affect
one's responsibilities.
 Unrelenting and unreasonable demands for
performance.
 Lack of effective communication and conflict-
resolution methods among workers and
employers.
 Lack of job security.
 Long hours.
 Excessive time spent away from home and
family.
 Office politics and conflicts between workers.
 Wages not commensurate with levels of
responsibility.
An Absent Relaxation Response




Deficiency of a protein nociceptin in
the brain
Smoking , Alcohol and Stress
Stress like disorders



   Anxiety
   Depression
   Post Traumatic stress disorder
Identify the magnitude of problem


Identify sources of stress,
      Questioning the Sources of
      Stress.
how serious a problem stress is
      for you. Do you feel under
      constant stress, or is it 'on
      and off'?
try to decide if you are under
      more stress now than you
      were a year or two ago. If
      you are, have the pressures
      changed, or just your attitude
      toward them?
Learn to handle stress

    Talking about your problems

    Learn to recognize when you are coming under stress

    Look at the list of things that cause you stress

    When dealing with a major problem, try to break it down into smaller
    parts

    Schedule your time realistically
Handling stress

      Take occasional short breaks from your work
      Learn how to relax. One way is to practice doing certain things
      slowly
      Learn to say no
      Develop other interests that will help you forget about your
      problems for a while
      Consider outside help, such as counseling or group 'clinics
Food and Mood
Exercise
Establish a Support Network
Relaxation Techniques
Deep breathing (Pranayama)
Progressive Muscle relaxation
Meditation
Biofeedback
06c emotion stress and relaxation

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06c emotion stress and relaxation

  • 1. Emotion Stress and Relaxation
  • 2. What is Emotion? Cognition Conation Response Stimulus Affect
  • 3. Emotional Arousal and Performance
  • 4. Model of the basic neural systems control of emotions Filtering and Evaluation Effectors Neocortical processing Skeletomotor and Periphery Stimulus Autonomic control Subcortical processing
  • 5. Theory of Emotion <1800 Cognition 1 2 3 Conation/Affect Response Stimulus
  • 6. Theory of Emotion: James Lange 1884 4 Cognition Affect 3 1 2 Conation Response Stimulus
  • 7. Cannon Bard Theory: 1920 Fight or Flight Response Subconscious Stimulus Cognition Affect
  • 8. Cannon Bard: Sham Rage Animal
  • 9. The Hypothalamus Coordinates the Peripheral Expression of Emotional States : Stephen Ranson 1932, Walter Hess 1940
  • 11. Schachter Singer Cognitive Theory of Emotion (1960)
  • 12. Arnold Appraisal Theory of Emotion Subconscious Stimulus Response Appraisal Conscious Affect Appraisal
  • 14. The Search for Cortical Representation of Feeling Has Led to the Limbic System
  • 17. Papez Circuit of Emotional Response
  • 19. Kluver Bucy Syndrome 1939 Bilateral removal of the temporal lobes in monkeys—including the amygdala and the hippocampal formation, as well as the nonlimbic temporal cortex the monkeys, which had been quite wild before the procedure, became tame and fearless and their emotions flattened Mouthing, Hypersexuality, compulsive visual attention
  • 20. Seat of Emotion: Amygdala
  • 21. Learned Emotional Responses Are Processed in the Amygdala
  • 23. Model of associative learning in the amygdala
  • 24. The Amygdala Mediates Both the Autonomic Expression and the Cognitive Experience of Emotion
  • 25. The Amygdala Is the Part of the Limbic System Most Specifically Involved With Emotional Experience
  • 26. The Amygdala May Be Involved in Both Pleasurable and Fearful Responses to Stimuli
  • 27. Two Pathway of Emotion
  • 30. The Frontal, Cingulate, and Parahippocampal Cortices Are Involved in Emotion
  • 31. Emotional Expressions: Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal Contributions
  • 32. Nervous system that organize emotional experience and expression
  • 33. Cortical Lateralization of Emotional Functions
  • 35. What is Stress? •Stress is reaction to something considerd a challenge or a threat. •Anything that causes a change in your life causes stress •Stress is a natural way for us to adjust to changes so we can keep in balance •Change may be real or virtual, good or bad
  • 36. STRESS EVENT VALUES 1. DEATH OF SPOUSE 100 2. DIVORCE 60 3. MENOPAUSE 60 4. SEPARATION FROM LIVING PARTNER 60 5. JAIL TERM OR PROBATION 60 6. DEATH OF CLOSE FAMILY MEMBER OTHER THAN SPOUSE 60 7. SERIOUS PERSONAL INJURY OR ILLNESS 45 8. MARRIAGE OR ESTABLISHING LIFE PARTNERSHIP 45 9. FIRED AT WORK 45 10. MARITAL OR RELATIONSHIP RECONCILIATION 40 11. RETIREMENT 40 12. CHANGE IN HEALTH OF IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBER 40 13. WORK MORE THAN 40 HOURS PER WEEK 35 14. PREGNANCY OR CAUSING PREGNANCY 35 15. SEX DIFFICULTIES 35 16. GAIN OF NEW FAMILY MEMBER 35 17. BUSINESS OR WORK ROLE CHANGE 35 18. CHANGE IN FINANCIAL STATE 35 19. DEATH OF A CLOSE FRIEND (not a family member) 30 20. CHANGE IN NUMBER OF ARGUMENTS WITH SPOUSE OR LIFE PARTNER 30 21. MORTGAGE OR LOAN FOR A MAJOR PURPOSE 25 22. FORECLOSURE OF MORTGAGE OR LOAN 25 23. SLEEP LESS THAN 8 HOURS PER NIGHT 25 24. CHANGE IN RESPONSIBILITIES AT WORK 25 25. TROUBLE WITH IN-LAWS,OR WITH CHILDREN 25 26. OUTSTANDING PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT 25 27. SPOUSE BEGINS OR STOPS WORK 20 28. BEGIN OR END SCHOOL 20 29. CHANGE IN LIVING CONDITIONS (visitors in the home, change in roommates, remodeling house) 20 30. CHANGE IN PERSONAL HABITS (diet, exercise, smoking, etc.) 20 31. CHRONIC ALLERGIES 20 32.TROUBLE WITH BOSS 20 33.CHANGE IN WORK HOURS OR CONDITIONS 15 32. MOVING TO NEW RESIDENCE 15 35.PRESENTLY IN PRE-MENSTRUAL PERIOD 15 33. CHANGE IN SCHOOLS 15 34. CHANGE IN RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES 15 35. CHANGE IN SOCIAL ACTIVITIES (more or less than before) 15 36. MINOR FINANCIAL LOAN 10 37. CHANGE IN FREQUENCY OF FAMILY GET-TOGETHERS 10 38. VACATION 10 39. PRESENTLY IN WINTER HOLIDAY SEASON 10 40. MINOR VIOLATION OF THE LAW 5
  • 38. Acute stress •Acute stress is the reaction to an immediate threat, commonly known as the fight or flight response. The threat can be any situation that is experienced, even subconsciously or falsely, as a danger. – noise, – crowding, – isolation, – hunger, – danger, – infection, – imagining a threat or remembering a dangerous event.
  • 39. Chronic Stress on-going highly pressured work, long-term relationship problems, loneliness, and persistent financial worries
  • 43. Heart Disease Precipitates – Angina – Heart attack – Arrhythmias – Sudden death Hypertension
  • 44. Psychological effect Depression Anxiety Sleep disturbance Forgetfulness
  • 45. Other effect of Stress Stroke Susceptibility to infection Immune disorders Cancer GI Problems Endocrine problem Metabolic problem
  • 46. Who are at risk? Psychological -Early nurturing, Personality trait Genetic factor Immunological Age – Young and old Sex - Women Social – minorities, single Economical - poor Education – Less educated Geographical – Cities
  • 47. Work Risk Factors Having no participation in decisions that affect one's responsibilities. Unrelenting and unreasonable demands for performance. Lack of effective communication and conflict- resolution methods among workers and employers. Lack of job security. Long hours. Excessive time spent away from home and family. Office politics and conflicts between workers. Wages not commensurate with levels of responsibility.
  • 48. An Absent Relaxation Response Deficiency of a protein nociceptin in the brain
  • 49. Smoking , Alcohol and Stress
  • 50. Stress like disorders Anxiety Depression Post Traumatic stress disorder
  • 51. Identify the magnitude of problem Identify sources of stress, Questioning the Sources of Stress. how serious a problem stress is for you. Do you feel under constant stress, or is it 'on and off'? try to decide if you are under more stress now than you were a year or two ago. If you are, have the pressures changed, or just your attitude toward them?
  • 52. Learn to handle stress Talking about your problems Learn to recognize when you are coming under stress Look at the list of things that cause you stress When dealing with a major problem, try to break it down into smaller parts Schedule your time realistically
  • 53. Handling stress Take occasional short breaks from your work Learn how to relax. One way is to practice doing certain things slowly Learn to say no Develop other interests that will help you forget about your problems for a while Consider outside help, such as counseling or group 'clinics