MAIZE(Zea mays) sub sps mays L.• known in some English-speaking countries as corn(meaning grain), is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.• The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels.• Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch.
Genetics• Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each has:• Flour corn — Zea mays var. amylacea• Popcorn — Zea mays var. everta• Dent corn — Zea mays var. indentata• Flint corn — Zea mays var. indurata• Sweet corn — Zea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa• Waxy corn — Zea mays var. ceratina• Amylomaize — Zea mays• Pod corn — Zea mays var. tunicata Larrañaga ex A. St. Hil.• Striped maize — Zea mays var. japonica
(Source: Government of Andhra Pradesh) Total Area and Production of maize / corn in Andhra Pradesh: Year Area in hectares Production in tonnes 2006-2007 7,25,881 24,61,994 2007-2008 7,85,768 41,35,576 2008-2009 8,51,960 41,51,802 2009-2010 7,82,632 27,61,198 2010-2011 7,43,446 39,53,015
Productivity of maize / corn per hectare in Andhra Pradesh:• In 2006-2007 total area under maize in Andhra Pradesh was around 7, 25,881 ha and production was 24, 61,994 tonnes with a productivity of 3391 kg/ha.• In 2007-2008 total area under maize in Andhra Pradesh was around 7, 85,768 ha and production was 41, 35,576 tonnes with a productivity of 5263 kg/ha.• In 2008-2009 total area under maize in Andhra Pradesh was around 8, 51,960 ha and production was 41, 51,802 tonnes with a productivity of 4873 kg/ha.• In 2009-2010 total area under maize in Andhra Pradesh was around 7, 82,632ha and production was 27, 61,198 tonnes with a productivity of 3528 kg/ha• In 2010-2011 total area under maize in Andhra Pradesh was around 7, 43,446 ha and production was 39, 53,015 tonnes with a productivity of 5317 kg/ha.
District wise maize / corn production in Andhra Pradesh in 2010-11:Sl No District Area in Production Productivity Hactares (tonnes ) (kg/ha)1 Ranga reddy 29,001 62,225 2145 kg/ha2 Vishaka pattanam 6,770 18,535 2737 kg/ha3 Nalagonda 1,860 5,178 2783 kg/ha4 Mahabubnagar 88,261 2,84,842 3227 kg/ha5 Medak 1,00,132 3,54,247 3537 kg/ha6 Warangal 66,939 2,60,841 3896 kg/ha7 Adilabad 20,363 79,837 3920 kg/ha8 Karim nagar 91,157 4,35,860 4781 kg/ha9 Nizamabad 77,256 3,69,393 4781 kg/ha10 Anantpur 15,476 94,480 6104 kg/ha
Areas where maize is majorly grown in Andhra Pradesh:• Medak, Karimnagar, Mahabubnagar, Guntur, Warangal, Nizamabad and West Godavari districts contribute major percentage of the total maize production in Andhra Pradesh state. These districts form the maize belt of Andhra Pradesh state.
Challenges in milk production :a): lack of good quality animal feed.b) Lack of animal health facilities.c) High production costs.d) Lack of cold chain facilities and logistics.
Fodder maize• Among the cultivated non-legume fodder as well as grain crops, maize is the most important crop which can be grown round the year under irrigated conditions. Maize is a quick-growing and high yielding crop in habitat with no hazard of prussic acid poisoning and is considered as a valuable fodder crop.• India possess enormous livestock of 416 million heads and with such a huge population of livestock, the country should have been over flowing with milk. Instead, we are suffering from perpetual shortage of milk, meat and wool. The reason for low production of livestock product is the shortage of fodder. The estimated requirement being 822 million tonnes as against the availability of 478 million tonnes.• The tremendous livestock population, the huge gap between the supply and demand for all types of animal food, the pre-occupation of a high percentage of land for food, the pre- occupation of a high percentage of land for food, fibre and cash crops leaving only about 4 per cent of the total cultivated area for fodder production, the highly deteriorated conditions of the natural grasslands due to overgrasing and faulty management for ages and general lack of interest on forage and fodder crops from farmers arising out of necessity for human food all constituted a formidable and challenging situation. The need to workout the possibility of improving the fodder situation from a deficit to that of a required status and of improving the nutritional value is therefore an urgent need of the hour.
Fodder maize contd…………• t may not be possible to increase the area under fodder crop because of ever increasing pressure on arable land from grain and commercial crops. So, the only alternative to meet the fodder requirement is to increase the yield of fodder per unit area per unit time. This can be achieved by intercropping of high yielding varieties and hybrids of cereal fodders as well as grain with legumes.
Varities in fodder maize• Composite/hybrids: African• Tall• Ganga 5.• High yielding varieties from PHI(Dupont):I. 31Y45,II. P3580
What is Silage?• Fodder is packed in airtight condition to preserve its nutritional value, improve its quality and taste and to make it easily digestible• This is called silage or pickle of the fodder.
• Corn silage is popular forage for Ruminant animals.• It is foramed when farmer takes the corn and stock and ferments it as a high moisture feed.• Corn silage is high energy and digestability.• Corn silage is easily adopted to mechanization from the stand crop to time of feeding.
Principle:• In this process, green fodder is fermented through special bacteria which can survive without oxygen• The resulting fodder is rendered tasty and easily digestible for animals
Mechanism/Process:• The preparation of good quality silage depends on 1-Timely harvesting of fodder, 2-Quantity of air in it at the time of packing 3-Preservation method• In this process useful bacteria converts soluble starches into lactic acid• It decreases its acidic quality (pH) to 3.0-4.0, which stops the growth of harmful germs• Makes the fodder safe for animal consumption• If moisture content is high in fodder, wheat straw or crushed cobs of maize can be added for silage making
Steps for Silage Making :• Selection of fodder• Check moisture• Harvesting• Chopping• Pressing• Storage
Selection of fodder:• Silage can be made from all winter and summer fodders• But usually maize, oats, sorghum etc. are considered best for silage making
Cont…• Normally fodder with Broad leaves Thick stems• Leguminous fodder has less carbohydrates and protein content, they are usually mixed with non leguminous fodder (like maize and sorghum) to make the best and nutritious silage
Harvesting & Check moisture:• It is important to determine the right time for harvesting fodder to get the best nutritional value from silage• The time to harvest can be determined from the following indications:1. When the plant is fully mature2. Half of the grain in maize is milky3. The fruitful fodder has 50% flowers4. Moisture content is 65-70 %
Advantages:• A cheap substitute for fodder at the time of fodder shortage• Silage makes the fodder more digestible• Land is available for the next crop without delay, because all of the fodder is harvested and stored at once• Animals get nutritious feed the whole year• Expenditure on labour force is decreased considerably
Properly made silage has several advantages over Hay: Advantages :• Lower probability of weather-related damage or delays during harvest.• Lower field, harvest, and storage losses.• Greater flexibility and fit for many livestock feeding programmes.
Uses/Applications:• The animals like eating silage, but the buffalo may be hesitant in the beginning.• In this case, feed it with green fodder or concentrate mixed in the silage, so that it develops a taste for the silage. Then increase its quantity gradually.• Give 15 to 20 kilogram silage along with concentrates daily to the lactating animals.• Be careful when removing silage from the bunker. Cover it with polythene so that mud or moisture does not spoil the silage.
Feed Additives:• Their main functions are to either increase nutritional value of silage or improve fermentation so that storage losses are reduced.• Silage additives include feedstuffs, urea, ammonia, inoculants and acids.
Types Of Silage Additives:• NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN (NPN). Urea and anhydrous ammonia can be added to silages to increase their crude protein (CP) content• FEEDSTUFFS. Feeds such as corn, small grains, and molasses can be added to forage• MINERALS. Minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, sulfur and magnesium have been added to forage
Cont…• ACIDS. Acids are added to forages at ensiling to cause an immediate drop in pH• MICROBIAL INOCULANTS. Inoculants are added to forage to increase the number of desirable bacteria present at the time of ensiling.
Remember:1. No additive can replace good silage making techniques, but may improve fermentation and nutritional value of some silages. The response is usually not large