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第1回 国際仲裁とは

国際仲裁の概要について解説いたします。

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国際仲裁総合研究所
第1回 国際仲裁とは
1.仲裁とは
2
仲裁とは
紛争当事者が、①当事者間の合意(仲裁合意)に基づき、②紛争の解決を第
三者(仲裁人)の判断に委ね、③その判断(仲裁判断)に従う紛争解決手続
①紛争当事者間に仲裁合意がなければ仲裁手続きを用いることはできない
→事前に契約書中に仲裁条項が定められている場合がほとんど
②判断を行う仲裁人は、紛争当事者が選任する
→当事者が紛争の事案に応じて自由に判断者を選ぶことができる
③当事者は、仲裁人が下した仲裁判断に従う義務がある
→仲裁判断は強制執行することができる
2.仲裁のメリット
他の紛争解決手段と比べ、仲裁には3つのメリットがある
3
③迅速性
①非公開(秘匿性)
②国際的な執行力
 三審制の裁判と異なり、1回の判断で確定
 裁判に比べて迅速な紛争解決が期待できる
 裁判と異なり、手続は非公開
 レピュテーションリスクを最小限にできる
 裁判と同様に、強制執行が可能
 裁判と異なり、140カ国以上の国で承認・執行が可能
2.仲裁のメリット(1)
手続が非公開であるため、秘匿性を維持できる
4
裁判 仲裁
公開性 対審および判決言渡しは公開
非公開手続
→取引先や競合他社に紛争が知られない
影響
取引先等に紛争が知られる可能性が高い
→レピュテーションリスク大
取引先等に紛争を知られずにビジネスが可能
2.仲裁のメリット(2)
仲裁判断は国際的に執行可能
5
裁判 仲裁
国内での執行 いずれも国内での強制執行は可能
条約の存在
外国判決の承認・執行に関して
多国間条約が存在しない
日本を含む140か国以上が締約する
「ニューヨーク条約」が存在
外国での執行 判決を執行できない国も多い
外国でも承認・執行できる
可能性が高い
裁判 仲裁
審級
三審制
→控訴・上告の可能性
→判決確定まで長期化する可能性
一審制
→控訴・上告はできず、一回で確定
→迅速な紛争解決が期待できる
期間 平均26ヶ月ほど
(人証調べ・控訴がなされた場合を想定)
平均6ヶ月ほど
(請求金額5000万円未満の紛争の場合)
2.仲裁のメリット(3)
仲裁は一審性であり、裁判と比べて迅速な解決を図れる
6
*1 *2
*1 最高裁判所事務総局「裁判の迅速化に係る検証結果の公表(第8回) について」より平成30年のデータを基に計算
https://www.courts.go.jp/toukei_siryou/siryo/hokoku_08_hokokusyo/index.html
*2 日本商事仲裁協会(JCAA)ホームページ公表情報より。請求金額を限定しない場合でも平均14カ月ほど
https://www.jcaa.or.jp/arbitration/whyjcaa.html

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第1回 国際仲裁とは