Women entrepreneurship


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Women entrepreneurship

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Women entrepreneurship

  2. 2. Introduction • Entrepreneurship is an important factor for the economic growth of a nation. • Preference to men than women earlier. • Women empowerment
  3. 3. Global Scenario of Women Entrepreneurship • Women entrepreneurship rate has grown faster than men. • Reason is that women started emerging whereas men have already reached saturation. • Women who came from different background running the business successfully.
  4. 4. Relevance of Male Models of Entrepreneurship to Female Entrepreneurs • The challenges, risks and sacrifices women are facing are same as the men but women face additional hurdles. • Once they proved themselves they are able to win the support of all. • Push and pull factors.
  5. 5. • Several studies underlined that it is more difficult for women to start and be in business due to: • Lack of previous opportunity to develop business skills • Expectations of financiers or managers of entrepreneurship and women that influence the granting of business credit and • Domestic responsibilities that make them face a conflict of roles.
  6. 6. Definitions of Concepts • Women Entrepreneur An adult woman who undertakes to organize, own and run an enterprise. • Women Enterprise Those enterprises which are primarily owned and controlled by women, either supported by other members or individually managed.
  7. 7. • Micro Enterprises It is an enterprise where the size of investment is within 1 lakh including the cost of the plant and the machinery. In these enterprises, the entrepreneur would be owner and labourer, mostly employing family members along with hired labourers. In some cases, the entrepreneur is selfemployed.
  8. 8. Objectives • Studies conducted from different countries revealed that many of the women choose entrepreneurship due to distress factors. • Only few could start to use their leisure and the technology learnt.
  9. 9. Methodology • The database of women in microenterprises is weak, the given the characteristics that they are mostly found in the informal sector and their contributions to the household and economy go largely unaccounted in the national income accounting. • Census survey • Random sampling.
  10. 10. • Most of them are working in the areas like tailoring and beauty clinics rather than in production and manufacturing sector. • Table 12.1 • Table 12.2 • Table 12.3
  11. 11. Factors • Closed-ended options could be find after a pilot survey. • Table 12.4 • Table 12.5
  12. 12. Performance Analysis • Sample units are compared according to the base year. • Mean size of men enterprise is slightly higher than the women • Working capital is only one fourth of the male. • 12.6 • 12.7 • 12.8 • 12.9
  13. 13. Multiple Regression • To find out the determinants of entrepreneurial performance in terms of growth in investment. • 12.10
  14. 14. Problems • A majority of women entrepreneurs felt that a lack of mobility as restricted by family which causes problems of marketing the products or services outside their locality, and expanding the scales of operations. • 12.11
  15. 15. Hypotheses Testing • Economic dependency ratio proved that the women entrepreneurs’ families depend on their income; without that they would have face survival difficulties. • Dependency of women is defined as the difference between the income contribution of the women towards the income bowl of the family and contribution made by the other earning members of the family.
  16. 16. • 12.12 • 12.13 • 12.14
  17. 17. Hypothesis 2 • The formal credit access and search are very poor for microenterprises irrespective of whether they are owned by men or women. • 12.15
  18. 18. SWOT Analysis Strengths • Determination to stay in business • To be successful and expand the enterprise • To avail government assistance for expansion • Support of the family members • Friendly customers • No role conflict with family and business • The courage to withstand ups and downs
  19. 19. Weaknesses • Unaware of various assistance available from the government • Unable to be patient enough to fulfill the formalities of formal credit • Complete dependency on informal credit • Unable to face competition • Not expanding the sale of operation • Lack of financial support from family and banks • Absence of networking etc.
  20. 20. Opportunities • Microscale units are meeting their demands right from the lower income to the upper income group. • Several schemes of assistance are getting from the government and non-government agencies • Financial institutions with special subsidies and incentives • Male member’s support etc.
  21. 21. Threats • Competition from similar male and female enterprises • Lack of experience and education on the innovation way of doing things • Technological backwardness • Service or trade and business rather than manufacturing etc.
  22. 22. Conclusion • There is no difference in the performance of men-owned and women-owned enterpises except the fact that women have lack of time to spend with family. • The access to formal credit is very poor for microenterprises • So entrepreneurial activities must be encouraged among women as instrument for empowerment.
  23. 23. THANK YOU