• Entrepreneurship is an important factor for
the economic growth of a nation.
• Preference to men than women earlier.
• Women empowerment
Global Scenario of Women
• Women entrepreneurship rate has grown
faster than men.
• Reason is that women started emerging
whereas men have already reached
running the business
Relevance of Male Models of
Entrepreneurship to Female Entrepreneurs
• The challenges, risks and sacrifices women
are facing are same as the men but women
face additional hurdles.
• Once they proved themselves they are able
to win the support of all.
• Push and pull factors.
• Several studies underlined that it is more
difficult for women to start and be in
business due to:
• Lack of previous opportunity to develop
• Expectations of financiers or managers of
entrepreneurship and women that influence
the granting of business credit and
• Domestic responsibilities that make them
face a conflict of roles.
Definitions of Concepts
• Women Entrepreneur
An adult woman who undertakes to organize,
own and run an enterprise.
• Women Enterprise
Those enterprises which are primarily owned
and controlled by women, either supported
by other members or individually managed.
• Micro Enterprises
It is an enterprise where the size of
investment is within 1 lakh including the
cost of the plant and the machinery. In
these enterprises, the entrepreneur would
be owner and labourer, mostly employing
family members along with hired labourers.
In some cases, the entrepreneur is selfemployed.
• Studies conducted from different countries
revealed that many of the women choose
entrepreneurship due to distress factors.
• Only few could start to use their leisure and
the technology learnt.
microenterprises is weak, the given the
characteristics that they are mostly found in
the informal sector and their contributions
to the household and economy go largely
unaccounted in the national income
• Census survey
• Random sampling.
• Most of them are working in the areas like
tailoring and beauty clinics rather than in
production and manufacturing sector.
• Table 12.1
• Table 12.2
• Table 12.3
• Closed-ended options could be find after a
• Table 12.4
• Table 12.5
• Sample units are compared according to
the base year.
• Mean size of men enterprise is slightly
higher than the women
• Working capital is only one fourth of the
• To find out the determinants of
entrepreneurial performance in terms of
growth in investment.
• A majority of women entrepreneurs felt that
a lack of mobility as restricted by family
which causes problems of marketing the
products or services outside their locality,
and expanding the scales of operations.
• Economic dependency ratio proved that the
women entrepreneurs’ families depend on
their income; without that they would have
face survival difficulties.
• Dependency of women is defined as the
difference between the income contribution
of the women towards the income bowl of
the family and contribution made by the
other earning members of the family.
• The formal credit access and search are
very poor for microenterprises irrespective
of whether they are owned by men or
• Determination to stay in business
• To be successful and expand the enterprise
• To avail government assistance for
• Support of the family members
• Friendly customers
• No role conflict with family and business
• The courage to withstand ups and downs
• Unaware of various assistance available from the
• Unable to be patient enough to fulfill the formalities
of formal credit
• Complete dependency on informal credit
• Unable to face competition
• Not expanding the sale of operation
• Lack of financial support from family and banks
• Absence of networking etc.
• Microscale units are meeting their demands
right from the lower income to the upper
• Several schemes of assistance are getting
from the government and non-government
• Financial institutions with special subsidies
• Male member’s support etc.
• Competition from similar male and female
• Lack of experience and education on the
innovation way of doing things
• Technological backwardness
• Service or trade and business rather than
• There is no difference in the performance of
men-owned and women-owned enterpises
except the fact that women have lack of
time to spend with family.
• The access to formal credit is very poor for
• So entrepreneurial activities must be
encouraged among women as instrument