Sebastian Müller and Thomas Fritz
Stakeholders’ Information Needs for
Artifacts and their Dependencies in
a Real World Con...
Stakeholder Activities
2
2
Stakeholder Activities
2
2
Stakeholder Activities
2
2
Stakeholder Activities
2
2
Stakeholder Activities
2
(c) blog.cloudbooking.com and Sebastian Bergmann
2
Stakeholder Activities
2
Evolution of a project requires stakeholders to
perform a lot of different activities.
(c) blog.c...
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Bug fixing
Bug
3
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Bug fixing
Requirements
Bug
3
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Bug fixing
Requirements
Code
Bug
3
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Bug fixing
Requirements
Code
Bug
3
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Bug fixing Software testing
Software
tester
Requirements
Code
Bug
3
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Requirements
engineer
Bug fixing Software testing
Software
tester
Requirements
C...
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Requirements
engineer
Bug fixing Software testing
Software
tester
Requirements
C...
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Requirements
engineer
Bug fixing Software testing
Software
tester
Requirements
C...
Stakeholders Information Needs
3
Developer
Requirements
engineer
Bug fixing Software testing
Software
tester
Requirements
C...
Research Questions
4
RQ 1:
RQ 2:
What are the characteristics of
information artifacts needed by different
kinds of stakeh...
Related Work
Focused on
• single stakeholder role
(e.g. Schröter et al CSWC’12, Seaman ICSM’02)
• single information artif...
Study Methods
6
403 instances
of activity
description &
interview
transcriptions
23 participants
from 2 software
developme...
Study Participants
7
Role # Subjects
Team 1Team 1
Software developer 5 (4 interviewed)
Software tester 1
Requirements engi...
Study Methods
8
403 instances
of activity
description &
interview
transcriptions
23 participants
from 2 software
developme...
Data Analysis
9
9
Data Analysis
9
Collected Data
Interview transcripts
from 20 follow-up
interviews
Activity
descriptions from a
six day dia...
Data Analysis
9
Data Coding
Open coding to
develop concepts
and categories
Axial coding to
related these to
each other
Sel...
Data Analysis
9
Data Coding
Open coding to
develop concepts
and categories
Axial coding to
related these to
each other
Sel...
Stakeholders’ Activities
10
Bug Fixing
Software developer
Software tester
Requirements engineer
Project manager
Line manager
10
Software developer
Software tester
Requirements engineer
Project manager
Line manager
Bug Analysis
10
Software developer
Software tester
Requirements engineer
Project manager
Line manager
Software Testing
10
Software developer
Software tester
Requirements engineer
Project manager
Line manager
Requirements Creation
10
Research Question 1
What are the characteristics of
information artifacts needed by
different kinds of stakeholder roles i...
!
Code!
Requirements!
Release!notes!
Change!set!
Planning!documents!
Change!request!
Code!documentation!
Test!report!
Pers...
!
Code!
Requirements!
Release!notes!
Change!set!
Planning!documents!
Change!request!
Code!documentation!
Test!report!
Pers...
!
Code!
Requirements!
Release!notes!
Change!set!
Planning!documents!
Change!request!
Code!documentation!
Test!report!
Pers...
!
Code!
Requirements!
Release!notes!
Change!set!
Planning!documents!
Change!request!
Code!documentation!
Test!report!
Pers...
!
Code!
Requirements!
Release!notes!
Change!set!
Planning!documents!
Change!request!
Code!documentation!
Test!report!
Pers...
Crosscutting Information Needs
for Bug Analysis
Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis:
13
13
Crosscutting Information Needs
for Bug Analysis
Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis:
13
Software developers:
6 a...
Crosscutting Information Needs
for Bug Analysis
Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis:
13
Software developers:
6 a...
Crosscutting Information Needs
Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis:
14
Software developers:
6 artifacts: change ...
Crosscutting Information Needs
Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis:
14
Information needs vary by stakeholder
rol...
Information Needs are Fragmented
Information needed in a change request while bug
triaging:
15
15
Information Needs are Fragmented
Information needed in a change request while bug
triaging:
15
“Especially
important is th...
Information Needs are Fragmented
Information needed in a change request while bug
triaging:
15
“Especially
important is th...
Information Needs are Fragmented
Information needed in a change request while bug
triaging:
15
“Especially
important is th...
Crosscutting Information Needs
16
16
Crosscutting Information Needs
16
For different activities, different stakeholder roles need
different information artifac...
Crosscutting Information Needs
16
For different activities, different stakeholder roles need
different information artifac...
Crosscutting Information Needs
16
For different activities, different stakeholder roles need
different information artifac...
Research Question 2
How are these artifacts interdependent?
17
17
Levels of Artifact Dependencies
18
18
Levels of Artifact Dependencies
18
Test case
Requirements
18
Levels of Artifact Dependencies
18
Test case
Requirements
Severity of a
change request
Test case
18
Levels of Artifact Dependencies
18
Location of incident
in a bug reported
from field
Specific part of a
requirements documen...
Levels of Artifact Dependencies
18
Location of incident
in a bug reported
from field
Specific part of a
requirements documen...
Levels of Artifact Dependencies
19
Multiple artifact dependencies
are needed for an activity
Links between
multiple inform...
Artifact Dependencies in Reality
Links between information
artifacts are often missing for
many reasons
These missing link...
Artifact Dependencies in Reality
21
21
Artifact Dependencies in Reality
21
“I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link
between the test case and...
Artifact Dependencies in Reality
21
“I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link
between the test case and...
Artifact Dependencies in Reality
21
“I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link
between the test case and...
Current Practices to Link Artifacts
22
22
Current Practices to Link Artifacts
Stakeholders already used a lot of different
tools to recover from this problem, e.g.:...
Current Practices to Link Artifacts
Stakeholders already used a lot of different
tools to recover from this problem, e.g.:...
Better Tool Support for Linking
Information Artifacts
Make links first class entities
Focus on many-to-many links instead o...
Conclusion
24
24
Conclusion
24
24
Conclusion
24
24
Conclusion
24
!
Code!
Requirements!
Release!notes!
Change!set!
Planning!documents!
Change!request!
Code!documentation!
Tes...
Conclusion
24
!
Code!
Requirements!
Release!notes!
Change!set!
Planning!documents!
Change!request!
Code!documentation!
Tes...
Survey / Interview Guide
Diary study survey and interview guide are available
online:
http://www.ifi.uzh.ch/seal/people/mue...
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Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context

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n the evolution of software, stakeholders continuously seek and consult various information artifacts and their interdependencies to successfully complete their daily activities. While a lot of research has focused on supporting stakeholders in satisfying various information needs, there is little empirical evidence on how these information needs manifest themselves in the context of professional software development teams of real world companies. To investigate the information needs of the different stakeholder roles involved in software evolution activities, we conducted an empirical study with 23 participants from two professional development teams of one company. The analysis of the gathered data shows that information needs exhibit a crosscutting nature with respect to stakeholder role, activity, artifacts and even fragments of artifacts. We also found that the dependencies between information artifacts are important for the successful performance of software evolution activities, but often not captured explicitly. The lack of an explicit representation of these interdependencies often result in difficulties identifying dependent artifacts and additional communication effort. Based on our findings, we suggest ways to better support stakeholders with their information needs.

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Stakeholders’ information needs for artifacts and their dependencies in a real world context

  1. 1. Sebastian Müller and Thomas Fritz Stakeholders’ Information Needs for Artifacts and their Dependencies in a Real World Context ICSM 2013, Eindhoven 1
  2. 2. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  3. 3. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  4. 4. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  5. 5. Stakeholder Activities 2 2
  6. 6. Stakeholder Activities 2 (c) blog.cloudbooking.com and Sebastian Bergmann 2
  7. 7. Stakeholder Activities 2 Evolution of a project requires stakeholders to perform a lot of different activities. (c) blog.cloudbooking.com and Sebastian Bergmann 2
  8. 8. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Bug 3
  9. 9. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Requirements Bug 3
  10. 10. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Requirements Code Bug 3
  11. 11. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Requirements Code Bug 3
  12. 12. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Bug 3
  13. 13. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Bug 3
  14. 14. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Test Bug 3
  15. 15. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Test Bug 3
  16. 16. Stakeholders Information Needs 3 Developer Requirements engineer Bug fixing Software testing Software tester Requirements Code Test Bug Stakeholders need to acquire and manage a lot of different information artifacts to perform activities. 3
  17. 17. Research Questions 4 RQ 1: RQ 2: What are the characteristics of information artifacts needed by different kinds of stakeholder roles in the daily software evolution activities? How are these artifacts interdependent? 4
  18. 18. Related Work Focused on • single stakeholder role (e.g. Schröter et al CSWC’12, Seaman ICSM’02) • single information artifact (e.g. Breu et al CSCW’10, Aranda et al ICSE’09) • single activity (e.g. Sillito et al TSE’08, Roehm et al ICSE’12) 5 5
  19. 19. Study Methods 6 403 instances of activity description & interview transcriptions 23 participants from 2 software development teams diary study interviews 6
  20. 20. Study Participants 7 Role # Subjects Team 1Team 1 Software developer 5 (4 interviewed) Software tester 1 Requirements engineer 1 Project manager 1 (0 interviewed) Line manager 1 Team 2Team 2 Software developer 6 (5 interviewed) Software tester 4 Requirements engineer 2 Project manager 1 Line manager 1 All stakeholders 23 (20 interviewed) 7
  21. 21. Study Methods 8 403 instances of activity description & interview transcriptions 23 participants from 2 software development teams diary study interviews 8
  22. 22. Data Analysis 9 9
  23. 23. Data Analysis 9 Collected Data Interview transcripts from 20 follow-up interviews Activity descriptions from a six day diary study 9
  24. 24. Data Analysis 9 Data Coding Open coding to develop concepts and categories Axial coding to related these to each other Selective coding to related data to these categories Collected Data Interview transcripts from 20 follow-up interviews Activity descriptions from a six day diary study 9
  25. 25. Data Analysis 9 Data Coding Open coding to develop concepts and categories Axial coding to related these to each other Selective coding to related data to these categories Collected Data Interview transcripts from 20 follow-up interviews Activity descriptions from a six day diary study Findings Information needs exhibit a crosscutting nature Information needs are fragmented Dependencies between information artifacts are very important 9
  26. 26. Stakeholders’ Activities 10
  27. 27. Bug Fixing Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager 10
  28. 28. Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager Bug Analysis 10
  29. 29. Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager Software Testing 10
  30. 30. Software developer Software tester Requirements engineer Project manager Line manager Requirements Creation 10
  31. 31. Research Question 1 What are the characteristics of information artifacts needed by different kinds of stakeholder roles in the daily software evolution activities? 11 11
  32. 32. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  33. 33. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  34. 34. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  35. 35. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Activities Information artifact 12
  36. 36. ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! Crosscutting Information Needs 12 Information needs exhibit a crosscutting nature over information artifacts. Activities Information artifact 12
  37. 37. Crosscutting Information Needs for Bug Analysis Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 13 13
  38. 38. Crosscutting Information Needs for Bug Analysis Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 13 Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models 13
  39. 39. Crosscutting Information Needs for Bug Analysis Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 13 Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models Line managers: 2 artifacts: change request, requirements 13
  40. 40. Crosscutting Information Needs Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 14 Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models Line managers: 2 artifacts: change request, requirements 14
  41. 41. Crosscutting Information Needs Information Artifacts needed for Bug Analysis: 14 Information needs vary by stakeholder role for each activity. Software developers: 6 artifacts: change request, code, requirements, test cases, logs, and code models Line managers: 2 artifacts: change request, requirements 14
  42. 42. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 15
  43. 43. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 “Especially important is the person who has reported the change request.” Line manager 15
  44. 44. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 “Especially important is the person who has reported the change request.” Line manager “The type of the change request is important. If it is a defect, the severity is important.” Project manager 15
  45. 45. Information Needs are Fragmented Information needed in a change request while bug triaging: 15 “Especially important is the person who has reported the change request.” Line manager “The type of the change request is important. If it is a defect, the severity is important.” Project manager Information needs per artifact are also fragmented. 15
  46. 46. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 16
  47. 47. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 For different activities, different stakeholder roles need different information artifacts. 16
  48. 48. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 For different activities, different stakeholder roles need different information artifacts. For the same activity, different stakeholder roles might used different information artifacts. 16
  49. 49. Crosscutting Information Needs 16 For different activities, different stakeholder roles need different information artifacts. For the same activity, different stakeholder roles might used different information artifacts. Even if the same information artifact is used, different fragments in this information artifact are important for different stakeholder roles. 16
  50. 50. Research Question 2 How are these artifacts interdependent? 17 17
  51. 51. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 18
  52. 52. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Test case Requirements 18
  53. 53. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Test case Requirements Severity of a change request Test case 18
  54. 54. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Location of incident in a bug reported from field Specific part of a requirements document Test case Requirements Severity of a change request Test case 18
  55. 55. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 18 Location of incident in a bug reported from field Specific part of a requirements document Test case Requirements Severity of a change request Test case Multiple artifact dependencies are needed for an activity 18
  56. 56. Levels of Artifact Dependencies 19 Multiple artifact dependencies are needed for an activity Links between multiple information artifacts have to be established and maintained. 19
  57. 57. Artifact Dependencies in Reality Links between information artifacts are often missing for many reasons These missing links lead to additional and repeated communication effort by all stakeholder roles 20 20
  58. 58. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 21
  59. 59. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 “I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link between the test case and the requirements.” (R2) 21
  60. 60. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 “I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link between the test case and the requirements.” (R2) “There is a lot of documentation available, but it is not widely known where to find it.” (D9) 21
  61. 61. Artifact Dependencies in Reality 21 “I guess that in only 6% of all cases there is really a link between the test case and the requirements.” (R2) “There is a lot of documentation available, but it is not widely known where to find it.” (D9) “4-5 iterations [with a requirements engineer] are necessary until every issue is clarified and until I can start to implement anything.” (D2) 21
  62. 62. Current Practices to Link Artifacts 22 22
  63. 63. Current Practices to Link Artifacts Stakeholders already used a lot of different tools to recover from this problem, e.g.: 22 “In the wiki links to other important internal documents, e.g. requirements specifications, are stored.” (D3) 22
  64. 64. Current Practices to Link Artifacts Stakeholders already used a lot of different tools to recover from this problem, e.g.: 22 “In the wiki links to other important internal documents, e.g. requirements specifications, are stored.” (D3) “We in the requirements engineering team do know that developers use a wiki, but we do not think that this is useful.” (R2) No success so far: 22
  65. 65. Better Tool Support for Linking Information Artifacts Make links first class entities Focus on many-to-many links instead of 1- to-1 Aggregate and tailor information based on activity and role context 23 23
  66. 66. Conclusion 24 24
  67. 67. Conclusion 24 24
  68. 68. Conclusion 24 24
  69. 69. Conclusion 24 ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! 24
  70. 70. Conclusion 24 ! Code! Requirements! Release!notes! Change!set! Planning!documents! Change!request! Code!documentation! Test!report! Personal!rotes! Logs! HR9related! documents! Test!case! Code!review! Code!model! Configuration!file! Website! #!of!!artifacts! Bug!fixing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Implementing!features! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Attending!meetings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! Bug!analysis! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10! Project!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Software!testing! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8! Communication!/! Interaction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! Requirements!creation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 7! Refactoring! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 4! Department!management! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! 24
  71. 71. Survey / Interview Guide Diary study survey and interview guide are available online: http://www.ifi.uzh.ch/seal/people/mueller/info-needs 25 25

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