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NIKE Product Specification


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A description of the software functional requirements for the New Improved Kontron Emulator (NIKE).

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NIKE Product Specification

  1. 1. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I NIKE Software Functional Specification This document describes the functional requirements for the New Kontron Emulator (NIKE). prepared by Glen B. Alleman and Brad N. Yearwood KONTRON ELECTRONICS Irvine, California 17 Feburary 1984 Internal Review Release software Improved
  2. 2. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Document Change History Release Review Review Review Review Review Date 29.4.83 5.5.83 21.6.83 6.7.83 5.10.83 Description Preliminary release for internal review. Changed name of ISE to Development WorkBench (DWB). The ISE is now the slave instrument attached to the DWB. Internal engineering review updates. Technical writing review updates Added link level protocol design Added IEEE-488 specification Added data base management specification Author GBA, BNY GBA GBA GBA GBA
  3. 3. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Table of Contents o.o 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.0 3.0 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.S 3.1.6 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 BACKGROUND • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0-1 INTRODUCTION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1-1 Product Environment ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1-1 Market Forces •••••••••••••••••••...••.•••••••••••••• 1-2 Product Structure ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1-4 Basic Configuration ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1-5 Remote Host Configuration ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1-6 Self Contained Configuration •••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1-6 ISE Product summary ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1-7 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2-1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION •••••••••••••••••••• 3-1 What Does the DWB Do? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Software Development •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Program Development System CPDS) •••••••••••••••• Language Translation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Syntax Directed Editing ••••••••••••••••••••••••• software Debugging •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Execution Control ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Execution Monitoring •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Information Display ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Assembly Language Debugging ••••••••••••••••••••• Process Level Debugging ••••••••••·····••••••••••• Emulation •••.•••.•.•••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••• Performance Analysis •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• State Analysis •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• System Diagnostics •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• How is the DWB Operated? •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Displayed Information ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Screen, Mouse and Commands •••••••••••••••••••••• Window Manager •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Window Examples ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Input Devices ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Command Language •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Auxiliary Modes of Operation •••••••••••••••••••••• How is the ISE Hardware Controlled? ••••••••••••••••• Emulator Personality •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• state Analysis •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• state Analysis Instruments •••••••••••••••••••••• Timer I Count Memory •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Timer I Count Memory Interface •••••••••••••••••• Process Level Emulation Control ••••••••••••••••• Process Capture Sequencing •••••••••••••••••••••• Control Mode Characteristics •••••••••••••••••••• Mechanisms for the Context Release •••••••••••••• Requirements for User OS Interface •••••••••••••• Simulation Memory ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Slave Emulator Adaptor •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3-2 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-8 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-11 3-12 3-14 3-17 3-19 3-21 3-22 3-23 3-25 3-28 3-29 3-29 3-31 3-35 3-38 3-40 3-40 3-43 3-44 3-46
  4. 4. Table of Contents 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 3.4.10 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 4.0 How is the DWB Software Mechanized? ••••••••••••••••• Host Software Environment ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Slave Software Environment •••••••••••••••••••••••• Display Manager ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Cursor Control •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Input Control and Processing •••••••••••••••••••• Controlling the Window View ••••••••••••••••••••• Window Output ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Active Window Data Flow ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Emulator Functions and Control •••••••••••••••••••• Function Addressing ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Static RAM Control •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Memory Mapping •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Event Recognition ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Target Probe Interface •••••••••••••••••••••••••• Trace Monitor ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Utility Processor ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Serial Interface •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• External Event Module ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Target Probe Module ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Auxiliary Instrument Control •••••••••••••••••••••• Terminal and Screen Interface ••••••••••••••••••••• Command Language Processor •••••••••••••••••••••••• Literals •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Variables •.•..••....•......•.•.•..•.•...•••.•••. Messages •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Command Language Syntax••••••••••••••••••••••••• Interpretive Mode ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Internal Compilation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Intrinsict Procedures ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Debugger Control • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Logic Analyzer Control •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Structure Editor •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• What are the Requirements for Mechanization? •••••••• Hardware Environment •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Operating System Environment •••••••••••••••••••••• Interprocess Communication •••••••••••••••••••••• Event Management •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Process Management •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• File Management ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Virtual Operating System summary •••••••••••••••• Communication Protocol Environment •••••••••••••••• Nature and Purpose of the Reference Model ••••••• Port Architecture Model ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Transport Protocol Facilities ••••••••••••••••••• Portability Considerations •••••••••••••••••••••••• Data Base Manager ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• DWB Software Development Environment •••••••••••••••• Programming Language Requirements ••••••••••••••••• Development Configuration Control ••••••••••••••••• Quality Assurance and Testing ••••••••••••••••••••• Product Life Cycle •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
  5. 5. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Table of Contents s.o Alternative Approaches & Tradeoffs •••••••••••••••••••• 5.1 Low Cost ISE (!SE Cube) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6.0 Possible Future Enhancements • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
  6. 6. I NIKE Functional Specification I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I o.o BACKGROUND The pace of the current microelectronic revolution is unparalleled; it outstrips the pace of the development of the mainframe computer itself. In little more than a decade, microprocessors have evolved from the Intel 4004, a four-bit machine, to 32-bit chips. In the case of mainframe computers, the "maturity" of a 32-bit word length came with the IBM 360 series, two decades after the introduction of the first computers. The semiconductor industry continues to invest heavily in the development of complex microprocessors whose performance characteristics now rival the popular minicomputers. While development takes place on the 32-bit architecture, the 16, 8, and 4-bit machines are moving to the next generation in terms of speed, size, and power consumption. In addition, the predicted decline in the 8-bit market has not taken place; instead the production volume of existing products is increasing, with new 8-bit products being announced by Zilog and Intel. Within this rapidly expanding microcomputer market, the demand for slave emulation is both increasing and decreasing, and in some cases being eliminated. In the 32-bit market, the chips themselves provide many of the features needed for debugging software systems. On-board diagnostics, machine level debuggers, and high-level language architectures create an environment hostile to the slave emulator. Significant increases in processor clock speed are appearing in the 16-bit market, with 20MHz MC68000s proposed in the near future. The slave emulator must operate in a transparent mode with target system bus speeds of SM-transfers/second. Self-contained microcomputers are leading the way in the 8 and 4-bit market. These machines contain the necessary logic to produce a single chip computer, cutting off the slave emulator from the control signals necessary to capture and manage the execution of the target processor. This market presents a confusing set of requirements for the next generation of emulators and logic analyzers. It is for this market place that NIKE must be designed. The design challenge is approached from several fronts, each building on past products. An important change is introduced though; the software development environment is now a driving factor for the next generation of KONTRON products. section o.o Page 0-1
  7. 7. I NIKE Functional Specification I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1.0 1.1 TARGET MARKET PLACE This document describes the software functional requirements for NIKE. The product resulting from this specification will meet the needs of a specific market place. Our concept of this market is: The embedded real-time control environment in which a microprocessor directly controls a fucntion through tightly coupled peripherals. Typically no keyboard, CRT, or mass storage device is connected to the target system. This environment is most often found in process-control systems, avionics computers, video games, communcations systems, and single board computers. Product Environment The market demands of the 32-bit/virtual memory based emulator product (The Imporved Slave Emulator ISE) are uncertain at best. The software system described in this document defines an intermediate product that is both producable in a short period and meets the perceived demands of the current 16-bit and 8-bit emulator market. To acheive the goal of producing an emulator in a short time span (12 months), the ISE system design will be "defeatured". Two major areas will be reduced in scope from the features described in the ISE Software Specification of 6 JUNE 1983. These features are: o The operator interface will be reduced from an intercative multi-window, mouse driven system to one based on a "dumb terminal" interface. This interface will still make use of windowing, but more in line with the facilities currently provided by the KDS. o The hardware/software configurations available in the proposed ISE product will be reduced to a single configuration. The Slave Emulator hardware will be a self-contained unit connected to one of three possible hosts: - A Kontron KDS-9068 UNIX host - A DIGITAL VAX or PDP-11 host - An IBM-XT running a multitasking operating system (MS-DOS 3.0, UNIX, or XENIX). Section 1.0 Page 1-1
  8. 8. NIKE Functional Specification The target market for the NIKE product is limited to the 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors. These target processors are those that Kontron currently supplies (or propoese to supply) emulators for: - MC68000 and its derivatives - INTEL 8086/87/88, 186/188 - Z80/Z800 - Fairchild 9445 During the design of a microprocessor based system, the hardware/software integration phase presents the most difficult task for the implementors. This phase of the development cycle generates design changes that must be implemented quickly to maintain maximum productivity. Prior to the integration phase software development must proceed with a prototype hardware system, while hardware development must proceed with a prototype software system. In the system integration phase all parts of the microprocessor system are brought together for the first time. Integration is a process of refinement and change which may be further complicated by the use of multiple processors, high level languages, and heterogenous hardware. The development tools used by the hardware and software designers in the integration phase (as well as in other phases), must offer flexibility, power, and ease of use. Typical microcomputer system projects range from a single- person task to a large-scale hardware and software development effort. The NIKE provides a comprehensive set of tools to deal with a variety of work environments including facilities for timing analysis, state and logic analysis, software performance measurement, high-level language debugging, and software engineering tools. The NIKE provides the foundation for for this environemnt through an integrated set of hardware and software development tools. It is this integrated capability that sets the NIKE and its Improved Slave Emulator apart from a traditional incircuit emulator. To meet the requirements of the next generation procuct development environment we propose the construction of a new generation of hardware and software tools. Section 1.0 Page 1-2 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
  9. 9. I NIKE Functional Specification I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1.2 Market Forces Undertaking a major development project requires careful thought and planning. The first question asked must be why are we doing this? Several forces are pushing the development of an Improved Slave Emulator instrument controlled by the DWS: o The current slave emulator architecture is not capable of dealing with the high-speed processors appearing on the market. Machines with system clock speeds of 15 to 20 MHz will be available in the next 12 months. The current slave hardware is only capable of emulating 10 MHz processors. The bus architecture of the ADS/KDS slave (which supports 2Mwords/sec transfer rates) will not support execution speeds above lOMHz, these limitations require a new bus to be designed. o The current slave emulator hardware supports a 26-bit physical address space and a 16-bit data transfer width. Several 16-bit processors support 32-bit real addresses, with multiple address spaces. This limitation requires a new bus to be designed. o The trends in microcomputer software development are toward High-Level Language (HLL) based systems. The ADS/KDS software debugger provides no facilities for supporting software development beyond an assembly language debugger. The hardware architecture of the current Slave is not capable of providing the address and data range breakpoint facilities needed for a HLL debugger. This limitation forces a new design effort. The Improved Slave Emulator CISE) instrument attached to the Development Workbench is characterized by the following performance features: o Dual bus architecture - high speed data bus and medium speed control bus o Up to 20MHz system clock rates o Up to 5Mwords/second bus transfer rates o 24-bit logical and physical address space o 16 address spaces resulting in a 28-bit address space o Improved Real-time transparency o Tagged memory architecture to support HLL debugging Section 1.0 Page 1-3
  10. 10. NIKE Functional Specification Features that set the NIKE apart from the current products are extensions, enhancements, and architectural changes designed to meet the expanding market requirements for tightly coupled Software Development and Emulation. These features include: o Performance Monitoring: The NIKE provides performance monitoring facilities that create histograms of execution times, memory access sequences, event timings, and system resource utilization. o Tagged Simulation Memory: The NIKE provides memory tags on byte boundaries to support the Debugger and Performance Monitor. o High Level Language Debugging: The NIKE provides facilities to develop and debug target system software in Pascal and c. These facilities go beyond the debugging tools available in our current product. Objects within the target language are manipulated and controlled · through the debugger. Procedures, files, variables, records, arrays, and , code segments are addressable by name. Breakpoints can be placed on language statements, variable names, and procedure calls. Resource utilization histograms, memory access analysis, and complex breakpoint conditions are features of the high level language debugger. Section 1.0 Page 1-4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
  11. 11. I NIKE Functional Specification I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1.3 Product Structure Before proceeding with the functional description of the NIKE, the product structure of the system will be described. The NIKE is fundamentally different from the current generation of KONTRON emulators; in that the emulator is a true slave to the host processor. The emulator hardware responds to commands generated by the host and returns information only when commanded to do so. The Development Workbench consists hardware and software components. with the other through a set architecture of NIKE can best cooperating hardware and software of a tightly coupled set of Each component communicates of layered protocols. The be described as a set of modules. ***************** NOTE ****************** The software components which make up the NIKE come from several sources: from third party vendors, from in-house development, and from customers. The Development workbench is organized in a layered set of software and hardware: User Interface Level Application Level Operating System Level Facility Controllers Physical Device Controllers Instruments, Devices +----------------------------------------------+ Man I Machine Interface +----------+-------------+------------+--------+I HLL I Performance I • • • • • I • • • • I I Debugger I Analyzer I I I +----------+-------------+------------+--------+ Operating System Interface +------------+------------+--------------------+I Debug I Emulator I • • • • • • • • • I Controller I Controller I +------------+------------+--------------------+ Instrument Controller Communication System +-----------+-----------------+~---------+-----+ Improved Slave Emulator I • • • I I I I I +-----------+-----------------+----------+-----+ Section 1.0 Page 1-5
  12. 12. NIKE Functional Specification The Development Workbench consists of three major software components: o Emulator Control software residing in EEPROM that manages the low level functions of the slave emulator instrument. This component is a distributed system with software residing on the host and in the slave instrument's onboard processors. o Human Interface software that controls the display and input devices that are available to the user. This component manages the interaction between the application level software and the lower level control software. o Application Control software that manages the action of the various instruments attached to the host processor. This component implements the data processing features of the Development workbench. The NIKE hardware comes in one configuration: Basic Configuration The basic configuration is composed of a local host and a tightly coupled Improved Slave Emulator (ISE) Instrument. The connection between the host and the slave is provided by the IEEE 488 bus. The local host is a 16-bit processor, preferably one manufactured by KONTRON, which is executing a multi-tasking operating system. Control of the Slave Emulator is initiated from the host through a message protocol. The slave executes the commands contained in the messages, and returns the results to the host. No interaction takes place between the Slave and the Host unless it is solicited by the Host. The Slave Emulator hardware consists of the following major components: o A Cycle Trace Analyzer board with built-in trace memory o An Event Detector and Sequencer (Break Point) board o An probe Interface Module and a Probe that controls the target system probe o An External Event board that connects triggers to the ISE from external devices +-----------+ +----------+User Display-->! HOST I Communication! Slave I Keyboard------>! MC68000 +--------------+ I Mass storage-->! (typical) Channel Emulator I +-----------+ +----------+ Section 1.0 Page 1-6 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
  13. 13. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I NIKE Functional Specification DWB Product summary o Software Development I Debugging - High Level Language debugger (PASCAL) - Symbolic debugging for assembly language - Incremental assembler - Performance analysis o Emulation with ISE Support - Complex breakpoint control - Tagged memroy architecture - Trace analyzer - External event control and generation o System Features - Built in diagnostics - Software is portable to multiple host environments - Slave Emulator can connect to Non-KONTRON hosts - Multiple emulation support Section 1.0 Page 1-7
  14. 14. I Development WorkBench Specififcation I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 2.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS The following documents serve as reference for the ISE software functional specification. Since the ISE is a new product development, it is important to lay a proper foundation for the understanding of the concepts behind the ISE. This is the primary purpose of the reference documents. o nA Performance Comparison of Three Contemporary 16-Bit Microprocessors,n M. De Prycker, IEEE Micro, April 1983, pp 26-37. This article describes the underlying theory behind measuring the performance of 16-bit microprocessors. It also establishes requirements for high-level language performance monitoring and debugging. o nTransport Protocols: Their Performance and Status in International Standardization (July 1982),n P. von Studnitz, Computer Networks, Volume 7, Number 1, pp 27-36. This article describes the basis of Transport and their place in distributed architecture design. Protocols systems o nsoftware Development System,n B.R. Rowland and R. J. Welsch, The Bell System Technical Journal, January 1983, Volume 62, Number 1, Part 2, pp. 275-290. This article describes the development environment for the 3B20 processor and the DMERT operating system. The concepts presented here are applicable to the software development needs of the ISE engineering workstation. o Pascal-2 User Manual, Version 2.0 for UNIX, Oregon Software, 2340· s.W. Canyon Road, Portland Oregon 92701. This manual describes the software debugger for Pascal-2. It serves as a model for some of the debugging features of the ISE. o •visiCorp's Windows on the worldn, R. Folk, PC world, March 1983, Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 40-55. This article describes the Vision product. The window incorporated into the requirements. current version of VisiCorp's management scheme of Vision is ISE man/machine interface Section 2.0 Page 2-1
  15. 15. Development workBench Specififcation o "Physical Level Protocols,• Transactions on Communications, April 1980. H. v. Bertine, IEEE Volume COM-28, Number 4, "Character-Oriented Data Link Control Protocols,• J. w. Conard, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume COM- 28, Number 4, April 1980. "Bit-Oriented Data Link Control Procedures," D. E. Carlson, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume COM- 28, Number 4, April 1980. "Multiaccess Protocols in Packet Communication systems," F. A. Tobagi, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume COM-28, Number 4, April 1980. These papers serve as the basis for ALL communications systems design. The models presented here are used to control the design of the layered transport protocol of the ISE. o VRTX/86 User's Guide, Hunter & Ready, 445 Sherman Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. This manual describes the "silicon software" operating system for the iAPX-188 processor which resides on the individual !SE boards. o "4.2BSD System Manual", w. Jay, et al, UC Berkely, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Draft of September 1, 1982. This manual describes the BSD 4.2 UNIX system. o IEEE Recommended Practice for Code and Format Conventions, IEEE Std 728-1982, IEEE 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017. This manual describes the IEEE-488 GPIB codes and formats that are to be generated, processed, and interpreted by the device controllers of the instruments connected to the bus. o iAPX-188 High Integration 16-Bit Microprocessor, Intel 210451-002, Preliminary Release, 1982. section 2.0 This manual describes the operation of the Intel 80188 microprocessor. Page 2-2 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1. I I