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Dracula is the Romanian expression for "the son of the dragon"
or “devil". Surrounding the fictional character there were m...
THE VAMPIRE PRINCESS
In 2007, an Austrian documentary titled "The Vampire Princess" was
released. The movie was co-produce...
Fellow carriage travelers whisper a
phrase from the ballad "Leonore" into
the ear of "Dracula" protagonist Jona-
than Hark...
4
Eleonora died on May 5, 1741 in Vienna. Immediately after the
death the personal physician of Emperor Charles VI undertook...
GERARD VAN SWIETEN
Gerard van Swieten (later Baron von Swieten) was born 1700 in Lei-
den. His connection to the fictional ...
These facts were of great importance for
the Austrian Empire and Empress Maria
Theresa. For Bram Stoker, the decisive in-
...
HERMANN VÁMBÉRY
Hermann Vámbéry was born on March 19, 1832 in Szentgyörgy
near Pozsony and died on September 15, 1913 in B...
JOSEPH THOMAS SHERIDAN LE FANU
The Irish writer is regarded as one of the most famous authors of
classic horror stories. L...
The novel takes place in a castle in Styria.
Carmilla is a female vampire who is attracted
to other female creatures.
The ...
JOHN WILLIAM POLIDORI
John Polidori studied at the University of Edinburgh. He was only 19
years old when he received his ...
Polidori transformed the wild beast that
caused his mischief among the people into an
educated member of the aristocracy.
...
BRAM STOKER
He was born as the third of seven children. Up to the age of seven
he could neither stand nor walk alone due t...
Bram Stoker published his novel in 1897. Two
years after the death of Stoker, an introductory
chapter was published as a s...
BELA LUGOSI
Bela Lugosi was the first performer of Count Dracula in the epony-
mous novel adaptation of 1931. His real name...
Lugosi added an erotic touch to his role and
therefore conquered his audience. In the year
1930 the director Tod Browning ...
The fictional character Count Dracula is still alive in readers'
minds. When traveling to Romania on the footsteps of Vlad
...
HOTEL CASTEL DRACULA
If this hotel had been there a few hundred years ago, Bram
Stoker's fictional character Jonathan Harke...
Bram Stoker never visited the country in
which his novel takes place. He placed the
castle of the vampire, Count Dracula, ...
The hotel is very comfortably furnished. The
rooms and suites are stylishly adapted to suit
the subject.
Every year at Hal...
MONASTERY COZIA
This monastery was built by Mircea the Old (also Mircea the Great).
Mircea cel Bătrân lived from 1355 unti...
SIGHISOARA
Schäßburg, or Sighişoara, was founded in the second half of the
12th century by the Transylvanian Saxons.
Vlad ...
In 1436, Vlad II overthrew his younger half-
brother Alexandru Aldea. A year later he
formed an alliance with the Turks an...
TARGOVISTE
Targoviste is the county capital of the district Dâmboviţa. Vlad III
Dracula was crowned in the former capital ...
As a ruler, he often stayed at the court of his
capital. Under his reign, the construction of
the Chindia Tower was begun....
BRAN CASTLE
Bran Castle is located in the village of Bran. The fortress was built in
1377 by residents of the nearby town ...
CASTLE POIENARI
Prince Rudolph Bessaraba the Black, the legendary founder of
Wallachia, is considered to be the builder of...
SNAGOV MONASTERY
The Snagov Monastery is located on a lake, about 40 km north of
Bucharest. Previously you could only visi...
How Vlad Tepes actually died is not docu-
mented. Some say he may have fallen in battle
and other sources speak of an assa...
BUCHAREST
Bucharest was first mentioned in documents dating back to
September 20, 1459, which were signed by the voivode !
...
The foundation walls, which were built under
Vlad III, still form the central core of the for-
tress. Later the building c...
VLAD TEPES CASTLE
On the occasion of the National Exhibition of 1905, a water tower
was built in Carol Park. Visually, the...
COMANA MONASTERY
Comana was first mentioned in a document in the year 1461. A certifi-
cate signed by Vlad Tepes lays down t...
HUNEDOARA CASTLE
Johann Hunyadi rebuilt the old fortification to the ancestral castle of
the Hunyadi at this location in 14...
THE DRACULA BRAND
There are still many places and companies that have recognized
Dracula as business. The vampire is every...
Hunter Prince Castle & Dracula Hotel
4/6 Sterca Sulutiu Street
Turda 421012
Corona de Aur (Die Goldene Krone)
Pia"a Petru ...
Vampires, werewolves and zombies have a fixed place in the
faith of many people. Especially in southeastern Europe this
bel...
STRIGOI
The vampires in Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia are called
Strigoi. The belief in these creatures is not limi...
There are two days on which Strigois are particularly active: in the
night before the holiday of St. Andreas (November 30)...
RECOGNIZING A VAMPIRE
HORSE'S TEST
A horse is led by a young man on the grave of a recently deceased alle-
ged undead. If ...
SINCA VECHE
This unique monastery was carved directly into the rock. It is also
known by the name of "Temple of the Chosen...
THE WITCHES' POND
In the vicinity of Bucharest is the small village of Boldesti. The en-
chanted Witches' Pond lies in Bol...
THE CURSED VILLAGE POENI
The small Village Poeni in the Poiana Rusca Mountains has been as-
sociated with an eerie curse f...
BUCEGI
Loosely translated Bucegi means the "Beech Mountains". The mas-
sif is part of the Southern Carpathians, and is loc...
HOIA BACIU FOREST
The forest near the city of Cluj-Napoca, which spans about 620
acres, is also called the "Bermuda Triang...
SKY AT BOZIORU
The sky above Boziouru could be described as bluer than blue.
About 30 km from Buzau and 170 km north of Bu...
Many believe that bloodsuckers and vampires are just a prod-
uct of the imagination of writers. Below you will find a numbe...
VIENNESE DIARIUM
The Imperial Provisor at the Gradisker District in Hungary wrote this
gruesome report. A copy of the lett...
CURIEUSE RELATION
The year 1732 was the publication year of many titles about these
alleged bloodsuckers. This is one enti...
MENSCHENSAUGER
The title of this work (including subtitles) is: "Acten-mäßige und Um-
ständliche RELATION von denen VAMPIR...
VISUM & REPERTUM
On January 26, 1732 the Austrian General Physician Johann Flückin-
ger wrote a report about a vampire in ...
VERNÜNFTIGE GEDANKEN
In 1733, Johann Christoph Meissner wrote a memoir entitled “Ver-
nünftige und Christliche Gedanken üb...
TRACTAT
In 1734, M. Michael Ranfts published the "Treatise of the chewing
and smacking of the dead in graves." The title a...
COMPENDIUM MONSTRUM
The theme of vampires, werewolves and zombies is discussed in
depth in this publication. It includes s...
There are many stories about Vlad Tepes. Most discuss his
bloodthirsty excesses. I have deliberately omitted stories and
r...
If you want to judge for yourself as to what
Vlad Tepes III actually looked like, you will
find most paintings of the princ...
Palace Ambras, Innsbruck
Second half of the 16th century
German master
Oil on canvas, 60 x 50 cm.
It is one of the first ob...
Castle Forchtenstein, Forchtenstein
Approximately 1622
unknown master
Oil on canvas, 218 x 130 cm.
The lord of Castle Forc...
Church of Mary am Gestade, Vienna
Approximately 1460
Altar wing image - Crucifixion of Christ
Master of Mary am Gestade
Oil...
Austrian Galerie Belvedere, Vienna
Approximately 1470-1480
Altar wing image - Martyrdom of St. Andrew
unknown Styrian pain...
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Approximately 1575-1595
unknown artist
Oil on paper on wood laminated 13.5 x 10.5 cm.
The...
Slovenian National Gallery, Ljubljana
Approximately 1463
unknown artist
Tempera on wood 83.5 x 51.5 cm.
The painting is pa...
The topic Dracula is more alive than ever. Two current projects
are supposed to show that the legendary ruler is still goi...
DRACULA: SON OF THE DRAGON
The artist Mark Sable and Salgood Sam tell the story of Vlad Tepes
in the form of an exciting c...
Today, the castle in which the ruler resided is
nothing more than a ruin. In the comic, the for-
tress is drawn the way it...
DRACULA UNTOLD
The protagonist of this movie, which was created with an immense technical
effort, is played by Luke Evans....
67
Up to this point, this e-book was about vampires, bloodsu-
ckers, princes and rulers, fiction, superstition, and reality. A...
TOURISM OFFICES
The list of Romanian tourism offices worldwide. If you are planning a
trip to Romania, please contact these...
AUSTRIA
Romanian Tourist Office
Opera Ring 1, R Staircase,
Floor 4, Door 404
1010 Vienna
Tel: +43 (1) 317-31-57
Fax: +43 (...
THE END
This book was produced with the kind help of the Romanian Tour-
ism Office in Vienna.
71
Writing a book about Dracula is a daunting chal-
lenge. One of the reasons for this is definitely
that there are many diver...
73
Many organisations and institutions helped me to collect the
data for this e-book. Here is the list of sources for the ...
© Auvi - Rudolf J. Strutz - 2015
The book was licensed under the Creative Com-
mons License CC 3.0: attribution - non-comm...
Dracula - Facts, Myth, Novel
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Dracula - Facts, Myth, Novel

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The story of the three phenomena that are associated with the term "Dracula". The Prince Vlad Tepes III., who led the country with an iron hand; the fictional character of Bram Stoker, who was always in search of blood and the finally mysticism. The superstition is still rooted in the people. The eBook is referring to numerous documents that deal with the topic of vampires also from the public.

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Dracula - Facts, Myth, Novel

  1. 1. Dracula is the Romanian expression for "the son of the dragon" or “devil". Surrounding the fictional character there were many important people, some are listed here. It is up to you to decide how high their share of the global success of "Dracula" was. PEOPLE 1For the dead travel fast
  2. 2. THE VAMPIRE PRINCESS In 2007, an Austrian documentary titled "The Vampire Princess" was released. The movie was co-produced by several TV-stations and organizations: ORF, ARTE, ZDF, Smithsonian Network, BMUKK and Pro Omnia. In this documentary, the Viennese media researcher Rainer Maria Köppl represents the thesis that Bram Stoker got the inspiration for his novel from the life of Princess Eleonore of Schwarzenberg. The connection to Bram Stoker's novel is also the reason why this interesting documentary is included in this e-book. 2 Eleonore von Schwarzenberg • 20. Juni 1682 - Schloss M!lník • 5. Mai 1741 - Palais Schwarzenberg, Wien
  3. 3. Fellow carriage travelers whisper a phrase from the ballad "Leonore" into the ear of "Dracula" protagonist Jona- than Harker: "For the dead travel fast." The movie is based on an archaeological find in the former cemetery of Cesky Krumlov: Three skeletons were found in typical vampire burial. In Christian tradition, as a rule, corpses are buried facing East. The three skele- tons were buried facing from North to South. Stones are used to weigh down the corpses. One of the skeletons' head was separated and placed between the legs. In this corpse's mouth was a stone. The hands were tied with a rosary. The funeral of the three dead was car- ried out according to the rules of Magia Posthuma. This is the classic ritual of vampire burial. The Magia Posthuma was written by Charles Ferdinand von Schertz in 1706. Prince Adam Franz Karl of Schwarzen- berg and his wife Eleonora of Schwarzen- berg lived during the first half of the 18th century in Cesky Krumlov. Eleonore of Schwarzenberg was born on June 20, 1682. She suffered massive in- somnia and was therefore very tired dur- ing the daytime. People speculate that her behavior is associated with the "vam- pire disease", which was discussed among experts in these times. The Countess lost her husband in a hunt- ing accident and lived alone and with- drawn thereafter. The princess was interested in the occult and made a very mystical impression to everyone around her. She ordered vast amounts of spermaceti, crab eye and ground unicorn, probably from a nar- whal. It was most likely her lifestyle that led Gottfried August Bürger to writing the bal- lad "Leonore". This ballad in turn was the inspiration for Bram Stoker's novel. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Eleonora died on May 5, 1741 in Vienna. Immediately after the death the personal physician of Emperor Charles VI undertook an autopsy. At that time, this was a completely unusual approach, es- pecially for nobles. The doctors who conducted the autopsy were paid handsomely. This large sum might reflect the hazard involved, or - as suggested in the documentary - the discretion and silence of the doctors was bought. In the context of a post-mortem examination, a kind of vampire exe- cution could have been carried out without making any waves: the removal of the heart, which is equal to impalement. The mortal remains of the Princess were transferred to Krumlov on the day of her demise. In the St. Vitus Church, Eleonore of Schwarzenberg was buried in a dedicated and sealed tomb. According to the records, neither high dignitaries nor family members attended the funeral, which strangely took place at night. The simple tombstone shows neither her surname nor the family crest. 5
  6. 6. GERARD VAN SWIETEN Gerard van Swieten (later Baron von Swieten) was born 1700 in Lei- den. His connection to the fictional character of Bram Stoker began in 1745, when he was appointed personal physician to Empress Maria Theresia in Vienna. He designed the Austrian health care system and introduced a medi- cal college education. He also was the founder of the Older Vienna School of Medicine. 6 Gerard van Swieten • 7. Mai 1700 - Leiden • 18. Juni 1772 - Wien
  7. 7. These facts were of great importance for the Austrian Empire and Empress Maria Theresa. For Bram Stoker, the decisive in- stance was that he took an important part in the fight against popular superstition. Van Swieten was concerned specifically with the case of vampires. They were the topic of many reports from southern Euro- pean villages from 1720 on. In the year 1755, Gerard van Swieten was sent to Moravia to explore the vampire ru- mors. For him it was pure barbarism of ig- norance. He had set himself the goal to ex- plain all cases and extinguish the rumors once and forever. The investigation and findings were re- ported in the "Treatise of the existence of ghosts." According to Van Swieten, the conditions of the exhumed bodies were not due to vampires, but to natural causes. Many medical professionals supported his theories. The increased mortality in villages was partially attributed to epidemics. Encouraged by the report of her personal physician, the Empress forbade all of the common defenses against vampires. The impaling, beheading or burning of "vam- pires" was banned. His fight against the vampire superstition made Van Swieten the model for the vam- pire hunter Van Helsing. 7 Abhandlung des Daseyns der Gespenster, nebst einem Anhange vom Vampyrismus. German Version
  8. 8. HERMANN VÁMBÉRY Hermann Vámbéry was born on March 19, 1832 in Szentgyörgy near Pozsony and died on September 15, 1913 in Budapest. He was a highly educated Hungarian Orientalist, Turkologist, traveler, and supposedly also an agent in the service of the British crown. In 1890, Bram Stoker met Herman Vámbéry. Following this meeting, Vámbéry, who in the meantime spoke fluently Arabic, Turkish and Persian, became an inspiration for the novel Dracula. The decisive factor was the legend of the Romanian prince Vlad III. Dracula. 8 Hermann Vámbéry • 19. März 1832 - Szentgyörgy • 15. September 1913 - Budapest
  9. 9. JOSEPH THOMAS SHERIDAN LE FANU The Irish writer is regarded as one of the most famous authors of classic horror stories. Le Fanu studied law, but decided to pursue journalism after finishing his studies. In the year 1838 he published his first short story "The Ghost and the Bonesetter" in the Dublin Uni- versity Magazine. His numerous works oftentimes focused on spirits, ghosts and other scary things. His most famous story is probably "Carmilla", which was published in 1872. It is very well possible that this publi- cation represented an inspiration for Bram Stoker as well. 9 Joseph Thomas Sheridan Le Fanu • 28. August 1814 - Dublin • 10. Februar 1873 - Dublin
  10. 10. The novel takes place in a castle in Styria. Carmilla is a female vampire who is attracted to other female creatures. The text appeared initially in three episodes in the magazine "The Dark Blue", which were illustrated by M. Fitzgerald and D.H. Friston. Later, Le Fanu published the story as the an- thology "In a Glass Darkly". The documents of Bram Stoker show that he initially settled his novel in Styria, Austria. Fur- thermore it is interesting that his first draft also included a female vampire. 10 CARMILLA SHERIDAN LE FANU GERMAN VERSION
  11. 11. JOHN WILLIAM POLIDORI John Polidori studied at the University of Edinburgh. He was only 19 years old when he received his doctorate. From 1816 on he was the physician and traveling companion of the poet Lord Byron. In the long evenings in Lord Byron's villa on Lake Geneva, a favorite pastime was to spend the evenings telling gruesome stories and tales. In this environment, Mary Shelley began to write her novel Frankenstein, which was published in 1818. 11 John William Polidori • 7. September 1795 - London • 24. August 1821 - London
  12. 12. Polidori transformed the wild beast that caused his mischief among the people into an educated member of the aristocracy. Polidori expanded a draft of Lord Byron into his story "The Vam- pyre". With this novel, the first vampire story in world literature was created. The main character of the novel is Lord Ruthven, who em- bodies a modern vampire. The story was published on April 1, 1819 without Polidori's permis- sion. Due to an error, Lord Byron appeared as the author. This con- fusion was intended by both Byron and Polidori. Both refused to accept a fee for the novel. The fact that Lord Byron was named as the author made the story very successful. Polidori's figure of an elegant vampire was groundbreaking for prac- tically all of the following novels of this type. 12 THE VAMPYRE JOHN WILLIAM POLIDORI DER_VAMPYR
  13. 13. BRAM STOKER He was born as the third of seven children. Up to the age of seven he could neither stand nor walk alone due to a mysterious illness. The first years of his life is also reflected in his literary work. The eter- nal sleep and the resurrection of the deceased are the core theme of the bloodthirsty Count. With the novel Dracula, the Irish writer became world famous. How- ever, the author has never seen the country in which the most suc- cessful vampire story of all times takes place. 13 Abraham „Bram“ Stoker • 8. November 1847 - Marino Crescent (Dublin) • 20. April 1912 - London
  14. 14. Bram Stoker published his novel in 1897. Two years after the death of Stoker, an introductory chapter was published as a short story entitled "Dracula's Guest". This part takes place in Sty- ria and is about female vampires. Reading "Dracula's Guest" clearly shows that Bram Stoker was very impressed by Le Fanu's story. The fact that Count Dracula was finally settled in Transylvania dates back to a conver- sation with Hermann Vámbéry. The opinions on whether or not Bran Stoker created his vampire after the ruler Vlad Tepes differ. The novel Dracula launched a flood of horror stories. The classic content of this kind of sto- ries, such as crumbling castles, dark for- tresses, ghosts, and ancestral curses, have sur- vived to this day. 14 DRACULA BRAM STOKER WIKISOURCE.ORG DRACULA’S GUEST BRAM STOKER GUTENBERG.ORG
  15. 15. BELA LUGOSI Bela Lugosi was the first performer of Count Dracula in the epony- mous novel adaptation of 1931. His real name was Béla Ferenc Dezso Blaskó. In the early days of his career as an actor he also per- formed under the name Arisztid Olt. The name Lugosi was chosen in tribute to his hometown. In Hungary, where Lugosi became one of the most famous actors, he was politically active. This led to him having to flee to Vienna. In the year 1919, he emigrated to Germany and lived until his immigration to the United States in 1921 in Berlin. From 1927 on, Lugosi was the successful hero of the Broadway play Dracula. This play was written by Hamilton Deanes based on the novel by Bram Stoker. 15 Bela Lugosi • 20. Oktober 1882 - Lugos • 16. August"1956 - Los Angeles
  16. 16. Lugosi added an erotic touch to his role and therefore conquered his audience. In the year 1930 the director Tod Browning decided to film the novel Dracula. After much back and forth, Browning finally offered Lugosi the title role. The fee was only $ 500 a week and there was no profit share for the provided title character. Dracula was a huge success and Bela Lugosi became a celebrated star overnight. Horror films made Bela Lugosi world famous. As the popularity of this type of films de- creased in the 1930s, his film career came to an end. Today, the great horror actor is a cult figure. His fame is mainly due to his exceptional per- formance as Count Dracula. 16 DRACULA - 1931 ORIGINAL FILM ARCHIVE.ORG
  17. 17. The fictional character Count Dracula is still alive in readers' minds. When traveling to Romania on the footsteps of Vlad Tepes, reality merges with mysticism and fantasy. PLACES 2Reality, Mystery & Fantasy
  18. 18. HOTEL CASTEL DRACULA If this hotel had been there a few hundred years ago, Bram Stoker's fictional character Jonathan Harker might have stayed here. Hotel Castel Dracula is located about 40 km after Bistrita, at 1.116m above sea level. It was built in the years 1976 to 1983. In the year 1980, 21 members of the London "Dracula Society" in- cluded a document with their signatures in the hotel's building shell. Right outside the hotel doors, next to two birch trees, there is the statue of author Bram Stoker. The birch trees are named Adam and Eve. Another eerie element is the small cemetery in the ho- tel's frontcourt. 18 Hotel Castel Dracula • 427363 Piatra Fântânele • DN 17 Bistrita-Nasaud rezervari@casteldracula.ro www.hotelcasteldracula.ro
  19. 19. Bram Stoker never visited the country in which his novel takes place. He placed the castle of the vampire, Count Dracula, in the north of Transylvania. Bistrita and the Borgo Pass found their way into his narrative. In real- ity, however, this area had nothing to do with Vlad III. But since this is about vampires, a visit to Ro- mania on Dracula's footstep should definitely include a visit to this hotel. The crypt of the vampire is on display in the hotel's basement. But be careful: It is well known that vampires sleep when it is light outside, but they are very active in the dark. According to the novel, Jonathan Harker was picked up by the Count's coach at the place where the hotel is located. Bram Stoker placed the castle of Count Dracula on the Iz- vorgul Câlimanului (2,033 m), about 20 km southeast of the Borgo Pass. 19
  20. 20. The hotel is very comfortably furnished. The rooms and suites are stylishly adapted to suit the subject. Every year at Halloween, vampire fans meet at the hotel, which also contributes to the creepiness of the place. At the front desk, which is located on the first floor, "original documents" of Count Dracula are offered for sale. 20
  21. 21. MONASTERY COZIA This monastery was built by Mircea the Old (also Mircea the Great). Mircea cel Bătrân lived from 1355 until 1418. He was one of the most important rulers of Wallachia. It was under his leadership that Wallachia reached its greatest extent. After his death, the army commander was buried in the monastery. The voivode was the illegitimate father of Vlad Dracul II, who later be- came the father of Vlad III. Dracula. 21
  22. 22. SIGHISOARA Schäßburg, or Sighişoara, was founded in the second half of the 12th century by the Transylvanian Saxons. Vlad III. was born in 1431 as the second son of Vlad Dracul II, and the Moldavian princess Cneajna. In the year of his birth, his father became a knight of the Order of Dragons of the Emperor Sigismund in Nuremberg. Only five years later, Vlad III was also accepted into this Order. One of the main reasons to come to Sighisoara was that this was the place where Vlad II Dracul had the right to mint coins. 22
  23. 23. In 1436, Vlad II overthrew his younger half- brother Alexandru Aldea. A year later he formed an alliance with the Turks and to- gether with Sultan Murad II he conquered Transylvania. In the year 1442, he allowed the 20,000 men of the Turkish army to cross Wallachia on their way to Transylvania. In Sibiu, the attack- ers were pushed back by the Hungarians. Vlad Dracul wanted to leave the throne to his son Mircea II for some time. However, Ba- sarab II immediately recognized this opportu- nity to disempower him again. The Turks helped Vlad Dracul to regain power. Vlad Dracul II tried alternately to win the favor of the Hungarians and the Turks. Therefore, the Sultan demanded his two sons, Vlad III Dracula and Radu cel Frumos to be sent to the Ottoman Empire as a "bargaining chip". The character of the young Vlad III developed in captivity. His dislike of his half-brother Radu and later Sultan Mehmed II grew con- stantly. 23
  24. 24. TARGOVISTE Targoviste is the county capital of the district Dâmboviţa. Vlad III Dracula was crowned in the former capital of Wallachia in the year 1456. This was already the second time that Vlad III ruled Wallachia. In 1447 he was briefly in power, but had to flee to his uncle Bogdan II in the Principality of Moldavia in the same year. Overall, Vlad Tepes was in power three times: 1447, 1456 until 1462 and finally 1476. 24
  25. 25. As a ruler, he often stayed at the court of his capital. Under his reign, the construction of the Chindia Tower was begun. There is also evidence that he was staying in Bucharest now and then. There are countless legends about Vlad Te- pes. Depending on who is telling the story, he was either a national hero or a bloodthirsty despot. Long after his death many pamphlets were published reporting his deeds. The city of Targoviste is also the place where, on December 25, 1989, dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena were executed after a military tribunal sentence. 25
  26. 26. BRAN CASTLE Bran Castle is located in the village of Bran. The fortress was built in 1377 by residents of the nearby town of Brasov. While there is one source in which is documented that Vlad II spent one night in this castle, sound evidence is missing. Today, the castle is a tourist attraction and - as already mentioned - the spirit of the prince is where we imagine him to be. 26
  27. 27. CASTLE POIENARI Prince Rudolph Bessaraba the Black, the legendary founder of Wallachia, is considered to be the builder of Castle Poienari. Af- ter the castle had been of great importance in the 14th century, it subsequently deteriorated and was finally abandoned. Vlad III was aware of the strategic importance of the location. The reconstruction and expansion of the castle was carried out by forced laborers. For Vlad III the stronghold became his main fortress. 27
  28. 28. SNAGOV MONASTERY The Snagov Monastery is located on a lake, about 40 km north of Bucharest. Previously you could only visit the place by boat, now there is a bridge. Vlad Tepes may be buried here. In fact, the remains of the ruler were never found. 28
  29. 29. How Vlad Tepes actually died is not docu- mented. Some say he may have fallen in battle and other sources speak of an assassination. It is proven, that his head - preserved in honey - was presented to Sultan Mehmed II. The head was publicly displayed. When the grave was opened about 450 years after his death, it was empty. This fact gave rea- son to the speculation that he was "undead", a vampire. 29
  30. 30. BUCHAREST Bucharest was first mentioned in documents dating back to September 20, 1459, which were signed by the voivode ! Vlad III Dracula. In the years from 1458 to 1459, Vlad III built a stone fortress at this point. The building was used as a residence during his stays in Bucharest. 30
  31. 31. The foundation walls, which were built under Vlad III, still form the central core of the for- tress. Later the building continued to be re- built or expanded. The walls of the vault to the east, west and north still correspond to Vlad's plan today. The Old Court (Curtea Veche) is located in the historic center of Bucharest and should not be missing in any sightseeing. 31
  32. 32. VLAD TEPES CASTLE On the occasion of the National Exhibition of 1905, a water tower was built in Carol Park. Visually, the building resembles Vlad Tepes' Castle Poenari. Besides the impression left by the tower, there is no historical refe- rence to the ruler. 32
  33. 33. COMANA MONASTERY Comana was first mentioned in a document in the year 1461. A certifi- cate signed by Vlad Tepes lays down the boundaries of the monastery. According to legend, Vlad Tepes was murdered by order of his oppo- nent Basarab Laiota in December 1476. This act occurred in the vicin- ity of the monastery. His head was transported to the Ottoman rulers to Istanbul as proof of his death. The body was probably buried at Co- mana. Today, the local people still believe in the legend that Prince Dracula was murdered near the "Walnut source". 33
  34. 34. HUNEDOARA CASTLE Johann Hunyadi rebuilt the old fortification to the ancestral castle of the Hunyadi at this location in 1440. From 1458 on, the building was extended by King Corvinus and further alterations followed in the 17th century. When Vlad III returned from a crusade against the Turks in 1462, he had to flee to Transylvania, where King Matthias Corvinus of Hun- gary granted him protection for the time being. As he was accused of being a traitor, Vlad III was imprisoned in Castle Corvin. However he spent the majority of his detention in castle Visegrád, located north of Budapest. 34
  35. 35. THE DRACULA BRAND There are still many places and companies that have recognized Dracula as business. The vampire is everywhere you can imagine. Dracula is known either as an elegant Count, or as a bat that is at home in the dark. On the next page, I have listed some companies that have a direct or indirect reference to Dracula. 35
  36. 36. Hunter Prince Castle & Dracula Hotel 4/6 Sterca Sulutiu Street Turda 421012 Corona de Aur (Die Goldene Krone) Pia"a Petru Rare! 4 Bistri"a 420036 House of Dracula Strada Poiana lui Stechil 22 Bra!ov 500001 Pension Dracula Transf"g"r"!an C"p"#îneni-Ungureni 114095 36
  37. 37. Vampires, werewolves and zombies have a fixed place in the faith of many people. Especially in southeastern Europe this belief has a long-standing tradition. It is thus not surprising that many front doors are draped with garlic. SUPERSTITION 3Vampires in the 21st century
  38. 38. STRIGOI The vampires in Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia are called Strigoi. The belief in these creatures is not limited to Eastern Europe. In parts of Africa there is the "Asanbosam", in the Arab world the "Ghoul", Assyrians speak of "Ekimmus", Australians "Yara-Ma-Yha- Who", Brazilians of "Jaracacas" and the Chinese of "Chiang Shi ". But Strigoi is not just the name of a vampire. It also refers to a state of mind, which is unconsciously present. 38
  39. 39. There are two days on which Strigois are particularly active: in the night before the holiday of St. Andreas (November 30) and on St. George's Day (April 23). In Romania, St. Andrew is called the Lord of the Wolves. Strigois leave their abode at midnight on these days and walk to a road junction. There they meet up with other Strigois and fight until sunrise. In 2004, ARTE.TV and the German magazine "Der Spiegel" reported a sinister vampire case that accidentally was discovered. When Gheorghe Marinescu's brother in law Toma passed away, the family was certain that the deceased was a vampire. Since the reve- nant feeds on blood, Gheorghe was starting to get weaker and weaker. The only solution to the problem was to dig up Toma's corpse, tear out his heart and burn it. The ashes then were mixed with water to create a drink, which was given to the affected "vic- tims", the son, his daughter and his granddaughter. In Gheorghe's eyes, this process was very successful, because his son felt much better after only a few days. This recorded incident occurred in the small village Marotinu de Sus, about 160 kilometers south-west of Bucharest. The full reports (all in german) can be found here: 39 VAMPIRE IN RUMÄNIEN? CHRISTIANE KIRSCH ARTE.TV GRAB-ANALYSEN ANGELIKA FRANZ SPIEGEL.DE
  40. 40. RECOGNIZING A VAMPIRE HORSE'S TEST A horse is led by a young man on the grave of a recently deceased alle- ged undead. If the horse does not cross the tomb or if it shies, then this is absolute proof that a Moroi was buried. Unlike a Strigoi, who is still alive, the Moroi has already died and re- turns. PHOBIAS If one or more of the following phobias are true, one should be very vigi- lant. ALLIUMPHOBIA • Fear of garlic CATOPTROPHOBIA OR EISOPTROPHOBIA • Fear of mirrors HELIOPHOBIA • Fear of the sun POTAMOPHOBIA • Fear of rivers / flowing waters SOCIAL PHOBIA • Fear of being evaluated negatively in social situations STAUROPHOBIA • Fear of crosses and crucifixes XYLOPHOBIA • Fear of wood / forests 40
  41. 41. SINCA VECHE This unique monastery was carved directly into the rock. It is also known by the name of "Temple of the Chosen". The monastery is located about 45 km from Brasov. The beginnings of this holy place date 7,000 years back. High mystical powers are attributed to this place. One even speaks of it being a portal into a different world. 41
  42. 42. THE WITCHES' POND In the vicinity of Bucharest is the small village of Boldesti. The en- chanted Witches' Pond lies in Boldu-Creteasca Forest. As the story goes, witches gather here in the nights around St. Andrew and St. George. Rumors say that a door into another world opens. The pond has a depth of about 1 to 1.5 meters and this depth never changes. According to stories, this is also the place where Vlad III was beheaded. There are repeated reports of eerie apparitions and strange phenomena around the pond. Even animals refuse to drink water from the Witches' Pond. 42
  43. 43. THE CURSED VILLAGE POENI The small Village Poeni in the Poiana Rusca Mountains has been as- sociated with an eerie curse for more than one hundred years: Wolves come to the village to haunt and attack people. The elders of the village are convinced that it is undead in wolf form, which drive their mischief in the village. People who have escaped the at- tacks are telling horrible stories about a large black animal with ruf- fled fur, which seems to be floating above the ground. 43
  44. 44. BUCEGI Loosely translated Bucegi means the "Beech Mountains". The mas- sif is part of the Southern Carpathians, and is located near Brasov. There is also the mighty Sphinx. Residents tell stories of strange lights over the peaks and rainbows that last for weeks. It is here where you can also find the Valley of Treasures and the source from which gushes the clearest water in the world, contain- ing no bacteria whatsoever. The mountains are separated by hundreds of kilometers of caves, of which only around 20 km are explored. 44
  45. 45. HOIA BACIU FOREST The forest near the city of Cluj-Napoca, which spans about 620 acres, is also called the "Bermuda Triangle of Romania". Visitors get a very eerie feeling in the world's most ghostly forest. The reason may be that the forest is said to be haunted by the troubled souls of murdered farmers. UFOs, lights in the sky, poltergeists, and interferences with elec- tronic equipment are the phenomena that occur at this mysterious place. When Nicolas Cage made a film in Sibiu in 2012, he wanted to visit the forest. 45
  46. 46. SKY AT BOZIORU The sky above Boziouru could be described as bluer than blue. About 30 km from Buzau and 170 km north of Bucharest you will be able to see this indescribable color of the sky. The so-called color temperature is measured in Kelvin. Normal day- light is equivalent to 5,000 Kelvin; in Bozioru the color temperature measures 16,000 Kelvin. The higher the color temperature, the more blue is the image. Accordingly, the sky is "super blue" here. This intense colour of the sky has led to many mystical tales about this are. You should see it for yourself. 46
  47. 47. Many believe that bloodsuckers and vampires are just a prod- uct of the imagination of writers. Below you will find a number of documents that confirm that even public organizations have been dealing with this topic. DOCUMENTS 4Bloodsuckers and vampires
  48. 48. VIENNESE DIARIUM The Imperial Provisor at the Gradisker District in Hungary wrote this gruesome report. A copy of the letter was published in the Viennese Diarium of 21 July 1725. Here, the bloodsuckers are referred to as "Vampyri". The "Wiener Zeitung", as the Viennese Diarium was called at its founding, first appeared on August 8, 1703. This makes it one of the oldest daily newspapers in the world still in production. 48 1725 VISUM & REPERTUM JOHANN ADAM SCHMIDT DE.WIKISOURCE.ORG
  49. 49. CURIEUSE RELATION The year 1732 was the publication year of many titles about these alleged bloodsuckers. This is one entitled (original title): “Curieuse und sehr wunderbare Relation, von denen sich neuer Dingen in Ser- vien erzeigenden Blut-Saugern oder Vampyrs”. 49 CURIEUSE RELATION W.S.G.E. WIKISOURCE.ORG 1732
  50. 50. MENSCHENSAUGER The title of this work (including subtitles) is: "Acten-mäßige und Um- ständliche RELATION von denen VAMPIRen oder Menschen- Saugern, Welche sich in diesem und vorigen Jahren, im Königreich Servien herfürgethan. Nebst einen Raisonnement darüber und ei- nen Hand-Schreiben eines Officiers, des Printz-Alexandrischen Regiments, aus Medvedia in Servien. An einen berühmten Doc- torem der Vniversität LEIPZIG." 50 MENSCHENSAUGER E.W.S.G. WIKISOURCE.ORG 1732
  51. 51. VISUM & REPERTUM On January 26, 1732 the Austrian General Physician Johann Flückin- ger wrote a report about a vampire in Serbia. The name of the first officially mentioned Vampire was Arnont Paole. It is quite possible that both the word Vampire as well as their spe- cial liking to suck blood was used by some authors of later novels. 51 VISUM & REPERTUM JOHANN ADAM SCHMIDT BOOKS.GOOGLE.AT 1732
  52. 52. VERNÜNFTIGE GEDANKEN In 1733, Johann Christoph Meissner wrote a memoir entitled “Ver- nünftige und Christliche Gedanken über die Vampirs Oder Bluhtssau- gende Todten”. During this time, the belief in vampires became more and more pro- minent and also the so-called vampire disease was diagnosed more often. 52 VAMPIR GEDANKEN J.C. HARENBERG COMMONS.WIKIMEDIA.ORG 1733
  53. 53. TRACTAT In 1734, M. Michael Ranfts published the "Treatise of the chewing and smacking of the dead in graves." The title alone is already creepy. Again, the terms "vampire" and "bloodsuckers" were used. A "TRACTAT" (treaty) is a short written essay. 53 1734 TRACTAT MICHAEL RANFTS DE.WIKISOURCE.ORG
  54. 54. COMPENDIUM MONSTRUM The theme of vampires, werewolves and zombies is discussed in depth in this publication. It includes some foldout maps and a sepa- rate section dealing with Transylvania. Publisher of the book is Peter Rauper Press. It is published in Eng- lish. The authors are Dr. Max Sturm and Baron Ludwig Von Drang. 54 VAMPIRES WEREWOLVES - ZOMBIES WWW.PETERPAUPER.COM 2010
  55. 55. There are many stories about Vlad Tepes. Most discuss his bloodthirsty excesses. I have deliberately omitted stories and rumours in this e-book and strived to report the facts. PAINTINGS 5Tracks of Vlad Tepes
  56. 56. If you want to judge for yourself as to what Vlad Tepes III actually looked like, you will find most paintings of the prince in Austria. A life-sized painting of the prince can be found in the ancestral gallery of Castle For- chenstein in the Austrian province Burgen- land. Further portraits are displayed in Vienna and Innsbruck. There is a painting in Slove- nia, which depicts the ruler as Pontius Pilate. Furthermore, there are some drawings and not precisely definable paintings, which were produced around the time of the invention of the printing press. I have confined myself to the most common representations, without knowingly excluding anyone. Above: Belvedere, Vienna Bottom left: Castle Forchtenstein Bottom right: Palace Ambras, Innsbruck 56
  57. 57. Palace Ambras, Innsbruck Second half of the 16th century German master Oil on canvas, 60 x 50 cm. It is one of the first objects collected in the cabinet of art and curiosities of Archduke Ferdinand II. The painting is the work of a Ger- man master and was created about 100 years after the death of the prince. The prob- ability that it is an authentic representation is supported by a description of Nicholas Modrussa, the ambassador of the Pope at the Hungarian court: "He was not very tall, but stocky and muscu- lar. His appearance seemed cold and had something frightening. He had an aquiline nose, distended nostrils, a reddish, thin face, with very long lashes shadowing his large, wide-open, green eyes; black bushy eye- brows gave them a threatening expression. He wore a mustache. Squarrose temples let his head look even bulkier. A bull neck joined his head, covered with black curly hair, with his broad-shouldered body. " 57
  58. 58. Castle Forchtenstein, Forchtenstein Approximately 1622 unknown master Oil on canvas, 218 x 130 cm. The lord of Castle Forchtenstein, Palatine Nik- olaus Esterházy, set up a family gallery around the 17th century. Even distant relatives, such as Vlad Tepes III, were included. The inscription on the top left reads: "Dracula Waida Princeps et Waivoda Walachiae Trans Alpinae hostis Turcarum infensissimus 1466" (Dracula Prince of Walachia, most bitter en- emy of the Turks in 1466) Taking a closer look at the painting, one can see that the irises and pupils of both eyes were scratched out. There are no notes avail- able as to who may have performed this cor- ruption, but it is quite possible that the super- stitious staff of the castle wanted to get rid of the evil eye of the prince. In Castle Forchtenstein there are also regular tours about Dracula. 58
  59. 59. Church of Mary am Gestade, Vienna Approximately 1460 Altar wing image - Crucifixion of Christ Master of Mary am Gestade Oil on wood, 202 x 161 cm. The figure of Vlad Tepes measures about 110 cm. The painting shows clear influences of the great Dutch painters and was probably painted by an Austrian master. The time of creation of this altarpiece dates back to the years 1460-1462. At this time the first incu- nabula of the "wild Raver Dracole-Weyde" were produced. 59
  60. 60. Austrian Galerie Belvedere, Vienna Approximately 1470-1480 Altar wing image - Martyrdom of St. Andrew unknown Styrian painter Oil on spruce wood, 81.5 x 71.5 cm. The oriental-style shape on the left behind the executioner obviously represents Prince Vald Tepes; the picture is originally from the Dio- cese Lilienfeld in Lower Austria. In 1953 it was handed over to the Austrian Gallery in Vi- enna. The image is no longer part of the permanent exhibition of the Austrian Gallery Belvedere. 60
  61. 61. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Approximately 1575-1595 unknown artist Oil on paper on wood laminated 13.5 x 10.5 cm. The painting, which was made on behalf of Archduke Ferdinand II for his portrait collec- tion, shows at the top right: AVEIDA DVX WALA (Voivode and Prince of Wallachia). The portrait was copied from a painting lo- cated at Ambras Castle. It is part of a compre- hensive collection of about 1000 images of famous people. The image is on display on the panel 3 "Bal- kan and Orient" in the coin cabinet of the Mu- seum of Art History in Vienna. 61
  62. 62. Slovenian National Gallery, Ljubljana Approximately 1463 unknown artist Tempera on wood 83.5 x 51.5 cm. The painting is part of the altar painting and is part of the collection of paintings from the 15th century. 62
  63. 63. The topic Dracula is more alive than ever. Two current projects are supposed to show that the legendary ruler is still going strong. One project is a comic book and the second project is a movie. HE IS STILL ALIVE 6
  64. 64. DRACULA: SON OF THE DRAGON The artist Mark Sable and Salgood Sam tell the story of Vlad Tepes in the form of an exciting comic. Historical data are mixed with leg- ends, rumors and fairy tales. The work of both artists and authors describes the ruler in an excit- ing story. If you want to learn more about the project, you should visit the website of the artist at: www.salgoodsam.com 64
  65. 65. Today, the castle in which the ruler resided is nothing more than a ruin. In the comic, the for- tress is drawn the way it may very well have looked like ages ago. The dark time of the reign of Vlad Tepes is be- ing depicted masterfully in this comic book. The publication is in English. 65
  66. 66. DRACULA UNTOLD The protagonist of this movie, which was created with an immense technical effort, is played by Luke Evans. In contrast to conventional Dracula films, the ruler of Transylvania is actually the hero of the movie. Release date was Octo- ber 2, 2014. Official website: po.st/DraculaWebsite 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. Up to this point, this e-book was about vampires, bloodsu- ckers, princes and rulers, fiction, superstition, and reality. At the end you will find some useful details which will come han- dy on your trip to Transylvania on the trails of Dracula. INFORMATION 7Information
  69. 69. TOURISM OFFICES The list of Romanian tourism offices worldwide. If you are planning a trip to Romania, please contact these offices. You will receive valuable tips for your trip and maybe also learn some secret tips. 69
  70. 70. AUSTRIA Romanian Tourist Office Opera Ring 1, R Staircase, Floor 4, Door 404 1010 Vienna Tel: +43 (1) 317-31-57 Fax: +43 (1) 317-31-574 E-mail: Rumaenien@aon.at www.rumaenien-info.at FRANCE Office de Tourisme de Roumanie 7, Rue Gaillon 75002 Paris Tel: +33 (1) 40-20-99-33 Fax: +33 (1) 40-20 99-43 E-mail: info@GuideRoumanie.com www.GuideRoumanie.com GERMANY Romanian Tourist Office Reinhardtstraße 47 10117 Berlin Tel: +49 (30) 400-55-904 Fax: +49 (30) 400-55-906 E-mail: info@rumaenien-tourismus.de www.rumaenien-tourismus.de GREAT BRITAIN Romanian Tourist Office 12 Harley Street London W1G 9PG Tel: +44 (207) 224-36-92 E-mail: romaniatravel@btconnect.com www.RomaniaTourism.com ITALY Turismo della Romania Via Torino 95, Galleria Esedra 00184 Rome Tel: +39 (6) 488-02-67 Fax: +39 (6) 4898-62-81 E-mail: office@romania.it www.Romania.it POLAND Ośrodek informacji Turystycznej Rumunii Krakowskie Przedmieście 47/51 00-071 Warszawa Tel / fax: +48 (22) 826-40-10 E-mail: info.rumunia@wp.pl RUSSIA Romanian Tourist Office Masfilmovskaya Street 35, Office 313 119330, Moscow Tel: +7 (499) 143-87-65 Fax: +7 (499) 143-86-72 E-mail: info@romaniatravel.ru www.RomaniaTravel.ru SPAIN Romanian Tourist Office Calle Alcántara 49-51 28006 Madrid Tel: +34 (91) 401-42-68 Fax: +34 (91) 402-71-83 E-mail: oficina@RumaniaTour.com marina@rumaniatour.com www.RumaniaTour.com USA Romanian Tourist Office 355 Lexington Avenue, 8th Floor New York NY 10017 Tel / Fax: +1 (212) 545-8484 E-mail: Info@RomaniaTourism.com www.RomaniaTourism.com 
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  71. 71. THE END This book was produced with the kind help of the Romanian Tour- ism Office in Vienna. 71
  72. 72. Writing a book about Dracula is a daunting chal- lenge. One of the reasons for this is definitely that there are many diverse characters united in the figure Dracula. One of the people who are known by the name "Dracula" is the historically documented figure of the Prince of Wallachia. He ruled his country with an iron fist. During these times, a change of power was almost always carried out by mur- der. One may assume that the way he led his country was according to the rules of the time. It was a time of great unrest and power struggles between Christians and Ottomans. According to the respective winners of the battles, Vlad Tepes was either hero or enemy. However, the name Dracula in the sense of a bloodthirsty vampire is attributed to the fictional character of Bram Stoker. The Irish writer, who never visited Transylvania, created Count Dracula, who lived in a fictitious castle near the Borgo Pass and subsequently went to England to feed on the blood of young and pretty ladies. The third area is the superstition that surrounds vampires and prevails throughout Eastern Europe. Even Empress Maria Theresa of Austria tried to end the superstition. To this day, many people believe in vampires and stick to the traditional narratives. This some- times goes as far as one case in February 2004, where a wooden stake was rammed into the chest of an "undead", lying in his grave. After- wards his heart was cut out. In the seclusion of Transylvania you may even find yourself believ- ing in the existence of supernatural beings. Dracula is everywhere and nowhere at the same time. It is the combination of mysticism, good and evil, and the temptation to believe these tales of days long passed, that make people hold on to the belief. Walking in the footsteps of Dracula in Transylvania is highly recommended. And if you do like eating garlic, it won't hurt. 72 Rudolf J. Strutz Author & Photographer
  73. 73. 73 Many organisations and institutions helped me to collect the data for this e-book. Here is the list of sources for the historical pictures and documents that were used in this e-book. ROSENBACH MUSEUM & LIBRARY, PHILADEPHIA DR. ELIZABETH MILLER PETER PAUPER PRESS, NEW YORK ESTERHÁZY PRIVATSTIFTUNG, EISENSTADT BURG FORCHTENSTEIN, FORCHTENSTEIN SCHLOSS AMBRAS, INNSBRUCK SLOWENISCHE NATIONALGALERIE, LAIBACH KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM, WIEN UNIVERSAL DRACULA UNTOLD DRACULA SOHN DES DRACHEN
  74. 74. © Auvi - Rudolf J. Strutz - 2015 The book was licensed under the Creative Com- mons License CC 3.0: attribution - non-commercial - non-derivative - share alike. All logos and company names have been used ex- clusively for information purposes. A usage besides this e-book has to be discussed with the owners. This e-book is available free of charge. COPYRIGHT 74

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