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  1. 1. By: Katie M.
  2. 2. PET Scans <ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography Scan </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a 3-D image of the body process </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing radiation - gamma rays emitted </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation dose for one PET scan: 7 mSv </li></ul>
  3. 3. PET Scans: Uses <ul><li>Searches for cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnoses Alzheimer's disease years before any symptoms occur </li></ul><ul><li>Works to see if bypass surgery would be effective </li></ul><ul><li>Detects tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Registers brain functions </li></ul>
  4. 4. PET Scan Process <ul><li>Detects emitted pairs of gamma rays/photons from a positron-emitting tracer </li></ul><ul><li>Tracer is (radionuclide) - positive beta decay </li></ul><ul><li>Tracer is only radioactive for a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Tracer is injected into blood circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Tracer isotopes used: Carbon 11, Nitrogen 13 and 150, and Fluorine 18 </li></ul>
  5. 5. PET Scan Process <ul><li>Burst of light when annihilated particles come in contact with the scintillator in the machine </li></ul><ul><li>Annihilate: collision of electron and positron = gamma ray photons </li></ul><ul><li>Scintillator: a material that illuminates when struck by incoming particles/photons </li></ul><ul><li>Flashes are all connected in the same process as the CT scan, but is more difficult because the data set collected is poorer than the CT’s data collected </li></ul>
  6. 6. PET Scan Side Effects <ul><li>Possible allergic reaction to tracer </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women may not be allowed to have this scan due to the radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Injection sight of the tracer may become sore and red </li></ul>
  7. 7. PET Scanner
  8. 8. PET Scan
  9. 9. Annihilation Process
  10. 10. SPECT Scan <ul><li>Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Shows how blood flows through arteries and veins in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from PET scan: tracer remains in blood stream instead of being absorbed by tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Can detect reduced blood flow in the brain </li></ul>
  11. 11. SPECT Scan Uses <ul><li>Pre-surgical evaluations of uncontrolled seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Finding stress fractures in spine (Spondylolysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood deprived areas of the brain after a stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Detects tumors </li></ul>
  12. 12. SPECT Scans Process <ul><li>Radiolabled (emits Gamma rays) chemical tracer is injected into the blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive Tracers: Iodine 123, Technetium 99, Xenon 133, Thallium 201, and Fluorine 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma rays are emitted by the tracer, which are detected by the scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner collects emitted gamma rays and translates them as an image </li></ul>
  13. 13. SPECT Scan <ul><li>Limited areas of images are shown because it stays only in the blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>SPECT scans are cheaper and more readily available than PET scans </li></ul><ul><li>1 scan = .7 - 1 rem of radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Average yearly radiation = about 360 milli-rems </li></ul>
  14. 14. SPECT Scans Side Effects <ul><li>Typically no allergic reaction to tracer because there is no dye injected </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a safe and standard medical procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Less radiation is given off by SPECT scans than in a CT scan or X-ray </li></ul>
  15. 15. SPECT Brain Scan
  16. 16. SPECT Scanner