This is the script for the previous presentation - the inventions of telegraph and telephone
TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE – THE INVENTIONSlide 1: Hello everyone. Today, I am very happy to be here to present about the invention oftelephone and telegraph. This is an interesting topic. Nowadays, almost everyone here has a mobilephone, which is the descendant of telephone. Imagine that telephone do not exist, how can welive?? Thus, I am extremely grateful to the telephone as well as telephone’s inventors. Now, letme move forward to the content.Slide 2: This is the outline of my presentation. First, I am going to give you the brief history of thecommunication systems. And then I am going to add more detail about the invention as well as theimpact of telegraph and telephone.Slide 3: This is the brief history of the communication system. From the invention of the printingpress (invented in 1400) up to the birth of the internet (in 1983). As we can see, the invention oftelegraph and telephone has created the basis for the next great inventions such as radio,computer…PART A: TELEGRAPHSlide 4: The definition of telegraph. Telegraph is a Greek word. tele- means "afar, far off" andgraphein- means "writing". ▶ Telegraph is an instrument that transmits the writings to a distantplace.Slide 5: Before the invention of telegraph, there were the signaling systems that people couldcommunicate over the long distance.
The signaling systems were called “semaphore” which they used flags or lights. In thissystem, there was the observer who decoded a signal from a high tower and then sent it to the nextstation. Moreover, as shown in the slide 3, we can see that before the invention of telegraph, therewere the printing press and typewriter. In fact, the printing press was one of the most important innovation in communicationsuntil the telegraph was invented.Slide 6: In 1832, when Samuel F.B. Morse was in a ship returning from Europe, he accidentallyhad an idea of using electricity to communicate over distance. Because in this ship, manypassengers discussed about the electromagnet which was recently invented. After Morse entirelyunderstood how the electromagnet worked, he realized that sending a code-message via a wiremight be possible. However, Morse found that this were difficult. Thus, he asked his friend, Leonard D. Galein order that he could follow his idea.Slide 7: This slide is about the obstacles and opportunities in the process of the invention.In 1837, because of the Panic which caused a long depression, Morse could not introduce his newsystem although he had enough confidence to do that. However, Morse used this time to travel to Europe not only to register a patent for hisinvention but also to examine the English telegraph systems. He felt very confident because eventhough his main competitor had created an ingenious mechanism, Morse’s telegraph was moreefficient and easier to use.
Fortunately, in 1843, the economic was recovering, Morse again asked the Congress forthe cash of $30,000 in order to build the underground telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore. Morse hired the great construction engineer, Ezra Cornell to lay the pipe which carried thewire. However, because of the wire was defective insulation, Cornell suggested stringing wiresoverhead on trees. Morse approved of this great idea. Finally, the line was completed.Slide 8: On May 24, 1844, the first message, “What hath God wrought?” was sent by the telegraph.Henry’s experiments, Gale’s assistance, and hiring the young construction engineer were keys toMorse’s success.Slide 9: The telegraph’s working principles: The first telegraph system used an automatic sender which consisted of a plate and a long but short bars. These represent the Morse code equivalent of the alphabet as well as the number. The operator slides a pointer which is connected to a battery and the sending wire across the bars. The appropriate dots and dashes are immediately sent over this line. The receiver uses an electromagnet with a stylus on the end of an arm. This stylus will make an impression or tiny dent in a paper tape with the help of spring and coil. The tape then move out according to the tape’s movement direction.Slide 10: The process of development: At first, the telegraph system progressed slowly and the system could not work for theentire country. Thus, Morse continually tried to improve the telegraph system as well as to extendthe telegraph line. Fortunately, other companies began to open their own systems, the telegraphsystem began to develop.
In 1914, automatic transmission was developed instead of trained code users that were usedin the first telegraph to transmit the telegraph messages. This development in transmission madethe message transmission much faster than the old way. At that time, all long distance communication depended strongly on the telegraph.However, when the telephone and radio were invented, the telegraph were less develop than thatin first haft of 1990s.Slide 11: The effect of the telegraph’s invention: As noticed in the slide 3, the brief history of communication, the communication in 1830swas like the time when the printing press was invented. Imagine that when you want to send aletter from here to U.S., it takes weeks or even years for the postman to send this letter. However,because of the great inventor, Morse, telegraph was formed. It made the world become muchsmaller. With telegraph, it just takes some minutes to send a letter from one location to a distanceplace. In addition, the telegraph’s invention has the geographical effect. Prior to the telegraph, thegeography is the biggest barrier which constrained the business as well as politics. There waslimited knowledge of national and international news. The international news were not updated.Fortunately, with the invention of telegraph, the distance cannot constrained the informationanymore. Moreover, the telegraph also contribute to the establishment of world peace by erasing thenational–rivalries.
PART B: TELEPHONESlide 12: The definition: Telephone is a Greek word. tele- means “afar, far off ” and -phone means“sound, voice” ▶ Telephone is an instrument that transmits sound, voice to a distant place.Slide 13: Before the invention of telephone, there was telegraph which is telephone’s precedent. In the early 1870s, while Alexander Graham Bell was experimenting with telegraph, herealized that transmission the human voice over a wire by using electricity might be possible. Because he lacked the skill to make the equipment that were necessary for the experiments,he asked Thomas A. Watson for assistance.Slide 14: Bell and Watson worked together on the experience which tried to produce sounds overthe “harmonic telegraph”. On June 2, 1875, Bell heard the sound coming to him over the wire. After much tinkering, the instrument successfully transmitted the recognizable voicesound, but not words. Thus, Bell and Watson spent the whole summer to experiment. On March 7, 1876, the patent for telephone was issued to him. At 109 Court Street, Boston, the first understandable sentence was carried by the telephone.
Slide 15: The working principle of telephone: The speedy conversion from acoustic to electric energy: when a person speaks into the telephone mouthpiece, the acoustic vibration from his speech pushes the metallic coating slightly closer to the electrode, it creates the vibration in voltage. Then, the electric pulses are transmitted through a wire from the speaker to the listener, where the electric pulses are converted to acoustic energy again.Slide 16 and slide 17: some pictures of the development of telephone.The first telephone => the next smaller telephones => the car-telephones => the first mobilephone…Slide 18: At first, the telephone was extremely hard for anyone to afford because of its price. Onlythe rich could afford for telephone. Thus, Bell tried to reduce the cost of producing telephone inorder that the poorest could have a telephone, too. Telephone’s invention contributed to thedevelopment of city centers and buildings. With the invention of telephone, some jobs such as messenger boys, telegraphers, andoperators suddenly became unnecessary. In addition, the world became much smaller and more accessible to all business because ofthe telephone. The telephone helped people to keep close bond with their families andcommunities.
Slide 19: The Expansion of Telephone: Some specific years about the expansion of telephone: 1877 – The Beginning: in May 1877, there were only six telephones but only 7 monthslater, in November 1877, this number grew to 3000 units. 1878 – Local Expansion. 1879 – Nationwide Expansion: The demand for telephone were very high. 1881 – Manufacturing: Telephone growth were 1300,000 units. In 1885, American Telegraph and Telephone Company (AT&T) was formed. As you can see in the table, the growth of telephone was extremely fast. (By 1900 therewere nearly 600,000 phones in Bells telephone system; that number raised to 2.2 million phonesby 1905, and 5.8 million by 1910). (30 millionth phone was connected in the U.S. by 1984, by the1960s, there were more than 80 million phone in the U.S. and 160 million in the world).Slide 20: Nowadays, telephone becomes an indispensable thing in our life. With the invention oftelephone, the world rapidly becomes much smaller. Telephone is a valuable tool for journalists.People are brought together, thus, loneliness is decreasing and new communities are building. The invention of telephone also increases privacy in many ways. It allows people toexchange information without writing. Moreover, telephone helps people to connect very fastregardless to their distance.
Slide 21: Today, telephone industry is one of the most developed industry. Today, telephone is thecombination of the music player, camera, pager, projector, television … because you can used thesmartphone to message, listen to music, check mail, take the picture, read news and so on. Todaytelephone has the in-built projector, 3D screens and holograms.Slide 22: The information in my presentation is based on the sources from these websites.Slide 23: Thank you very much for you attention!