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Open geodata: Opportunities and threats
Ralph Straumann, @rastrau
Ernst Basler + Partner, Zurich
also: Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford
ITSL Workshop March 9, 2016
EBP’s business fields in Switzerland
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 2
EBP’s operational bases
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 3
EBP and data
 We use open data, government-issued and other
 We help government (and private institutions) produce data,
derive data, assess data quality, disseminate data, etc.
 We are project-driven, and so is data we handle – free or not
 We don’t usually publish data
(there’s not really a stock of in-house data)
 We advocate open data policies, e.g. in strategy consulting
 We are an institutional member of Opendata.ch
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 4
«Opportunities and threats»
For who? To whom?
 Private companies?
 Individuals?
 Government and administration?
 Budget?
 Society?
 All end-users?
 ...
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 5
All too common mis-labelling
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 6
http://geolion.zh.ch/opendata
All too common mis-labelling
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 7
OGD = easier data gathering and lowered
entry barriers
 Ex: price for communal geodata:
0–20kCHF per commune
[Buogo & Moullet 2012]
 Data monopolies or oligopolies are
abolished  data not (with)held
by service providers anymore
(e.g. cadastral surveyor, SBB)
 Hence:
Lowered barriers to entering a
market. New data products or
applications become viable.
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 8
License jungle
 Plethora of licenses in federal, cantonal and municipal offices
(and also other data providers, e.g. ODbL for OSM), PD for NaturalEarth)
 License, usage conditions, usage restrictions, requests, ...,
sometimes contradicting
 Licenses that are incompatible with certain uses e.g. OSM
 For some licenses: Virality
 E.g., what is a collective work, what a derived work?
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 9
License jungle: opendata.swiss
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 10
«Data debt» (cf. «technical debt»)
«In the long-term, one of the biggest challenges of Open
Data is not to have the raw data publicly available, but to
provide and consume up-to-date and high quality services
based on the original data. As a consumer, you have to keep in
mind that everything is a cache, as long as you are not the
owner of the data. You are in a dependency chain and you are
not in control of the whole chain.»
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 11
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/03/31/services-or-raw-data
Data debt and unintended consequences
 App with outdated data: Kataster der belasteten Standorte
(InteractiveThings)
 Refusal of data access: Mailboxes, OSM and Swiss Post
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 12
Data debt
 App with outdated data: Kataster der belasteten Standorte
(InteractiveThings)
 Refusal of data access: Mailboxes, OSM and Swiss Post
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 13
Data debt
 App with outdated data: Kataster der belasteten Standorte
(InteractiveThings)
 Refusal of data access: Mailboxes, OSM and Swiss Post
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 14
Not law – but open data ethics?
Charter for Public Statistics in Switzerland (2014):
e.g., statistics are mandated, respondents give informed consent, data is provided
to the public, etc.
http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/news/publikationen.html?publicationID=4876
3D Ethics Charter («3D OK»):
e.g., avoid bias, use reliable and current data, document source data, reference
changes in the data, etc.
http://3dok.info/WordPress3/les-principes-de-la-charte/?lang=en
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 15
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/05/open-data-rechte-und-pflichten
Not law – but open data ethics?
Charter for Public Statistics in Switzerland (2014):
e.g., statistics are mandated, respondents give informed consent, data is provided
to the public, etc.
http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/news/publikationen.html?publicationID=4876
3D Ethics Charter («3D OK»):
e.g., avoid bias, use reliable and current data, document source data, reference
changes in the data, etc.
http://3dok.info/WordPress3/les-principes-de-la-charte/?lang=en
... and OGD?
 Signatories of these kinds of charters are usually official-ish bodies
 How can we achieve commitment of relevant actors?
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 16
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/05/open-data-rechte-und-pflichten
Finances
How should OGD be financed?
 Ex. Swisstopo:
 Geodata dissemination revenue of 13 MCHF vs. production costs of 250-300
MCHF
 Swisstopo’s (FLAG Office; «Führung mit Leistungsauftrag und
Globalbudget») options: compensation, reduction of mandate or of revenue-
to-cost ratio
 Threat for taxpayers (preparatory effort for uncertain gains
through OGD)
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 17
http://opendata.ch/files/2012/07/OGD_Studie_Schlussversion.pdf
Finances
VGI (e.g. OSM) to the rescue?
 various inherent biases in crowdsourced data
 OSM provides a service to the public, not ‘service public’ (in the
Swiss sense)
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 18
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/25/operational-use-of-crowdsourced-data-energic-workshop-presentation
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/09/19/the-data-workers-manifesto
Finances
VGI (e.g. OSM) to the rescue?
 biases in crowdsourced data
 OSM provides a service to the public, not ‘service public’
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 19
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/25/operational-use-of-crowdsourced-data-energic-workshop-presentation
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/09/19/the-data-workers-manifesto
Finances
VGI (e.g. OSM) to the rescue?
 various inherent biases in crowdsourced data
 OSM provides a service to the public, not ‘service public’ (in the
Swiss sense)
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 20
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/25/operational-use-of-crowdsourced-data-energic-workshop-presentation
http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/09/19/the-data-workers-manifesto
«Hacksploitation» and sustainable impact
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 21
http://brianchang.info/2016/02/28/hackathon-be-gone.html
«Hacksploitation» and sustainable impact
«Entsorgung Zürich» app (citizen) vs. «Sauberes Zürich» app
(government)
«Trainshare» app (citizen) vs. «SBB-CONNECT» (gov-owned entity)
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 22
http://opendata.ch/pressearchiv/offener-brief-zur-smartphone-app-sauberes-zuerich
http://trainshare.ch
Finally
 Confusion of terms: What are we talking about even?
 In our projects, OGD can make data gathering more efficient
 OGD affords newly viable applications and data products
 More competition and innovation over rent-seeking
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 23
Finally, finally
 Lack of legal knowledge: License jungle, license-application conflicts
 Know-how transfer, legal consultation
 Best practices for data providers/license issuers
 Simple, universally adopted geodata licenses
 Data debt and liability
 Technical solutions
 Legal implications?
 Open data ethics?
 Financing OGD
 Political solutions
 Hackathons and intellectual property
 Prior clarification of intellectual property
 Open data ethics and community management
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 24
Contact, follow-ups
ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 25
Ralph Straumann
Ernst Basler + Partner
www.ebp.ch
www.geo.ebp.ch
ralph.straumann@ebp.ch @rastrau

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Swiss Open Geodata: Opportunities and Threats

  • 1. Open geodata: Opportunities and threats Ralph Straumann, @rastrau Ernst Basler + Partner, Zurich also: Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford ITSL Workshop March 9, 2016
  • 2. EBP’s business fields in Switzerland ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 2
  • 3. EBP’s operational bases ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 3
  • 4. EBP and data  We use open data, government-issued and other  We help government (and private institutions) produce data, derive data, assess data quality, disseminate data, etc.  We are project-driven, and so is data we handle – free or not  We don’t usually publish data (there’s not really a stock of in-house data)  We advocate open data policies, e.g. in strategy consulting  We are an institutional member of Opendata.ch ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 4
  • 5. «Opportunities and threats» For who? To whom?  Private companies?  Individuals?  Government and administration?  Budget?  Society?  All end-users?  ... ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 5
  • 6. All too common mis-labelling ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 6 http://geolion.zh.ch/opendata
  • 7. All too common mis-labelling ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 7
  • 8. OGD = easier data gathering and lowered entry barriers  Ex: price for communal geodata: 0–20kCHF per commune [Buogo & Moullet 2012]  Data monopolies or oligopolies are abolished  data not (with)held by service providers anymore (e.g. cadastral surveyor, SBB)  Hence: Lowered barriers to entering a market. New data products or applications become viable. ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 8
  • 9. License jungle  Plethora of licenses in federal, cantonal and municipal offices (and also other data providers, e.g. ODbL for OSM), PD for NaturalEarth)  License, usage conditions, usage restrictions, requests, ..., sometimes contradicting  Licenses that are incompatible with certain uses e.g. OSM  For some licenses: Virality  E.g., what is a collective work, what a derived work? ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 9
  • 10. License jungle: opendata.swiss ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 10
  • 11. «Data debt» (cf. «technical debt») «In the long-term, one of the biggest challenges of Open Data is not to have the raw data publicly available, but to provide and consume up-to-date and high quality services based on the original data. As a consumer, you have to keep in mind that everything is a cache, as long as you are not the owner of the data. You are in a dependency chain and you are not in control of the whole chain.» ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 11 http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/03/31/services-or-raw-data
  • 12. Data debt and unintended consequences  App with outdated data: Kataster der belasteten Standorte (InteractiveThings)  Refusal of data access: Mailboxes, OSM and Swiss Post ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 12
  • 13. Data debt  App with outdated data: Kataster der belasteten Standorte (InteractiveThings)  Refusal of data access: Mailboxes, OSM and Swiss Post ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 13
  • 14. Data debt  App with outdated data: Kataster der belasteten Standorte (InteractiveThings)  Refusal of data access: Mailboxes, OSM and Swiss Post ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 14
  • 15. Not law – but open data ethics? Charter for Public Statistics in Switzerland (2014): e.g., statistics are mandated, respondents give informed consent, data is provided to the public, etc. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/news/publikationen.html?publicationID=4876 3D Ethics Charter («3D OK»): e.g., avoid bias, use reliable and current data, document source data, reference changes in the data, etc. http://3dok.info/WordPress3/les-principes-de-la-charte/?lang=en ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 15 http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/05/open-data-rechte-und-pflichten
  • 16. Not law – but open data ethics? Charter for Public Statistics in Switzerland (2014): e.g., statistics are mandated, respondents give informed consent, data is provided to the public, etc. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/news/publikationen.html?publicationID=4876 3D Ethics Charter («3D OK»): e.g., avoid bias, use reliable and current data, document source data, reference changes in the data, etc. http://3dok.info/WordPress3/les-principes-de-la-charte/?lang=en ... and OGD?  Signatories of these kinds of charters are usually official-ish bodies  How can we achieve commitment of relevant actors? ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 16 http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/05/open-data-rechte-und-pflichten
  • 17. Finances How should OGD be financed?  Ex. Swisstopo:  Geodata dissemination revenue of 13 MCHF vs. production costs of 250-300 MCHF  Swisstopo’s (FLAG Office; «Führung mit Leistungsauftrag und Globalbudget») options: compensation, reduction of mandate or of revenue- to-cost ratio  Threat for taxpayers (preparatory effort for uncertain gains through OGD) ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 17 http://opendata.ch/files/2012/07/OGD_Studie_Schlussversion.pdf
  • 18. Finances VGI (e.g. OSM) to the rescue?  various inherent biases in crowdsourced data  OSM provides a service to the public, not ‘service public’ (in the Swiss sense) ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 18 http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/25/operational-use-of-crowdsourced-data-energic-workshop-presentation http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/09/19/the-data-workers-manifesto
  • 19. Finances VGI (e.g. OSM) to the rescue?  biases in crowdsourced data  OSM provides a service to the public, not ‘service public’ ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 19 http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/25/operational-use-of-crowdsourced-data-energic-workshop-presentation http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/09/19/the-data-workers-manifesto
  • 20. Finances VGI (e.g. OSM) to the rescue?  various inherent biases in crowdsourced data  OSM provides a service to the public, not ‘service public’ (in the Swiss sense) ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 20 http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/06/25/operational-use-of-crowdsourced-data-energic-workshop-presentation http://geo.ebp.ch/2014/09/19/the-data-workers-manifesto
  • 21. «Hacksploitation» and sustainable impact ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 21 http://brianchang.info/2016/02/28/hackathon-be-gone.html
  • 22. «Hacksploitation» and sustainable impact «Entsorgung Zürich» app (citizen) vs. «Sauberes Zürich» app (government) «Trainshare» app (citizen) vs. «SBB-CONNECT» (gov-owned entity) ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 22 http://opendata.ch/pressearchiv/offener-brief-zur-smartphone-app-sauberes-zuerich http://trainshare.ch
  • 23. Finally  Confusion of terms: What are we talking about even?  In our projects, OGD can make data gathering more efficient  OGD affords newly viable applications and data products  More competition and innovation over rent-seeking ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 23
  • 24. Finally, finally  Lack of legal knowledge: License jungle, license-application conflicts  Know-how transfer, legal consultation  Best practices for data providers/license issuers  Simple, universally adopted geodata licenses  Data debt and liability  Technical solutions  Legal implications?  Open data ethics?  Financing OGD  Political solutions  Hackathons and intellectual property  Prior clarification of intellectual property  Open data ethics and community management ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 24
  • 25. Contact, follow-ups ITSL Workshop on Open Geodata, 9.3.2016 25 Ralph Straumann Ernst Basler + Partner www.ebp.ch www.geo.ebp.ch ralph.straumann@ebp.ch @rastrau

Editor's Notes

  1. We offer complex services and projects based on interdisciplinary experience and profound knowledge. For each task we assemble the most appropriate project team. In Switzerland we offer a range of services in 10 business fields.
  2. Ernst Basler + Partner is a leading, internationally active enterprise with key operational bases in Switzerland, Germany, Brazil, Chile and Hong Kong. Founded in Switzerland in 1981, our company maintains key operational bases in Switzerland and Germany, where we have around 300 employees, and in Brazil, Chile and Hong Kong, where we have around 200 employees. Our key operational base in Brazil incorporates Geoklock, the leading Brazilian company in the area of engineering and environmental planning for 30 years, and Bachema, a provider of environmental laboratory services. To date, we have been active in more than 60 countries throughout the world. (currently in around 30 countries)