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The purpose of this study is to test the results of underload/overload
training in the area of increasing bat speed throughout a 6-week program.

HISTORY OF OVERLOAD-UNDERLOAD TRAINING
The concept of overload-underload training is a simple one that has been used since the 1970’s by Olympic
athletes to get dramatic performance increases in relatively short amounts of time. Unfortunately, the
concept still remained a mystery to the majority of the general public until recent years. Overload Underload
training is a training concept that uses resistances slightly above and below what one would encounter in
his/her respective sport. So, for baseball that would mean swinging a baseball bat or throwing a baseball that
is roughly 20% over and 20% under the normal weight one would usually encounter. The Soviet Union and
other Eastern bloc countries studied this concept extensively back in the 1970’s. These countries took great
pride in their athletic accomplishments and poured millions of dollars in research into more efficient ways to
build better athletes. After experimenting with their Olympic throwers (shot put, javelin, hammer, and discus)
they discovered that by increasing or decreasing the resistance of the projectiles that were thrown in practice,
they could produce significant gains in throwing distance (and velocity) with objects of regulation weight. This
was a huge find since strength and power gains from traditional weight training often doesn’t transfer well to
more complex sporting motions such as throwing and hitting.
The Soviets also found out that when greater than 20% resistance was added or subtracted from the training
implements, it not only didn’t increase performance but it actually decreased it. By using too much or too
little resistance you will be putting in a lot of effort and time to make yourself better, but it is actually time and
effort wasted. This again goes back to the fact that timing and biomechanics are essential to sports, which
require a high technical component. When objects 20% heavier or lighter than the original objects are used,
then the biomechanics of the movement is changed. That means in order to accommodate the additional or
reduced load, the athletes would change their movement pattern--which means, in baseball terms, they
would change the way they swing or throw, making the training essentially useless. Coaches often use the
phrase “practice makes perfect”, but in reality only perfect practice makes perfect. That means someone
wishing to increase his bat speed must take each practice swing with perfect technique at game speed in
order to have the hope of making noticeable improvements. To become fast and explosive, you must train to
be fast and explosive. Quality always wins over quantity. A quick example would be looking at a marathon
runner vs. a sprinter. A marathon runner runs for miles at a time in training. A sprinter runs a few short
sprints. They are both running, but the differences lie in a) intensity, b) volume of training, and c) rest
intervals. Changing those 3 variables makes the outcome of the training drastically different. The take-home
message is: if you want to throw faster, you need to practice throwing FAST. If you want to increase your bat
speed, you have to practice swinging as fast as possible with perfect mechanics.
Today, a number of the world’s top athletes use overload underload training to gain the edge on their
competition. Elite sprinters and swimmers have been effectively using a form of overload underload training
to continually surpass old world records. The sprinters and swimmers attach themselves to cords that either
provides resistance from behind or a slight tow from in front of them to create a pace that is slightly slower or
slightly faster than their top times. This has provided excellent results and was recently used by soccer
phenom Freddy Adu who trains at IMG academies, a training academy that has a history of improving the
performance of the world’s best athletes.

	
  
 

Many throwers from track and field continue to use the overload underload concept with great
results. Baseball, which has a history of lagging behind the times in improving sports performance through
science, is even beginning to catch on. The New York Yankees have a strong emphasis on overload
underload training for their hitters during the off-season. A number of pitchers have been using overload
underload training to drastically improve their throwing velocity as well as strengthen their arms for the wear
and tear of a professional season.
Steven Ellis, a pitching instructor who puts out some great information on pitching and training tips, used
overload – underload training during his time with the Chicago Cubs to increase his fastball from 90 mph to
96 mph! There are numerous success stories out there but I think the point has been made that baseball
players of virtually any level could stand to gain benefits from overload underload training.

STUDIES/SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Over the years there have been numerous studies done to determine the effects of overload underload
training on performance and safety. The majority of overload underload training research has been done with
throwing a baseball. The research has all come back with stellar results. Not only did the players
participating in the program make significant gains in velocity, but they also stayed healthy for the following
season, a difficult accomplishment considering the stress that throwing a baseball puts on the muscles,
tendons, and ligaments of the arm. The two most notable studies on the use of overload underload training
for bat speed improvement and throwing velocity improvement comes from Coop DeRenne, one of the
world's premier research leaders in terms of overload underload training for baseball. DeRenne and
colleagues came to the same conclusion as many of the world's top sports scientists which is: overload
underload training is simply one of the simplest and most effective ways to make significant performance
improvements in a short amount of time.

	
  
 

References
Coop DeRenne, Barton P. Buxton, Ronald K. Hetzler and Kwok W. Ho. 1995: Effects of Weighted Bat
Implement Training on Bat Swing Velocity. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: Vol. 9, No. 4,
pp. 247?250.
Coop DeRenne, Barton P. Buxton, Ronald K. Hetzler and Kwok W. Ho. 1994: Effects of Under- and
Overweighted Implement Training on Pitching Velocity. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research:
Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 247?250.
Others to check out

1) David J. Szymanski, MEd, CSCS, June 1998: The Effects of Various Weighted Bats on Bat Velocity - A
Literature Review. Strength and Conditioning, pp. 8 - 11
2) Coop DeRenne, Kwok W. Ho and James C. Murphy. 2001: Effects of General, Special, and Specific
Resistance Training on Throwing Velocity in Baseball: A Brief Review. The Journal of Strength and
Conditioning Research: Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 148?156.
3) Coop DeRenne, Kwok Ho and Alan Blitzblau. 1990: Effects of Weighted Implement Training on Throwing
Velocity. The Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 4, 16-19.
4) DeRenne, C., Tracy, R., and Dunn-Rankin, P. 1985: Increasing Throwing velocity. Athletic Journal, April, 36
- 39.
5) Bagonzi, J. A. 1978: The Effects of Graded Weighted Baseballs, Free Weight Training, and Simulative
Isometric Exercise on the Velocity of a Thrown Baseball. Master's thesis, IndianaUniversity.
6) Litwhiler, D., and Hamm, L. 1973: Overload: Effect on Throwing Velocity and Accuracy. Athletic Journal, 53,
64-65.
7) Brose, D.E., and D.L. Hanson 1967: Effects of Overload Training on Velocity and Accuracy of Throwing.
Research Quarterly. 38:528-533.
8) Egstrom, G.H., Logan, G.A., and E. L. Wallis 1960: Acquisition of Throwing skill Involving Projectiles of
varying Weight. Research Quarterly 31:420-425.
9) Rafael F. Escamilla1, Ph.D., Glenn S. Fleisig2, Ph.D., Steven W. Barrentine2, M.S., James R. Andrews2,
M.D., and Kevin P. Speer, M.D. Effects of throwing overweight and underweight baseballs on throwing
velocity and accuracy. Sports Med. 2000 Apr;29(4):259-72

	
  
 

Ammo Bat Co. Experiment
Participants and Pre-testing
Training experiment consisted of taking 13 high school baseball players from the ages of 15-18.
These players ranged from your average high school player to your elite high school player and in no
particular way were they hand picked by current weight, height, or ability. These players were tested by
measuring each players bat speed as well as ball exit speed to give us a starting point for our experiment.
Bat speed was tested using a Sport Sensor- Speed Radar. Radar was placed approximately 6 inches from a
stationary tee directly across from the player in the opposite batter’s box. The radar was placed evenly with
the height of the ball on the hitting tee. Each player took live swings while striking the baseball off of a
stationary tee during all testing. We felt like this gave us a live bat speed read while eliminating the factors of
a pitched or moving baseball. Players were instructed to take 5 swings with the overload bat (20% heavier
than their game bat- Slug) while recording all 5 swings and taking the average of these swings to give them
their bat speed using our overload bat. Players were then instructed to take 10 swings using the underload
bat (20% lighter than their game bat- Bullet) while recording all 10 swings and taking the average of these
swings to give them their bat speed using our underload bat. Players were then asked to take 10 swings with
their normal game bat while recording all 10 swings and taking the average to give them their bat speed using
their game bat. The game bat results are the main focus of our experiment. Considering that; we wanted to
record each players bat speed using the overload and underload bats to make correct comparisons through
our tracking progress thru out the experiment. Each player was allowed 3 minutes of rest during testing
between alternating bats. After initial testing was recorded we had players bat speeds ranging from 60.4 mph
to 84.5 mph with their game bats. Players were able to swing the underload bat on average 8-12 mph faster
than their game bat and swung the overload bat on average 8-12 mph slower than their game bat.

	
  
 
Pre-Testing Results in MPH

overload	
  

underload	
  

game	
  bat	
  

100	
  
80	
  
60	
  
40	
  
20	
  
0	
  
1	
  

2	
  

3	
  

4	
  

5	
  

6	
  

7	
  

8	
  

9	
  

10	
  

11	
  

12	
  

13	
  

High School Players (1-13)

Training program implemented
Each player was put through a series of drills and repetitions after warming up that was prescribed using the
Ammo Bat Speed system. Players were re-tested every two weeks to see how immediate and consist gains
would or would not be. Testing was given and recorded through the same procedures as the pre-test. Players
were instructed to use the same bats and the same baseballs that were used in the pretest to cancel out any
possible variables.
Weeks 1 and
Warm up series- No Lower 1/2
Momentum Drill- Shuffle Shuffle
Tee Drill
Front Toss
Cage BP-40ft

Swings
15-20 Handle loaded bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat

Sets

2
2
2
2

Drills were performed 3 days a week for 2 weeks with at least one day of rest in between training days. Total
swings per day were 175-180 consisting of 32 overload, 64 underload, 64 game bat, and 15-20 with the
handle loaded bat during warm up series. Players were retested after the week 2 training.

	
  
 
2 week Testing Results in MPH

overload	
  

underload	
  

game	
  bat	
  

100	
  
80	
  
60	
  
40	
  
20	
  
0	
  
1	
  

2	
  

3	
  

4	
  

5	
  

6	
  

7	
  

8	
  

9	
  

10	
  

11	
  

12	
  

13	
  

High School Players (1-13)
Description of Results after 2 weeksAfter 2 weeks of training we saw gains in all three areas with the average gains being
Overload Bat- +4.2 (gains ranged from +1 to +9)
Underload Bat- +5.5 (gains ranged from +3 to +14)
Game Bat- +5.3 (gains ranged from +1 to +15)

Weeks 3 and 4

Swings

Sets

Warm up series- No Lower 1/2
Momentum Drill- Step Into’s
Tee Drill
Front Toss
Cage BP-40ft

15-20 Handle loaded bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat

2
2
2
2

Drills were performed 3 days a week for 2 weeks with at least one day of rest in between training days. Total
swings per day were 175-180 consisting of 32 overload, 64 underload, 64 game bat, and 15-20 with the
handle loaded bat during warm up series. Players were retested after the week 4 training.

	
  
 
4 week Testing Results in MPH

overload	
  

underload	
  

game	
  bat	
  

120	
  
100	
  
80	
  
60	
  
40	
  
20	
  
0	
  
1	
  

2	
  

3	
  

4	
  

5	
  

6	
  

7	
  

8	
  

9	
  

10	
  

11	
  

12	
  

13	
  

Description of Results after 4 weeks of training
After 4 weeks of training we saw gains in all three areas from week 2 with the average gains being
Overload Bat- +1.5 (gains ranging from 0 to +5)
Underload Bat- +3.85 (gains ranging from 0 to +8)
Game Bat- +2.1
(gains ranging fromm 0 to +7)
Total Average Gains of Bat Speed in MPH after 4 weeks
Overload Bat- +5.7
Underload Bat- + 9.05
Game Bat- +7.1

Weeks 5 and 6

Swings

Sets

Warm up series- No Lower 1/2
Momentum Drill-Happy Gilmore
Tee Drill
Front Toss
Cage BP-40ft

15-20 Handle loaded bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat
4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat

2
2
2
2

Drills were performed 3 days a week for 2 weeks with at least one day of rest in between training days. Total
swings per day were 175-180 consisting of 32 overload, 64 underload, 64 game bat, and 15-20 with the
handle loaded bat during warm up series. Players were retested after the week 6 training.

	
  
 
6 week Testing Results in MPH

overload	
  

underload	
  

game	
  bat	
  

120	
  
100	
  
80	
  
60	
  
40	
  
20	
  
0	
  
1	
  

2	
  

3	
  

4	
  

5	
  

6	
  

7	
  

8	
  

9	
  

10	
  

11	
  

12	
  

13	
  

High School Players (1-13)
Description of Results after 6 weeks of training
After 6 weeks of training we saw gains in all three areas from week 4 with the average gains being
Overload Bat- +3.4 (gains ranging from +1 to +9)
Underload Bat- +3.7 (gains ranging from 0 to +8)
Game Bat- +3.4 (gains ranging from 0 to +7)
Total Average Gains of Bat Speed in MPH after 6 weeks
Overload Bat- +9.1
Underload Bat- + 12.75
Game Bat- +10.5

Results
After 6 weeks of training using underload/overload principles we were able to prove that this type of training
drastically increases bat speed, resulting in increased bat speed with the player’s game bat ranging from +4
mph to +16 mph during a 6 week program. All 13 players showed gains in bat speed while 0 players showed
no gains or negative gains. The average increase in bat speed among these 13 participants was 10.5 mph
with their game bat. And also showed gains in the overload bat of +9.1 mph and gains with the underload bat
of +12.75 mph.

	
  
 
Overall Bat Speed Gains using the Players Game Bat

Pre-­‐Test	
  

week	
  2	
  

week	
  4	
  

week	
  6	
  

4	
  

6	
  

8	
  

10	
  

100	
  
80	
  
60	
  
40	
  
20	
  
0	
  
1	
  

2	
  

3	
  

5	
  

7	
  

9	
  

11	
  

12	
  

13	
  

Overall Bat speed Gains for the Overload Bat

Pre-­‐Test	
  

week	
  2	
  

week	
  4	
  

week	
  6	
  

8	
  

10	
  

80	
  
70	
  
60	
  
50	
  
40	
  
30	
  
20	
  
10	
  
0	
  
1	
  

	
  

2	
  

3	
  

4	
  

5	
  

6	
  

7	
  

9	
  

11	
  

12	
  

13	
  
 
Overall Bat speed Gains for the Underload Bat

Pre-­‐Test	
  

week	
  2	
  

week	
  4	
  

week	
  6	
  

120	
  
100	
  
80	
  
60	
  
40	
  
20	
  
0	
  
1	
  

2	
  

3	
  

4	
  

5	
  

6	
  

7	
  

8	
  

9	
   10	
   11	
   12	
   13	
  

Conclusion
Bat speed can be trained and increased through a disciplined program and more importantly the use of
underload/overload bats based off of the Soviet Unions 20% theory that was proven in the 1970’s through
the field events of the Olympics. Throughout the program players were watched closely as well as filmed to
see if there were any negative alterations in their swing due to the underload/overload bats. During our study
we did not find any negative alterations only positive increases in bat speed and ball exit speed. Training
your hands at a faster rate than normal proved to be the key to increasing your bat speed while players were
now swinging their game bat at the speed that they initially tested with using an underload bat. We feel that
in order to become a complete hitter one must train with the underload bat to increase bat speed as well as
the overload bat to increase strength through out the swing and through contact.
Training apparatus and equipment
Underload bat- Bullet made by Ammo Bat co.
Overload bat- Slug made by Ammo Bat co.
Handle loaded bat- Blackpowder made by Ammo Bat Co.
Game bat- players used their aluminum bat of choice
Bat speed Radar- made by Sport Sensor
Ball Exit Speed Radar- Pro Stalker II
Training Program- Ammo Bat Speed System
	
  

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Overload-Underload Training Increases Bat Speed

  • 1.   The purpose of this study is to test the results of underload/overload training in the area of increasing bat speed throughout a 6-week program. HISTORY OF OVERLOAD-UNDERLOAD TRAINING The concept of overload-underload training is a simple one that has been used since the 1970’s by Olympic athletes to get dramatic performance increases in relatively short amounts of time. Unfortunately, the concept still remained a mystery to the majority of the general public until recent years. Overload Underload training is a training concept that uses resistances slightly above and below what one would encounter in his/her respective sport. So, for baseball that would mean swinging a baseball bat or throwing a baseball that is roughly 20% over and 20% under the normal weight one would usually encounter. The Soviet Union and other Eastern bloc countries studied this concept extensively back in the 1970’s. These countries took great pride in their athletic accomplishments and poured millions of dollars in research into more efficient ways to build better athletes. After experimenting with their Olympic throwers (shot put, javelin, hammer, and discus) they discovered that by increasing or decreasing the resistance of the projectiles that were thrown in practice, they could produce significant gains in throwing distance (and velocity) with objects of regulation weight. This was a huge find since strength and power gains from traditional weight training often doesn’t transfer well to more complex sporting motions such as throwing and hitting. The Soviets also found out that when greater than 20% resistance was added or subtracted from the training implements, it not only didn’t increase performance but it actually decreased it. By using too much or too little resistance you will be putting in a lot of effort and time to make yourself better, but it is actually time and effort wasted. This again goes back to the fact that timing and biomechanics are essential to sports, which require a high technical component. When objects 20% heavier or lighter than the original objects are used, then the biomechanics of the movement is changed. That means in order to accommodate the additional or reduced load, the athletes would change their movement pattern--which means, in baseball terms, they would change the way they swing or throw, making the training essentially useless. Coaches often use the phrase “practice makes perfect”, but in reality only perfect practice makes perfect. That means someone wishing to increase his bat speed must take each practice swing with perfect technique at game speed in order to have the hope of making noticeable improvements. To become fast and explosive, you must train to be fast and explosive. Quality always wins over quantity. A quick example would be looking at a marathon runner vs. a sprinter. A marathon runner runs for miles at a time in training. A sprinter runs a few short sprints. They are both running, but the differences lie in a) intensity, b) volume of training, and c) rest intervals. Changing those 3 variables makes the outcome of the training drastically different. The take-home message is: if you want to throw faster, you need to practice throwing FAST. If you want to increase your bat speed, you have to practice swinging as fast as possible with perfect mechanics. Today, a number of the world’s top athletes use overload underload training to gain the edge on their competition. Elite sprinters and swimmers have been effectively using a form of overload underload training to continually surpass old world records. The sprinters and swimmers attach themselves to cords that either provides resistance from behind or a slight tow from in front of them to create a pace that is slightly slower or slightly faster than their top times. This has provided excellent results and was recently used by soccer phenom Freddy Adu who trains at IMG academies, a training academy that has a history of improving the performance of the world’s best athletes.  
  • 2.   Many throwers from track and field continue to use the overload underload concept with great results. Baseball, which has a history of lagging behind the times in improving sports performance through science, is even beginning to catch on. The New York Yankees have a strong emphasis on overload underload training for their hitters during the off-season. A number of pitchers have been using overload underload training to drastically improve their throwing velocity as well as strengthen their arms for the wear and tear of a professional season. Steven Ellis, a pitching instructor who puts out some great information on pitching and training tips, used overload – underload training during his time with the Chicago Cubs to increase his fastball from 90 mph to 96 mph! There are numerous success stories out there but I think the point has been made that baseball players of virtually any level could stand to gain benefits from overload underload training. STUDIES/SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Over the years there have been numerous studies done to determine the effects of overload underload training on performance and safety. The majority of overload underload training research has been done with throwing a baseball. The research has all come back with stellar results. Not only did the players participating in the program make significant gains in velocity, but they also stayed healthy for the following season, a difficult accomplishment considering the stress that throwing a baseball puts on the muscles, tendons, and ligaments of the arm. The two most notable studies on the use of overload underload training for bat speed improvement and throwing velocity improvement comes from Coop DeRenne, one of the world's premier research leaders in terms of overload underload training for baseball. DeRenne and colleagues came to the same conclusion as many of the world's top sports scientists which is: overload underload training is simply one of the simplest and most effective ways to make significant performance improvements in a short amount of time.  
  • 3.   References Coop DeRenne, Barton P. Buxton, Ronald K. Hetzler and Kwok W. Ho. 1995: Effects of Weighted Bat Implement Training on Bat Swing Velocity. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 247?250. Coop DeRenne, Barton P. Buxton, Ronald K. Hetzler and Kwok W. Ho. 1994: Effects of Under- and Overweighted Implement Training on Pitching Velocity. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 247?250. Others to check out 1) David J. Szymanski, MEd, CSCS, June 1998: The Effects of Various Weighted Bats on Bat Velocity - A Literature Review. Strength and Conditioning, pp. 8 - 11 2) Coop DeRenne, Kwok W. Ho and James C. Murphy. 2001: Effects of General, Special, and Specific Resistance Training on Throwing Velocity in Baseball: A Brief Review. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 148?156. 3) Coop DeRenne, Kwok Ho and Alan Blitzblau. 1990: Effects of Weighted Implement Training on Throwing Velocity. The Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 4, 16-19. 4) DeRenne, C., Tracy, R., and Dunn-Rankin, P. 1985: Increasing Throwing velocity. Athletic Journal, April, 36 - 39. 5) Bagonzi, J. A. 1978: The Effects of Graded Weighted Baseballs, Free Weight Training, and Simulative Isometric Exercise on the Velocity of a Thrown Baseball. Master's thesis, IndianaUniversity. 6) Litwhiler, D., and Hamm, L. 1973: Overload: Effect on Throwing Velocity and Accuracy. Athletic Journal, 53, 64-65. 7) Brose, D.E., and D.L. Hanson 1967: Effects of Overload Training on Velocity and Accuracy of Throwing. Research Quarterly. 38:528-533. 8) Egstrom, G.H., Logan, G.A., and E. L. Wallis 1960: Acquisition of Throwing skill Involving Projectiles of varying Weight. Research Quarterly 31:420-425. 9) Rafael F. Escamilla1, Ph.D., Glenn S. Fleisig2, Ph.D., Steven W. Barrentine2, M.S., James R. Andrews2, M.D., and Kevin P. Speer, M.D. Effects of throwing overweight and underweight baseballs on throwing velocity and accuracy. Sports Med. 2000 Apr;29(4):259-72  
  • 4.   Ammo Bat Co. Experiment Participants and Pre-testing Training experiment consisted of taking 13 high school baseball players from the ages of 15-18. These players ranged from your average high school player to your elite high school player and in no particular way were they hand picked by current weight, height, or ability. These players were tested by measuring each players bat speed as well as ball exit speed to give us a starting point for our experiment. Bat speed was tested using a Sport Sensor- Speed Radar. Radar was placed approximately 6 inches from a stationary tee directly across from the player in the opposite batter’s box. The radar was placed evenly with the height of the ball on the hitting tee. Each player took live swings while striking the baseball off of a stationary tee during all testing. We felt like this gave us a live bat speed read while eliminating the factors of a pitched or moving baseball. Players were instructed to take 5 swings with the overload bat (20% heavier than their game bat- Slug) while recording all 5 swings and taking the average of these swings to give them their bat speed using our overload bat. Players were then instructed to take 10 swings using the underload bat (20% lighter than their game bat- Bullet) while recording all 10 swings and taking the average of these swings to give them their bat speed using our underload bat. Players were then asked to take 10 swings with their normal game bat while recording all 10 swings and taking the average to give them their bat speed using their game bat. The game bat results are the main focus of our experiment. Considering that; we wanted to record each players bat speed using the overload and underload bats to make correct comparisons through our tracking progress thru out the experiment. Each player was allowed 3 minutes of rest during testing between alternating bats. After initial testing was recorded we had players bat speeds ranging from 60.4 mph to 84.5 mph with their game bats. Players were able to swing the underload bat on average 8-12 mph faster than their game bat and swung the overload bat on average 8-12 mph slower than their game bat.  
  • 5.   Pre-Testing Results in MPH overload   underload   game  bat   100   80   60   40   20   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   High School Players (1-13) Training program implemented Each player was put through a series of drills and repetitions after warming up that was prescribed using the Ammo Bat Speed system. Players were re-tested every two weeks to see how immediate and consist gains would or would not be. Testing was given and recorded through the same procedures as the pre-test. Players were instructed to use the same bats and the same baseballs that were used in the pretest to cancel out any possible variables. Weeks 1 and Warm up series- No Lower 1/2 Momentum Drill- Shuffle Shuffle Tee Drill Front Toss Cage BP-40ft Swings 15-20 Handle loaded bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat Sets 2 2 2 2 Drills were performed 3 days a week for 2 weeks with at least one day of rest in between training days. Total swings per day were 175-180 consisting of 32 overload, 64 underload, 64 game bat, and 15-20 with the handle loaded bat during warm up series. Players were retested after the week 2 training.  
  • 6.   2 week Testing Results in MPH overload   underload   game  bat   100   80   60   40   20   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   High School Players (1-13) Description of Results after 2 weeksAfter 2 weeks of training we saw gains in all three areas with the average gains being Overload Bat- +4.2 (gains ranged from +1 to +9) Underload Bat- +5.5 (gains ranged from +3 to +14) Game Bat- +5.3 (gains ranged from +1 to +15) Weeks 3 and 4 Swings Sets Warm up series- No Lower 1/2 Momentum Drill- Step Into’s Tee Drill Front Toss Cage BP-40ft 15-20 Handle loaded bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 2 2 2 2 Drills were performed 3 days a week for 2 weeks with at least one day of rest in between training days. Total swings per day were 175-180 consisting of 32 overload, 64 underload, 64 game bat, and 15-20 with the handle loaded bat during warm up series. Players were retested after the week 4 training.  
  • 7.   4 week Testing Results in MPH overload   underload   game  bat   120   100   80   60   40   20   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   Description of Results after 4 weeks of training After 4 weeks of training we saw gains in all three areas from week 2 with the average gains being Overload Bat- +1.5 (gains ranging from 0 to +5) Underload Bat- +3.85 (gains ranging from 0 to +8) Game Bat- +2.1 (gains ranging fromm 0 to +7) Total Average Gains of Bat Speed in MPH after 4 weeks Overload Bat- +5.7 Underload Bat- + 9.05 Game Bat- +7.1 Weeks 5 and 6 Swings Sets Warm up series- No Lower 1/2 Momentum Drill-Happy Gilmore Tee Drill Front Toss Cage BP-40ft 15-20 Handle loaded bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 4 overload, 8 underload, 8 game bat 2 2 2 2 Drills were performed 3 days a week for 2 weeks with at least one day of rest in between training days. Total swings per day were 175-180 consisting of 32 overload, 64 underload, 64 game bat, and 15-20 with the handle loaded bat during warm up series. Players were retested after the week 6 training.  
  • 8.   6 week Testing Results in MPH overload   underload   game  bat   120   100   80   60   40   20   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   High School Players (1-13) Description of Results after 6 weeks of training After 6 weeks of training we saw gains in all three areas from week 4 with the average gains being Overload Bat- +3.4 (gains ranging from +1 to +9) Underload Bat- +3.7 (gains ranging from 0 to +8) Game Bat- +3.4 (gains ranging from 0 to +7) Total Average Gains of Bat Speed in MPH after 6 weeks Overload Bat- +9.1 Underload Bat- + 12.75 Game Bat- +10.5 Results After 6 weeks of training using underload/overload principles we were able to prove that this type of training drastically increases bat speed, resulting in increased bat speed with the player’s game bat ranging from +4 mph to +16 mph during a 6 week program. All 13 players showed gains in bat speed while 0 players showed no gains or negative gains. The average increase in bat speed among these 13 participants was 10.5 mph with their game bat. And also showed gains in the overload bat of +9.1 mph and gains with the underload bat of +12.75 mph.  
  • 9.   Overall Bat Speed Gains using the Players Game Bat Pre-­‐Test   week  2   week  4   week  6   4   6   8   10   100   80   60   40   20   0   1   2   3   5   7   9   11   12   13   Overall Bat speed Gains for the Overload Bat Pre-­‐Test   week  2   week  4   week  6   8   10   80   70   60   50   40   30   20   10   0   1     2   3   4   5   6   7   9   11   12   13  
  • 10.   Overall Bat speed Gains for the Underload Bat Pre-­‐Test   week  2   week  4   week  6   120   100   80   60   40   20   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   Conclusion Bat speed can be trained and increased through a disciplined program and more importantly the use of underload/overload bats based off of the Soviet Unions 20% theory that was proven in the 1970’s through the field events of the Olympics. Throughout the program players were watched closely as well as filmed to see if there were any negative alterations in their swing due to the underload/overload bats. During our study we did not find any negative alterations only positive increases in bat speed and ball exit speed. Training your hands at a faster rate than normal proved to be the key to increasing your bat speed while players were now swinging their game bat at the speed that they initially tested with using an underload bat. We feel that in order to become a complete hitter one must train with the underload bat to increase bat speed as well as the overload bat to increase strength through out the swing and through contact. Training apparatus and equipment Underload bat- Bullet made by Ammo Bat co. Overload bat- Slug made by Ammo Bat co. Handle loaded bat- Blackpowder made by Ammo Bat Co. Game bat- players used their aluminum bat of choice Bat speed Radar- made by Sport Sensor Ball Exit Speed Radar- Pro Stalker II Training Program- Ammo Bat Speed System