Physiological and Biomechanical AspectsRaces last between 21-30 seconds for 50m to 15-16 minutesfor 1500mOpen water races last between 1 and 6 hours Anaerobic power and strength needed in shorter races Aerobic capacity needed in longer racesBoth arms and legs are used Whole body strength, endurance and flexibilityApplication of forces against a fluctuating medium Technique
Importance of Dry-Land Training Muscular strength and power important in shorter distances Strength training increases stroke rate Less muscular strength needed in longer events Muscular endurance Hard to train muscular strength in the pool Resisted and assistive sprinting Cross training – keeps it interesting
Literature ReviewAspenes et al. 2009 Combined strength and endurance training Intervention group (n=11, ave. age=17.5) and control group (n=5, ave.age 15.9) Intervention group: 2 combined swimming session per week Aerobic training: 4x4 minute intervals at 90-95% max HR Strength training: 3x5 maximal lifts targeting latissimus dorsi, triceps and rotator cuff Control group: normal training for 11 weeks.
Literature ReviewAspenes et al. 2009 Results 400m performance improved significantly for intervention over control No change in swimming economy for either groups Significant improvement in tethered swim force for intervention group Strong correlation between tethered swim force and 400m performance for female intervention group Strength training important in endurance performance.
Literature ReviewGarrido et al. 2010 Does combined dry-land strength and aerobic training inhibit performance Intervention group (n=12, ave age =12) and control group (n=11, ave age 12.18) Intervention group; 2, 20 minutes strength training sessions per week for 8 weeks & 6 pool sessions Strength training: 2-3 sets of 6-8 reps @ 50-75% 6RM leg extension and bench press + CMJ and medicine ball throwing Followed by 6 weeks of strength detraining Control group 14 weeks of 6 pool sessions per week
Literature ReviewGarrido et al. 2010 Results Intervention group improved significantly in 25m and 50m performance No significant difference between groups Significant improvements in 6RM leg extension and bench press in intervention group after strength training and detraining. Strength training may not specific enough to elicit performance gains even after strength gains Technical training may be needed to transfer strength gains into improved swimming performance
Literature ReviewGirold et al. 2012 Dry land strength training vs. electrical stimulation 2 intervention groups and 1 control of 8 Strength group: 3 exercises that target latissimus dorsi. 3 sets of 6 reps @ 80-90% 1RM for 4 weeks 3 times a week Electrical group: 3 x 15 minutes sessions on lats simulating 80-90% voluntary contraction for 4 weeks Control group: 10 x 2 hour pool sessions for 8 weeks
Literature ReviewGirold et al. 2012 Results Significant improvements in swimming velocity over 50m after week 4 in both S and ES over control No significant difference between S and ES Stroke length was significantly increased in S Performance was correlated with stroke length in S group Stroke length associated with increase in concentric torque
Literature ReviewGirold et al. 2007 Effects of dry land and resisted and assisted sprint training on sprint performance 2 intervention groups and 1 control (n=7, ave age=16.5) Strength group: 2, 45 minute session. 3x upper body barbell, 3 set of 6 reps @ 80-90% 1RM plus plyometric and abdominal work. RAS group: 2, 45 minutes sessions of 2 set of 3 reps, 1 freestyle, 1 speciality stroke Control group: 5 x 1 hour 45 minute session, aerobic work for 12 weeks. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e1Gt4sJzMgE#t=41s
Literature ReviewGirold et al. 2007 Results Significant improvement in 50m performance is S and RAS group at week 12 Isometric strength of the elbow flexors significantly increased after 12 weeks in S and RAS A significant increase in stroke rate in the RAS group The combination of S and or RAS in swimming training is more efficient at improving 50m performance than swimming alone
Findings3 out 4 studies found that dry land strength training wasmore effective at improving swimming performance thatswimming alone 2 in sprinting, 1 in middle distanceDry-land training needs to specific to swimmingImprovement is swimming performance is importantregardless of clinical significanceNo indications that strength training interferes withendurance performanceStudies restricted to freestyleAge appropriatenessSmall sample sizes
RecommendationsIn novices, a dry land program focussing on generalbody strengthAs an athlete progresses in the sport the dry landstrength program should become more specific totheir eventsDry land should have movements that are as specificto swimming as possibleIn pool strength training can be used in conjunctionwith dry land training where possibleTechnical training is needed to transfer strength gainsinto improved swimming performance
Further StudyDifferent strokesMuscular endurance and powerStudies where the control group participates inanaerobic trainingLarger sample sizesReal world results
ReferencesAspenes, S., Kjendlie, P-L., Hoff, J., & Helgerud J. (2009). Combined strength and endurancetraining in competitive swimmers. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine, 8, 357-365.Garrido, N., Marinho, D.A., Reis, V.M., van den Tillaar, R., Costa, A.M., Silva, A.J., &Marques, M.C. (2010). Does combined dry land strength training and serobic training inhibitperformance of young competitive swimmers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9, 300-310Girold, S., Jalab, C., Bernard, O., Carette, P., Kemoun, G., & Dugue B. (2012). Dry-land strengthtraining vs. electrical stimulation in sprint swimming performance. Journal of Strength andConditioning Research, 26(2) 497-505Girold, S., Maurin, D., Dugue, B., Chatard, J-C., & Millet, G. (2007). Effects of dry-land vs.resisted- and assisted- sprint exercises on swimming sprint performance. Journal of Strengthand Conditioning Research, 21(2), 599-605Trappe, S.W., & Pearson, D.R. (1994). Effects of weight assisted dry-land strength training onswimming performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 8(4), 209-213Aspenes, S.T., & Karlsen, T. (2012). Exercise-training intervention studies in competitiveswimming. Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(6), 527-543.Faigenbaum, A.D., Kraemer, W.J., Blimkie, C.J.R., Jefferys, I., Micheli, L.J., Nitka, M., &Rowland T.W. (2009). Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from thenational strength and conditioning association. Journal of Strength and ConditioningResearch, 23(S5) iS60-S79)