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Sustain
ability
Priscila Mendoza | Applied Theories in Sustainability, SUST 704 | Prof. Boylston | Spring 2014 | SCAD
Sustainability
SUSTAINABILITY 5
Is this the
best time to
be alive on
earth?
source: eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/
SUSTAINABILITY4
Index
What do we
mean by
sustainability?
Introduction
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Global
challenges
Two models
of development
Sustainable
approaches
Achieving
Change
Sustainable
Everyday
Design’s
Role
pag. 8
pag.6
pag. 12
pag. 18
pag. 20
pag. 28
pag. 32
pag. 36
SUSTAINABILITY 7
LIVING THE ERA OF PARADOXES
A zoomed out view of
the Taj Mahal show us
the paradoxical reality
of our times
Technological development is
allowing us to live a comfortable
and exciting life. Today, controlling
the temperature and ambiance of our
houses is just a click away, and our
smart devices assist us in our diverse
activities so we can focus on other
things. We can have almost every-
thing from everywhere delivered to
our door, or travel to far-away places
in just hours. Today, we can even go
to the moon! Life expectancy has also
expanded, and we are living more
than ever before. Science is making
exponential progress to understand
and enhance human life. We are also
more connected and informed of
what is happening in the world and
can communicate within seconds
with people from all countries and
cultures; this is the best time to be
alive, or isn’t it?
While development and progress
might be seen as increasing in the
world, there is a reality we are often
unaware of—or refuse to believe—
and that cannot longer be ignored or
neglected: our natural world is on the
threshold of collapse. According to
the latest Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change report (April,
2014) the climate change is impact-
ing our world, and it is going to do it
even more, “…[I]ce caps are melting,
sea ice in the Artic is collapsing, wa-
ter supplies are coming under stress,
heat waves and heavy rains are
intensifying, coral reefs are dying,
and fish and many other creatures
are migrating towards the poles or
in some cases going extinct.”1
This
report also states that the world’s
food supply is at an endangered po-
sition, and that there is an increase
in social consequences derived by
the environment’s deterioration like
social inequality, poverty, hunger,
and political tension just to mention
a few. If we consider this panorama, it
might seem this is the worst time to
be alive, or isn’t it?
This time is not just the best and
the worst time to be alive, IT IS the
time in which we are living, and even
if our first reaction towards this mat-
ter is overwhelm and despair, there
are things that we can do, as demon-
strated by many initiatives, organiza-
tions and people working towards a
different reality.
The purpose of this document
is to inform and communicate the
meaning and implications of sus-
tainability and the different ways
in which we can take action, inspire
others, and create movements for
change. Relative to this intention
we are going to revise some of the
causes that led into the current en-
vironmental situation and explore
alternative approaches for making
positive change in the world.
SUSTAINABILITY6
sources:MuhammadMahdiKarim&http://www.boredpanda.com/famous-landmarks-zoomed-out/
SUSTAINABILITY 9
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
sources:http://wallpoper.com/images/00/44/56/61/polar-bear-and-global-warming_00445661.jpg
The image of polar bears
on distress have been used
to show the consequences
of the environmental
degradation, although
most of us empathize
with these creatures,
sometimes the reality they
are showing seems too far
away from our daily lives.
Therefore, it is necessary
to communicate the
environmental situation
from a perspective that all
can relate.
According to the Merriam-Webster Dic-
tionary, sustainable refers to being used
without being completely used up or
destroyed.2
In a more specialized defi-
nition resulting from the report of The
World Commission on Environment and
Development called Our Common Future,
in 1987, “sustainable development is de-
velopment that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own
needs”.3
These definitions emphasize
using natural resources in a way that can
ensure the appropriate existence of fu-
ture generations. In other words, sustain-
ability is allowing our children and grand-
children the opportunity to enjoy a world
that is better than ours. To this point
humanity has been treating the world’s
natural resources as if they were infinite,
but unfortunately they are finite.
Furthermore, sustainability is phi-
losophy and action that focuses on bal-
ancing society, the environment, and the
economy.This integration of domains is
commonly represented in the model of the
triple bottom line, where society (people),
environment (planet), and economy (profit)
are equally valued to provide a perspec-
tive that integrates these diverse forces in
life.This model is also used as a guideline
to evaluate more accurately the level of
welfare, health and progress in compa-
nies, organizations, and governments.
Achieving sustainability is an enterprise
that entails quality of life and economic
prosperity for people, organizations and
countries; and industrial activities that
are in balance with natural ecosystems.
Therefore, the stakeholders for sustain-
ability are found at the levels of individu-
als, organizations, societies, governments
and countries.
Sustainability is not about setting
constraints (as some might see it), but
on the contrary, it is about unleashing
creativity to generate innovative modes
to relate with our world while prolonging
its future life.
Now that we have a better under-
standing of sustainability’s meaning, it
is important to identify the different
events and actions towards a real prog-
ress in sustainable development.
Society
People
Planet Profit
Environment Economy
Bearable Equitable
Viable
Sustainable
sustainability resource model
triple bottom line sustainability model
ResourcesUse Preservation
Present
needs
Future
needs
“Sustainable
development meets the
needs of the present
without compromising
the ability of future
generations to meet
their own needs.”
-Our common future
SUSTAINABILITY8
What do we
mean by
sustainability?
1
source:// www.cityofartesia.us/images/pages/N158/recycle.jpg
Nowadays terms like sustainability, green, and socially
responsible have become very popular among society, since
products and companies make considerable efforts to promote
their sustainable and socially responsible efforts, but what are
we z talking about when we say sustainability?
Generally, when we hear sustainability the ideas that come
to our mind are associated with environmental responsibility;
we might think of actions like taking care of our forests, and
protecting endangered fauna, unfortunately sometimes this
notion of sustainability seems too distant from our daily lives
and therefore out of our reach to make an impact. Even though
we all have heard about the benefits of recycling, using less
water and buying organic products, in some cases it is not
clear how much of an impact we are capable of having within
our daily lives. The intent of this document is to provide an
approach to sustainability to which we can all relate.
SUSTAINABILITY 11
1986 – Chernobyl nuclear station accident
1987 – Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer
1987 – Our Common Future, a report by the World Commission on Environment and De-
velopment, links social, economic, cultural and environmental issues and global
solutions.This report popularizes the term “sustainable development”
1988 – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is established to assess
research in the field
1989 – Exxon Valdez tanker runs aground, dumpling 11 million gallons f oil into Alaska’s
Prince William Sound 1990 – International Institute for Sustainable Develop-
ment (IISD) is established in Canada
1991 – Hundreds of oil fire burn in Kuwait after the Persian Gulf War
1992 – Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.This meeting reunited world leaders to discuss
environmental and development issues and one of its results was the “Decla-
ration of Environment and Development” and the document know as Agenda
21, “which sought to establish a concerted effort to educate people about the
state of both environment and development, and to assist them to make deci-
sions that lead to sustainability.” 8
1994 – China’s Agenda 21
1996 – ISO 14001 is formally adopted as a voluntary international standard for corpo-
rate environmental management 1995 – World Summit for Social Development
is held in Copenhagen
1998 – Controversy over genetically modified (GM) organism 1999 – Launch of the
Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes
2000 – UN Millennium Development Goals
2001 – 9/11Terrorist attack the WorldTrade Center and Pentagon 2002 – World Sum-
mit on Sustainable Development
2002 – Global Reporting Initiative, presents guidelines for reporting on the economic,
environmental and social dimensions of business activities
2004 – HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa 2005 – Kyoto Protocol enters into
force
2005 – Walmart institutes global sustainability strategy 2006 – NASA reports that the
ozone layer is recovering
2006 – Stern Review, resents that the costs of inaction on climate change will be up to
20 times greater that measures applied in prevention today
2007 – Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer 2007 – An In-
convenientTruth, by U.S. Vice President Al Gore and IPCC 2008 – Green econo-
my ideas enter the mainstream
2008 – Oceans’ acidification correlated with increasing levels of atmospheric carbon
dioxide 2009 – G20 Pittsburgh Summit
2009 – Copenhagen climate negotiations
2009 – Scientists introduce the concept of “planetary boundaries 2010 –The rise of
wind power
2010 – BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion leaks 5 million barrels of crude oil into
the Gulf of Mexico 2011
2011 –The world population reaches 7 billion 2011 – Japan earthquake and tsunami
2011 – China begins shift to a “green economy”
2012 – One of the first of the Millennium Development Goal targets is achieved: the
percentage of the world’s people without access to safe drinking water is
cut in half
2012 – Rio + 20, the global community reconvenes in an effort to secure agreement on
greening world economies
Chernobyl Reactor
NASA’s Terra Satellites Sees Spill on
May 24 2010
Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro
http://thevelvetrocket.files.wordpress.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/http://switchboard.nrdc.org
SUSTAINABILITY10
The beginning of the actions related to create awareness and understanding of the
interrelationships between the environment, the economy and social welfare can
be tracked down to the publication of Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring in 1962.
After this event a great amount of people, organizations, and countries have been
working towards a real progress in sustainable development. Heather Creech, Di-
rector, Global Connectivity and associates, prepared most of the information in this
time line. It covers some of the mayor events in sustainability from 1962 to 2012. 4
1962 – Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson, links the use of pesticides with damage to animals and humans
1967 – Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) is formed to pursue legal solutions to environmental
damage
1968 – Biosphere. Intergovernmental Conference for Rational Use and Conservation of the Biosphere
(UNESCO)
1968 –The Population Bomb, by Paul Ehrlich, presents the connection between human population and
natural resources exploitation
1969 – Friends of the Earth, environmental advocacy organization
1969 –Partners in Development and IDRC. Report of the Commission on International Development;
this is the first of the international commissions to consider a new approach to development.
1969 – National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).The purpose of this document was to “foster and
promote the general welfare, to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can
exist in productive harmony and fulfill the social, economic and other requirements of present
and future generations.”5
1970 – First Earth Day
1971 – Greenpeace starts in Canada
1971 – Only One Earth, by René Dubos and Barbara Ward
1972 – United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference). After this
conference the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) was established with the aim to
promote the idea of environmentally sound development. 6
1972 – Limits to Growth, by Club of Rome, presents forecasting on the consequences if current trends
in population growth and consumption are not slowed.
1973 – OPEC oil crisis
1973 – Chipko movement is born in India, to protest for deforestation and environmental degradation
1974 – Rowland and Molina release work on chorofluorocarbons (CFCs), stating the relationship be-
tween CFCs and the ozone layer depletion
1975 –The UNEP launched the International Environmental Education Program (IEEP) 1975 – World-
watch Institute
1976 – Habitat, the UN Conference on Human Settlements 1978 – Amoco Cadiz oil spills, in the coast
of Brittany
1979 –Three Mile Island nuclear accident, in Pennsylvania 1980 –The UNEP launched the World Con-
servation Strategy
1980 – Global 2000 report, recognizes biodiversity as critical to the proper functioning of the plane-
tary ecosystem 1982 – International debt crisis, threatens the world financial system, especial-
ly for developing regions
1983 –The United Nations created the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED),
led by Prime Minister of Norway, Gro Harlem Brundtland.This Commission had the mission of “to
re-examine critical environmental and development problems around the world and formulate
realistic proposals to address them.” 7
1983 – Grameen Bank, provide credit to the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh, 1984 – Bhopal toxic
chemical leak, in Bhopal, India
1985 – Climate Change, UNEP and the International Council of Scientific Unions reports on the buildup
of carbon dioxide and other “greenhouse gases”, predicting global warming
SUSTAINABILITYTIMELINE
Images of the first
earth day
http://en.es-static.us/http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/
SUSTAINABILITY 13
The latest report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change issued on April 2014, presents
an overview of the condition of earth’s
health that demands action. Among the
multiple issues presented in the report
we can highlight the following:
•	 Ice caps melting
•	 Water supplies under stress
•	 Heat waves and heavy rains
intensifying
•	 Coral reefs dying
•	 Fish and other creatures migrating
or going extinct
•	 Oceans becoming acidic due to
carbon dioxide
•	 Greenhouse gases generating
further warming.9
The causes of climate change are
“almost certainly”10
attributed to human
activity and the inefficiencies in the
management of natural resources.
“Throughout the 21st century, climate-
change impacts are projected to slow
down economic growth, make poverty
reduction more difficult, further erode
food security, and prolong existing and
create new poverty traps, the latter
particularly in urban areas and emerging
hot spots of hunger.”11
According to scientists, the
consequences of these changes are
going to be felt by all countries without
exception, generating risks for social
instability, massive migrations, and
conflicts caused by disputes of access
to natural resources.
This is not new information since
data pointing out the environment’s
degradation has been available
since the decade of the 1970s with
documents like Limits to Growth
(1972), Our Common Future (1987)
and Agenda 21 (1992); nonetheless,
today, the scientific community that
is reporting these issues is growing in
numbers along with the evidence that
supports climate change.
Realizing that the environmental
degradation is affecting the world
at a global scale is the first step for
moving into a more sustainable world.
Society, corporations and
governments, need to be aware
that climate change is not about
catastrophes happening in remote
places -like the Arctic-, it is about
everyone and everywhere, and that
prolonging our journey on earth is
going to take a global and unified
effort.
Effects of Climate Change
Muir Glacier, Alaska, 1882
and 2005.
1882 photo taken by G.D.
Hazard; 2005 photo taken
by Bruce F. Molnia.
1882 2005
http://static.businessinsider.com/image/519a6d41eab8ea1a4e000003/image.jpgz
“We borrow
environmental capital
from future generations
with no intention or
prospect of repaying them
because we can get away
with it…”
-Our Common Future
“The limits to growth
within this planet will
be reach sometime
within the next 100
years”
-Limits to Growth
The Limits to Growth,
was published in 1972 by
commission of the Club
of Rome. It presents a
computer modeling of
exponential economic
and population growth
with finite resource
supplies.
Our Common Future,
a report by the
World Commission
on Environment
and Development in
1987. It links social,
economic, cultural and
environmental issues
and global solutions.
INTERLOCKING CRISES
http://www.abc.net.au/wikipedia.com
SUSTAINABILITY12
Global
challenges
2
source://b.static.trunity.net/files/154301_154400/154387/containment.jpg
Natural events and recent scientific research about
the world’s situation indicates that we are facing times
of global challenges.This is evidenced by a series of
interdependent crises like social inequality, climate
change, and economic debacles. Probably the most
known consequence of the lack of equilibrium between
natural and human forces is the series of ecological
matters known as Climate Change, although this
concept has been heavily exposed in the media, the
real implications of what is happening, and what could
happen are not as well understood.
Economic
crisis
Energy
crisis
Social
crisis
Environmental
crisis
SUSTAINABILITY 15
http://dailycaller.com/
http://www.greenenergydevelopment.org
their extraction disrupts ecology’s
equilibrium. One of the factors that
have cover-up the real situation
of non-renewable sources is the
constant decrease in its prices. The
average cost of the 86 most used
metal and minerals have had a .9%
annual decline from 1900 to 2010.
This market trend made people
believe that if
resources were
cheaper it was
because there
should be plenty
of them; none-
theless, this situ-
ation is changing
given the fact
that metals and
minerals are now
scarce.
“The drop in
prices during the
last century were largely the result
of productivity gains that outpaced
the rise in extractions costs. “But
these costs have recently risen as
metals and minerals have become
more difficult to get to and as their
quality has declined.” 14
The combination of population
growth, with the increase in con-
sumption habits, ineffective man-
ufacture systems, and a limited
source of natural elements, have
caused the environmental decline
that also undermines the economic
development of
countries. All
those factors
together are be-
coming a source
for political un-
rest and tension.
Beyond spe-
cific actions,
what determines
the course of a
society is the
dominant ideolo-
gy at the time, as
follows we will analyze the ideolo-
gy known as the expansion model
and its implications for the current
state of the world.
non-renewable energy consumption
“The Earth’s carrying
capacity—the ability
of biological systems
to provide resources
for human needs —is
eroding.”
-The Global 2000 Report
limits to growth forecast
It seems almost incredible that despite the scientific evidence
that supports the reasons and realities of climate change, there
are people that still refuse to believe that it is a real thing, for
example, DonaldTrump.12
SKEPTICISM’S VOICES
Although, getting public acceptance on the threats of climate
change is important, that should not influence the decisions
taken when making policies and planning for actions.The fact
that some people do not believe on it, does not mean that it is
not happening, and in the debate we should listen for facts, not
just for opinions or personal perceptions. An example of this
contradictory situation is cleverly portrayed by John Oliver in
one of the episodes of Last WeekTonight.
Watch it here
“With the coldest
winter ever recorded,
with snow setting
record levels up and
down the coast, the
Nobel committee
should take the Nobel
Prize back from Al
Gore”
-Donald Trump
Look at the video
www.unitedliberty.org/files/images/trump.jpg
SUSTAINABILITY14
The current world condition is the
result of a series of events and cir-
cumstances that, when mixed to-
gether, create the wicked problem*
that we are experiencing now; among
the causes for this situation are the
advent of the industrial revolution,
the colossal increase in human popu-
lation, the use of fossil fuels as main
source of energy, industrial activity
interrupting natural cycles, wasteful
manufacturing, and the social con-
struct of a product-base wellbeing.
In other words, the wickedness of
our world is closely related to our
frenetic expansion in the world, our
modes of production, and our pat-
terns of consumption.
The Industrial Revolution and
its assembly-line manufacturing
brought cheaper products that al-
lowed people to own more things.
This new affordability of items,
along with the association of materi-
alism with wellbeing contributed to
the establishment of a culture based
on conspicuous consumerism and
disposal.
Furthermore, these features affect-
ed the ecosystem because to satisfy
the increasing needs of the devel-
oped societies, it was necessary to
extract natural resources at a ver-
tiginous pace. In addition, the expo-
nential growth in world population
going from 3 billion in the 1960s to 7
billion in 2012 stressed the need for
more and more natural resources.
Energy production deserves a
special attention, because of its
huge implications for the environ-
ment, society and the economy. In
this document we will highlight the
reliance in non-renewable energy
sources, the decrease in prices
of metals and minerals, and the
eminent scarcity or non-renewable
resources.
Currently in the United States
92% of the energy consumed
is from non-renewable sources
while only the remaining 8% cor-
responds to renewable energy. 13
Relaying that much in fossil fuels
raise concern because fossil fuels
are non- renewable resources and
HOW DID WE GET HERE?
www.ford.ie/AboutFord/CompanyInformation/Heritage/TheEvolutionOfMassProduction
“Poverty and environmental
degradation are closely
related but the major cause
of continual deterioration of
the global environment is the
unsustainable patterns of
consumption and production
in industrialized countries.”
-Agenda 21
exponential population growth
resource scarcity
SUSTAINABILITY 17
THE EXPANSION MODEL
Victor Margolin in his article Expansion
or Sustainability: Two Models of De-
velopment, refers to Expansion Model
to viewing the world as consisting of
markets in which products function first
and foremost as tokens of economic
exchange.15
This perspective encourages
the predominance of economic growth
over social and environmental wellbeing,
and animates countries to get in the race
towards market power with the aims of
acquiring more political presence.
Unfortunately, in the race towards
market predominance some countries
are depleting their resources and los-
ing part of their natural abundance.
These dynamics also has created the
huge divide among industrialized and
developing countries, with 20% of the
world population consuming 80% of the
resources, and where more than 50%
of GNP of developing countries comes
from exporting natural resources to the
industrialized world. These are the con-
ditions of a doomed cycle of consumers
and suppliers, and where the rich are
getting richer and the poor are getting
poorer. As we have seen it is not surprise
that the results of this modus operandi
are catastrophic, since we cannot treat
the dimensions of the economy, the ecol-
ogy and society as independent forces
because they are all part of one system.
We cannot focus only on the economy
because without ecology, there is noth-
ing else, and we cannot forget about the
peoples of the world because we all live in
the same planet.
SUSTAINABILITY MODEL
Contrary to the expansion model, the
sustainability model is a global practice
that integrates and balances social, en-
vironmental, and economic forces. As we
already explained, sustainability strives
for restoring and maintaining the natural
in our world, balancing the conditions of
industrialized and developing countries,
and ensuring economic prosperity for all.
The sustainability model is also about so-
cial justice, intergenerational justice, and
respect for life. In other words, the ex-
pansion model favors the artificial, while
the sustainability model chooses life.
The history of the world is a story of
changes and evolution, what means that
it is a story of adaptation. We have been
in a evolutionary road that has taken us
to great places, as some of the human
achievements can prove, but our activity
also has generated great damages. Now
is the time to take a different path, a new
road, it is time for change. We have to
learn to live better and consume fewer
environmental resources while improving
the quality of our living context. Moving
out from the expansion model towards
sustainable models will require transfor-
mations at all levels: individuals, corpo-
rations, nations, and global.
“We came to see that
a new development
path was required, one
that sustained human
progress not just in a few
pieces for a few years,
but for the entire planet
into distant futures”
-Our Common Future,
Some of the changes required by the
sustainability model:
1.	 Adopting life-styles within the planet
ecological means
2.	 Harmonize population size and growth with
the productive potential of the ecosystem
3.	 Planning for the global and long term de-
velopment
4.	 Approach from a systems thinking to solve
world poverty and inequality
5.	 Intergenerational justice
6.	 Orientation of technology
7.	 Institutional change
The history of the world
is a story of changes,
evolution and creative
adaptation.
The Mickey
Mouse model
Economy
SocietyEnvironment
Society
People
Planet Profit
Environment Economy
Bearable Equitable
Viable
Sustainable
expansion model
sustainability model
SUSTAINABILITY16
Two
models of
development
3
The two agendas for social development that are
central to the sustainability model and the expansion
model are not only in conflict, they are on collision
course that has already led to considerable fallout.
This is evident in the widening gaps between rich and
poor in both global and local terms, the development
of an information infrastructure that privileges
some and excludes others, and an array of precarious
environmental situations that are beginning to
permanently damage the planet.
-Victor Margolin
source:www.unescap.org/events/apfsd/images/photo-2.jpg
SUSTAINABILITY 19
Sustainable approaches
Behavior change
Production change
Systems thinking
approach
• Understanding system
dynamics, systems traps
and leverage points
• Adding balancing loops
to restore the equilibrium
of the system
Redefining priorities
• There is no economy and
no society without an
environment
• Reframingmeasurements
standards from GNP to
GPI
• Keeping nature cycle and
industry cycle separated, or
in a collaborative mode
• Making industrial cycles
closed loops
•
consumption towards
sustainability
• Acquiring awareness
about world state and
communicating it
• Demanding governments
and industry a shift in the
production paradigm
• Evolving from an
opportunistic and exploiter
specie to a regenerative specie
• Giving back to nature
Approaches
NewParadigm
Governments
Consumers
Manufactures
• Biomimicry
• Natural Capitalism
• The Natural Step
• Cradle to Cradle
• Total Beauty
• Life Cycle Analysis
• Sustainability Helix
• Social Return on
Investment
The us and them,
here and there,
now and tomorrow
model
From To
The us,
here,
and now
model
NewParadigm
SUSTAINABILITY MODEL
PARADIGM CHANGE
BEHAVIOR CHANGE
PRODUCTION CHANGE
CONSUMPTION CHANGE
SUSTAINABILITY18
The expansion model
Industrial Revolution
• A global practice that
encourages economic
growth over social and
environmental wellbeing
• Taking advantage of
abundant resources
Wasteful production
Loose ends in industrial cycles
• Wasteful production
• High energy requirements
• Processes that generates pollution
• Manufacturing cycles incompatible with
nature cycles
• Lack of product life-cycle management
• Promoters of conspicuous consumption
The race to political and market power
World divide: developed & developing
countries
• Exploitation of natural resources
• Economy over environment
• Consumer countries and suppliers countries
Approach
Governments
Consumers
Manufactures
Materialistic Wellbeing
and wasteful lifestyles
• Product-base wellbeing
• Lack of awareness on
current environment state
• Unsustainable growth
• Treating no renewable fi-
nite resources like renew-
able and infinite
The mechanisms behind current crises
An exponential
population
growth
Materialistic
wellbeing
Deficiency
on world
development
and in
management
of human
environment
++
+
+
Dependency on
nonrenewable
sources of energy
Increasing
gap between
rich and
poor nations
Resource
depletion
Inefficient
energy
management
and wasteful
consumption
Market power
equals political
power
Water, food, energy,
& resources, needs
Finite resources &
infinite demand
Pollution
and resource
depletion
Developing
countries
exploiting their
resources
2014= 7 billion
2050= 9 billion
95 % of materials flowing
through the US industrial
economy are nonrenewable
Wellbeing related to
access to products.
20% of population con-
sumes 80% of resources
+ 50% of the developing
world’s GNP is from the
exporting of natural resources
to the industrial world
65% of energy is wasted
at the site of production
Economic
crisis
Energy
crisis
Social
crisis
Environmental
crisis
Interlocking Crises = Wicked problem
THE EXPANSION MODEL
SUSTAINABILITY 21
There are many examples of people, com-
panies and governments working together
to make of sustainability a reality, and
they are developing processes and princi-
ples that can help and inspire us. In the fol-
lowing pages we are going to review some
philosophies, methodologies and exam-
ples that testify the relevance of adopting
sustainable practices and demonstrate
that the benefits are more than just good
ecological karma. Sustainability is good
for the planet, for the people and for the
pocket!
As we have seen, the journey towards a
sustainable word can be summarized in
the following transformations: changing
the processes of production and chang-
ing human consumption behavior. But in
order to be able to do those changes we
first need to revolutionize the principles
that we use to guide our practices in
regard to production and consumption.
That means changing the ideology or
changing the paradigm. We will present
approaches that promotes sustainabil-
ity from different perspectives, some
establishes principles and philosophies,
others are focused towards new manu-
facturing processes, and others provide
guidance towards behavioral change;
some include the three categories while
others have a very specific scope.
CHANGING THE PHILOSOPHY
In order to accomplish the transformation
towards the sustainable model we need
to change our ideologies and paradigms.
Among the change in paradigms that we
are going to explore we can highlight the
following changes.
•	 From treating finite resources like
they were infinity to a measured re-
source exploitation that allows nature
regeneration
•	 From pursuing the artificial to follow
principles and solutions found in
nature
•	 From a capitalism grounded exclu-
sively on economics to a natural capi-
talism that also contemplates nature
as capital
•	 From inefficient production to maxi-
mizing resource productivity
•	 From generating waste in manufac-
ture to close cycles where everything
is used (waste is also a resource)
•	 From an uprooted relationship with
earth to a close connection with our
environment
•	 From seeking expansion and repro-
duction to pursuing efficiency and
productivity
There are several approaches to sustain-
ability, but in the scope of this document
we will explore with more detail two of
them: The Natural Step and Biomimicry
because they present a very compre-
hensive perspective. Nonetheless we
will briefly review other approaches like:
Cradle to Cradle, Natural Capitalism, and
Industrial Ecology.
Approach
Governments
Consumers
Manufactures
NewParadigm
In order to
accomplish the
transformation
towards the
sustainable model
we need to change
our ideologies and
paradigms
changing paradigms
“In the end, it seems
that mastery has less
to do with pushing
leverage points than it
does with strategically,
profoundly, madly,
letting go and dancing
with the system.”
-Donella H. Meadows
SUSTAINABILITY20
Sustainable
approaches
4
Adopting sustainable approaches to our
everyday life, to our businesses and to our
countries is going to allow us to adapt to the
ongoing changes that are coming towards us,
there is no way we can undo the past, but there
are many ways in which we can stop the current
direction and adapt positively. Sustainability is
also an innovation facilitator since it teaches us
to look at life differently and to find new ways
to engage with the world.
source:// loboyou.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/fascinating_lilypad_city__131.jpg
SUSTAINABILITY 23
PRESERVE
This company is recycling plastics
#5 and creating products that are
also esthetically pleasant.This is an
example of a sustainable initiative
because is helping to avoid the increase
in substances produced by society in
nature. And they are doing this not by
just recycling they are bringing new
value with the power of design.
www.preserveproducts.com
FREITAG
This company is an example on recycling
materials and giving them new value through
design, these bags are made of the covers
of trucks in Europe and transform into bags,
wallets and other accessories.
www.freitag.ch
SUSTAINABILITY22
The natural step is a non-profit organi-
zation founded by Karl-Henrik Robèrt in
1989 in Sweden. Back in the 1980s Robèrt
was treating his cancer patients and have
the idea of comparing the conditions
required for healthy cells to the system
conditions required for the continuation
of human life. After several iterations
with the scientific community they de-
veloped a document that contained the
system conditions for sustainability and
the framework for Strategic Sustainable
Development. Generally the ideas of the
Natural Step are presented through two
metaphors: the tunnel and the tree.
System Conditions or Principles16
1.	 Substances from the Earth’s crust
must not systematically increase
in the biosphere.
2.	 Fossil fuels, metals, and other
minerals must not be extracted at
a faster rate than their redeposit
and regeneration in the Earth’s
crust.
3.	 Substances produced by society
must not systematically increase
in nature.
4.	 Substances must not be produced
faster than they can be broken
down and be reintegrated into the
cycles of nature or be deposited in
the Earth’s crust
5.	 The physical basis for the produc-
tivity and diversity of nature must
not systematically deteriorate.
Productive surfaces of nature
must not be diminished in quality
or quantity, and we must not har-
vest more from nature that can be
recreated or renewed
6.	 There needs to be a fair and effi-
cient use of resources with respect
to meeting human needs.
7.	 Basic human needs must be met
with the most resource efficient
methods possible, including equi-
table resource distribution.
THE NATURAL STEP METAPHORS
The tree
This metaphor is used to explain the dif-
ferent levels of actions towards sustain-
ability using a tree as example. It starts
from the leaves: Very specific actions, this
refers to initiatives done by companies,
organizations and even individuals; to a
branches: Actions done by expertise mem-
ber like scientists, teachers, leaders etc.
These can also include the efforts in policy
making
Trunk: First order principles, this refers to
a higher levels of leverage, is changing the
philosophy and the paradigm.
The Funnel
This metaphor is used to present the
case for sustainability from a business
perspective. This framework positions
the company into a funnel that narrows
as a result of two forces: the increase in
demand, and the decrease in resource
availability. According to this model the
company’s performance in the future will
depend on the actions taken today. Only
the companies that adapt and change
their strategy now, will be successful
in the future. This is a model that helps
companies to make proper strategy for
the future. This model distinguishes four
types of companies: the proactive, the
anticipatory, the reactive, and the inac-
tive. According to this model only pro-
active companies will be in a favorable
position in the future.
Back casting
This is the technique use to set the
strategy for the future. Firstly the com-
pany needs to determine their vision
(where do they want to be in the future)
and from that, decide what needs to be
done in order to achieve it. This tech-
nique implies a reverse thinking to help
companies establish their short-term
and long-term strategies.
THE NATURAL STEP
Karl-Henrik Robèrt founder of
The Natural Step
source:www.beyondtheline.org/
the natural step funnel
back casting
Awareness
A
Creative
Solutions
C
Decide on
Priorities
D
Baseline
B
Backcasting
VISIONING
Does it move us in the right direction?
Is it a flexible platform?
Is it a good return on investment?
http://www.formfollowsworldview.com/
The Natural Step, lecture by Scott Boylston
SUSTAINABILITY 25
Mercedes-Benz concept car based on the
shape of a boxfish. This fish is aerodynam-
ically superb and the resulting concept car
has one of the most efficient shapes for a
car of its size.
The swimming center for the Beijing
Olympics in 2008 is based on the
structure of soap bubbles.The bub-
bles, trap hot air from the sun that’s
then circulated to heat the pools. And
also has an auto-clean feature.
A team of University of Massachusetts, Am-
herst, researchers has developed Geckskin,
an adhesive that mimics Gecko’s grip by em-
ulating the microscopic hairs on the bottom
of their toes.
http://www.bloomberg.com/slideshow/2013-08-18/14-smart-inventions-inspired-by-nature-biomimicry.html
EXPERIMENTAL FISH CAR
WATER CUBE
GECKO FEET ADHESIVES
Examples from bloomberg.com
SUSTAINABILITY24
The Word Biomimicry comes from the
Greek bios, meaning life, and mimesis,
meaning imitation. Biomimicry is a phi-
losophy that looks a nature as the source
of inspiration for finding solutions to our
complex problems. Janine M. Benyus in her
book Biomimcry, innovation inspired by
nature presents the three ways in which
we can engage with nature to find better
alternatives to our problems: nature as
model, nature as a measure, and nature
as mentor.This worldview considers that
nature has already found all the answers
to our problems, we just need to spend
enough time observing nature to find
them. Biomimicry’s principal statement is
that life creates conditions conducive to
life, so we should emulate that capability
in our processes and activities
.
As a guidance Janine present these three
questions to find inspiration in nature:
1.	 How does life make things?
2.	 How does life make the most of
things?
3.	 How does life make things disappear
into systems?
Surviving in place
The Biomimicry approach also presents
an analogy of human evolution with the
ecological succession and the three types
of organisms presented in nature.Type
1 systems take advantage of abundant
resources.They are also known as oppor-
tunists and pioneers since their primary
objective is to explore new territories and
reproduce as fast as possible, without
considering the long term. Rapid growth
is a key characteristic.Type 2 systems do
not dedicate all the energy in rapid re-
production, instead they invest energy in
developing roots to ensure a longer stay.
These types of organisms develop a stron-
ger connection with their place.Type 3
systems are organized for endurance, they
are very effective at the use of energy and
preserve the equilibrium with their sur-
roundings.Type 3 possess a strong sense
of belonging and loyalty to place. Accord-
ing with this analogy, humans have behave
in the fashion ofType 1 systems. We are
taking from nature all that we need, and we
have been more concerned with expansion
and growth, and not that much with devel-
oping loyalty to our place. However, this
analogy help us to understand the next
step for us, we should move towards the
behavior ofType 2 systems and ultimately
towards theType 3.
In order to evolve from aType 1 system
to aType 3, Janine Benyus presents the
following strategies for surviving in place:
1.	 Use waste as a resource
2.	 Diversify and cooperate to fully
use the habitat
3.	 Gather and use energy efficiently
4.	 Optimize rather that maximize
5.	 Use materials sparingly
6.	 Don’t foul their nests
7.	 Don’t draw down resources
8.	 Remain in balance with the bio-
sphere
9.	 Run on information
10.	 Shop locally
Biomimicry 3.8 has an extensive list of
resources to look up for inspiration and
also case studies where mimicking nature
has result in great projects.
http://biomimicry.net/
BIOMIMICRY
“These days, when we’ve
gone everywhere there
is to go, we have to
find a different kind of
plenty, not by jumping
off to another planet
but by closing the loops
here on this one.”
-Janine Benyus
source:http://osbsustainablefutures.files.wordpress.com/source:http://static.biomimicry.org/
biomimicry life’s principles
biomimicry design lenses
biomimicry design spiral
source:http://valhallamovement.com/
SUSTAINABILITY 27
1961-1979
1980-1989
1990-1999
2000-2010
1
27
4
3
7
12
20
5
16
2
13
23
11
15
14
18
26
10
17
19
22
8
6
29
30
21
25
24
9
28
1
4
3
7
12
20
5
16
2
13
11
15
14
18
10
17
19
8
6
9
1
4
3
7
5
2
2
11 10
8
6
9
1
4
3
5
RGS 90
Tissø
DONG Energy
Nickel Industry
Purification Plant
Fertilizer Industry
Kara / Noveren
Fish Farms
Novo Nordisk
Cement Industry
Gyproc
Statoil
Inbicon
Farms
RGS 90
Tissø
DONG Energy
Nickel Industry
Fertilizer Industry
Fish Farms
Novo Nordisk
Cement industry
Waste Water Treatment
Gyproc
Statoil
Tissø
DONG Energy
Fish Farms
Novo Nordisk
Cement Industry
Gyproc
Statoil
Kalundborg Forsyning
Tissø
DONG Energy
Pig Farms
Novo Nordisk
Novozymes
Cement Industry
Gyproc
Statoil
1 Surface Water 1961
2 Gas 1972
3 Surface Water 1973
4 Biomass/NovoGro 1976
5 Fly Ash 1979
6 Heat 1980/89
7 Heat 1981
8 Steam 1982
9 Steam 1982
10 Surface Water 1987
11 Cooling Water 1987
12 Yeast Slurry 1989
13 Sulfur Fertilizer 1990/2001
14 Tech. Water 1991
15 Gas 1992
16 Gypsum 1993
17 Waste Water 1995
18 Drain Water 1995
19 Sludge 1998
20 Fly Ash 1999
21 Deionized Water 2002
22 Water 2004
23 Waste 2004
24 Sea Water 2007
25 Steam 2009
26 Condensate 2009
27 Straw 2009
28 Bioethanol 2010
29 Lignin 2010
30 C5/C6 sugars 2010
Kalundborg Symbiosis
Diagram 1961-2010
Pig Farms
Pig Farms
Pig Farms
Waste Water Treatment
Kalundborg Forsyning
Kalundborg Forsyning
Kalundborg Forsyning
“Industrial ecology
is the study of the
physical, chemical,
and biological
interactions and
interrelationships
both within and
between industrial
and ecological
systems”18
The first industrial ecology was
implemented in Kalundborg
Denmark.This Eco-industrial
Park is a project that has been
on going for more than 40 years.
http://www.symbiosis.dk/
http://www.symbiosis.dk/sites/default/files/Symbiose_A4_cmyk_uk.pdf
KALUNDBORG SYMBIOSIS
SUSTAINABILITY26
Cradle to Cradle also known as C2C, or
eco-effectiveness, is an approach that
focuses on the efficiency of manufactur-
ing processes by the elimination of waste,
toxic chemicals, by implementing clean
energies, and the capability for upcycling
materials.The term Cradle to Cradle was
coined by William McDonough and Michael
Braungart.This approach is also based on
biomimetic and places special emphasis
on separating technological materials and
cycles from natural resources and cycles;
this means that human activity should not
interfere with natural processes, and that
technical products should be safe and
durable.
CRADLE TO CRADLE
Industrial ecology Natural Capitalism
“If everything can be
made into food for
some other process,
then recycling can be
completely rethought.”
-Cradle to Cradle.
Industrial ecology is an approach that
looks to the integration of the energy
flows, outputs and inputs on manu-
facturing processes from a systems
perspective. It is also concerned with
the generation of waste and its further
use in other activities. Industrial Ecology
also highlights the importance of keep-
ing closed cycles in the manufacturing
process.
Industrial Ecology goals are the sus-
tainable use of resources, ecological and
human health, and environmental equity.
source:wikipedia
The sustainability approach of Natural
Capitalism considers a more integral
view of economy encompassing four
types of capital: Human capital, financial
capital, manufactured capital, and nat-
ural capital.This approach focuses on
making efficiency a priority, since pol-
lution is inefficiency at work.To behave
in accordance with the integration of
these four types of capital Paul Hawken,
Amory Lovins and L.Hunter Lovins pres-
ent the strategies showed in the right.
1.	 Radical resource productivity.
Looking for alternatives in usage
and design to obtaining the same
or better results from a specific
process while using less material
and energy.This principle looks
for efficiency.This is similar in this
regard to Cradle to Cradle.
2.	 Biommicry. Imitating nature to im-
prove productivity, eliminate waste,
and hazardous ingredients from
manufacturing processes.
3.	 Service and flow economy. Sell-
ing results rather than products,
therefore improving the quality and
life-cycle of products and fostering
recycling.
4.	 Investing in natural capital. Chang-
ing our relationship to resources
and acknowledging their finite
nature to advance their usage and
extraction.
natural capitalism strategies
SUSTAINABILITY 29
Once again we look at this through lev-
els: the first level is about addressing
social-environmental problems from a
systems perspective. For that purpose we
will do an overview of Donella Meadows’s
bookThinking in Systems. Further, we will
look up to society change by analyzing
successful social changes from the past,
and the different steps they encompass.
For this purpose we will review Bill Moyer’s
Movement Action Plan.
THINKING IN SYSTEMS
Donella Meadows defines a system as
“an interconnected set of elements that
is coherently organized in a way that
achieves something19
. A system is made
of three components: elements, intercon-
nections, and a function or purpose. We all
encounter systems in life, some of them
are simple while others are complex.The
concept that embodies a system is the in-
terconnectedness that holds the elements
together.To study these relationships we
should recognize that a system is more
that the sum of the parts, that the quality
of the information flows will determine its
quality, and that the system purpose is the
most important element for understand-
ing systems’ behavior.
In addition, systems are influenced
by the states of three concepts: Stocks,
flows, and loops. Stocks are the elements
of the system that you can see, fell, count
or measure. Flow refers to the change in
the state that stocks experience over time,
and finally the balancing and reinforcing
feedback loops are the mechanisms that
control and influence the different flows
by balancing the stocks in the system.
Reinforcing feedback loops function to
amplify, reinforce, and self multiply. Bal-
ancing feedback loops serve as source
of stability and resistance to change; a
balancing loop react to new information
by compensating it, since its purpose is to
keep the stocks within a desire state.
Intervening a system
Understanding the dynamics of systems
is important because they give us an en-
dowment of the elements in place, but
when looking to implement change, it is
also very important to recognize where
to apply efforts in order to succeed. The
different strategic points for applying
effort are known as points of leverage, or
as points of power. Meadows states that to
intervene a system there are twelve lever-
age points. They are classified according
with their effectiveness to initiate change
-from lower to the higher-. The key point
at studying these leverage points consists
on identifying which leverage points we
can pursue, and what kind of impact can we
expect from our actions.
“The groundwork for
macro transformation
and for great systemic
change is laid by micro
transformations and
by local systemic
discontinuities.”
Ezio Manzini
http://www.spiritedsocialchange.org/
basics of systems thinking
1.	 Elements + interactions
+ function
2.	 Stocks + flows
3.	 Balancing + reinforcing
feedback loops
deeper understanding
1.	 Traps
2.	 Leverage points
SUSTAINABILITY28
Achieving
Change
5
The previous tactics were focused on changing
the way we do business, products, and also in
the way we look for answers to our problems.
But when talking about social, environmental,
and everyday situations, how do we accomplish
change at a large scale? How do we inspire
others to do things differently? And how do
we maintain change? The answers to those
questions are not an easy undertaking, however,
there are several theories that help us to
understand the nature of change helping us to
strategize our plan.
source://donaldloch.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/030.jpg
SUSTAINABILITY 31
MOVEMENT ACTION PLAN (MAP)
Bill Moyer developed the Movement Action Plan in the late 1970’s
as a result of his study about successful social movements. In
his model, Moyer identifies some dynamics of social change ex-
pressed in the eight stages for social movements, eight principles
to guide the transformation, and the four roles that people can
take.This model strives to help activist to identify their position
in the process, and assist them to move forward.
MAP eight Stages
Moyer identifies that social movements can be constituted by
eight stages.20
1.	 Normal times
2.	 Proving the failure or limitations of existing institutions
3.	 Ripening conditions
4.	 Take off
5.	 Perceptions of failure
6.	 Building majority public support
7.	 Success
8.	 Continuing the struggle
Four Roles
Participants in social movements can engage in different roles,
each one of them bringing value in different stages.21
1.	 Citizen. Stands for widely accepted values.
2.	 Rebel. Protest injustice, often through nonviolent direct
actions, and call public attention, stimulate public dialog,
and confronting recalcitrant power holders
3.	 Social change agent. Movement organizers. Focus on pub-
lic education, nurture future leaders, and organize new
segments of the community.
4.	 Reformer. Work closely with mainstream institutions ne-
gotiating for change by filing lawsuits, testifying at hear-
ings, lobbying, participating in officials meetings. Provide
research, training and consultation
Eight Principles22
1.	 These principles are essential for understanding and
replicating social movements.
2.	 Social movements have brought significant societal
change, although even activists may be unaware of it.
3.	 The people hold ultimate power.
4.	 Movement goals should be framed in terms of widely held
values.
5.	 Power holders may profess to honor widely held values,
but their actions often conflict with those values.
6.	 Every movement needs analysis, vision, and strategy. 

Movement strategies must seek to awaken and mobilize
the public. Building coalitions across communities is crit-
ically important.
7.	 Change emerges from empowered people in motion, and
they can become virtually unstoppable.
TRIGGER
EVENT
RE-TRIGGER
EVENT
RE-TRIGGER
EVENT
1 :: NORMAL TIMES 2:: PROVE FAILURE of
OFFICIAL INSTITUTIONS
CITIZENS REBELS CHANGE AGENTS REFORMERS
3 :: RIPENING
CONDITIONS
4 :: TAKE-OFF 5 :: PERCEPTION
of FAILURE
6 :: MAJORITY
PUBLIC OPINION
7 :: SUCCESS 8 :: CONTINUING
the STRUGGLE
Move on to other
issues or back to
their lives
Long-term activists
for systemic change
Become part of
bureaucracy or
professional
opposition
organizations (POO)
Find other wrongs
to fight & protest
steady state build-up of stress in the system seen as a general problem resolution…
MovementActionPlan,lecturebyScottBoylston
SUSTAINABILITY30
transcending paradigms
paradigms
goals
self-organization
rules
information flows
reinforcing feedback loops
stock + flow structure
balancing feedback loops
delays relative to the rate of change
buffers
numbers
LEVERAGE POINTS:
PLACES TO INTERVENE
IN A SYSTEM
Leverage points
12. Numbers –constants and parameters such as
subsidies, taxes and standards
11. Buffers –the sizes of stabilizing stocks rela-
tive to their flows
10. Stocks and Flow Structure –physical systems
and their nodes of intersection
09. Delays –the lengths of time relative to the
rates of system changes
08. Balancing feedback loops – the strength of
the feedbacks relative to the impacts they
are trying to correct
07. Reinforcing feedback loops –the strength of
the gain of driving loops
06. Information flows –the structure of who does
and does not have access to information
05. Rules –Incentives, punishments, constraints
04. Self-organization –the power to add, change,
or evolve system structure
03. Goals –the purpose or function of the system
02. Paradigms – the mind-set out of which the
system- its goals, structure, rules, delays,
parameters- arises
01.	Transcending paradigms
Systems traps
Meadows’s system analysis also recognizes eight
traps that avoid change in systems.
1.	 Policy resistance
2.	 The tragedy of the commons
3.	 Drift to Low performance
4.	 Escalation
5.	 Success to the successful
6.	 Shifting the burden to the inventor
7.	 Rule Beating
8.	 Seeking the wrong goal
SystemsThinking,lecturebyScottBoylston
SUSTAINABILITY 33
To this point, we have explored the cur-
rent conditions of the environment, and
understood the relationships with social
and economical issues. In addition, we
have identified our wasteful patterns of
production and consumption as some
of the causes for world’s deterioration.
However, there are plenty of opportunities
for change, especially within the realms
of changing the process of manufacturing
and human behavior towards consumption.
These two areas are closely directed with
design, since designers are involved in
the process of production by planning the
structures, by choosing the materials, and
by designing the whole cycle of products
and services. In addition, designers are
also in charge of persuading by generat-
ing the messages that shape the cultural
discourse. Consequently, there is the
opportunity for designers to change the
process of production by making informed
and responsible choices, and to change
the discourse of consumption by using the
powers of communications to initiate the
shift towards a sustainable lifestyle.
Redefinition of design’s purpose
At the beginning of the XX century design
was related to shaping commodities and
messages in the manufacture and com-
munication fields. Under this time the
purposes of design were linked to foster
the consumer culture, and to promote a
concept of well being that was based on
product ownership. However, as society
evolved design transformed its practices
to a broader spectrum of competences.
According to Richard Buchanan, design as
a liberal art of technological culture, is a
discipline that links and consolidates the-
ories, methodologies, and practices from
the arts and sciences with the purpose of
addressing the complexity of contempo-
rary problems.
In addition, design delivers its value
through the incorporation of four place-
ments: symbolic and visual communi-
cations, material objects, activities and
organized services, and complex systems
or environments for living, working,
playing, and learning. Under this vision,
design is no longer concern just with the
appearance of products, messages, and
built environments, but with a profound
understanding of all the encompassing
activities required to understand a human
situation, produce an intended solution,
and make this solution available to its
users. In this regard, design is about plan-
ning, communicating, and constructing.
“Design is the activity
that generates plans,
projects, and products.
It produces tangible
results that can serve
as demonstrations of or
arguments for how we
might live.”
-Victor Margolin
Sustainability InnovationDesign
Social Economic
Environmental
Communities
Individuals
Industry
Public Sector
Design is the interface
SUSTAINABILITY32
Design’s
Role
6
“The understanding and application of
sustainability and innovation are expanding, as
is the extent of the interconnectivity between
the two. In both the private and public sector,
design is emerging as the interface between
sustainability and innovation as a tool that
can engage stakeholders and align economic,
social and environmental considerations.
Design can contribute to fostering a culture of
sustainability and innovation in communities,
industry, the public sector and policy-making
using creative and user-centred processes.”
-Levent Ozler / dexigner.com
source: www.knittingindustry.com/uploads/2188/Nike_Flyknit_Lunar_1plus_BrandImage_Small_16669.jpg
SUSTAINABILITY 35
source:wikipediasource:/www.nikeresponsibility.comsource:http://onwardstate.com/
Nike is an example of products
designed to reduce the
environmental impact.
More on:
www.nikeresponsibility.com
Sharing services like zipcar
are examples of the new
dynamic of sharing instead
of ownership.
More on:
www.zipcar.com
Curitiba, Brazil is other
example of the value
of integrating design,
sustainability in a human
centered approach to
development.
More on:
www.citiesforpeople.net/
cities/curitiba.html
Sustainable materials
Service Economy
Multidisciplinary
Collaboration
SUSTAINABILITY34
Opportunity areas for design
1.	 Change wasteful consumption habits
2.	 Design new systems for healthcare
3.	 Environmentally safe public transportation
4.	 Alternatives to fossil fuels
5.	 Improve methods for recycling waste material
6.	 Designing for the whole life cycle of products
7.	 Collaborating with other disciplines to find
better solutions
8.	 Shifting from designing for people to design-
ing with people
9.	 Choosing natural, non-toxic, energy efficient
materials for production
10.	 Looking up to nature for inspiration and solu-
tions
11.	 Designing a new aesthetics for the sustainable
12.	 Reduce excessive product packaging
13.	 Promoting eco-tourism
14.	 Documenting and communicating stories of
success to inspire and motivate
• Promote a sustainable wellbeing
• Communicate and inform on current consumption
consequences
•
consumption, through education, awareness and
advertising consequences
Promote positive attitude towards sustainable
• Sustainable design
• Material selection, processes and packaging
• Designing for close-loop products
• Increase life span of products
• Designing to enable people to live as they
like in a sustainable way
• Political mediation
• Human-centered design
• Systems Thinking
Visual communications
Material objects
Activities and services
Complex systems
“Design, in order to
redefine its purpose
and participate in
tackling wicked
problems has to move
from product design to
sustaining developing
and integrating human
beings into broader
ecological and cultural
environment.”
-Victor Margolin
Four placements of design and Sustainability
Redefining design’s role in society comes
along with an ethic of responsibility for
the design practice.
If in the past, design was involved with
fostering a wellbeing based on products
and possessions, nowadays, design
can help people and organizations to
achieve the necessary shift towards
sustainability.
Co creation design
is a practice that
involves users in the
process, instead of
designing for them.
This way users are
empowered and can
own the project.
http://designpracticesandparadigms.files.wordpress.com
SUSTAINABILITY36 SUSTAINABILITY 37
After going through this journey of understanding sustainability, we can
see that it is not just about moral and ethical choices, since there are
also business and productivity reasons for implementing it.That means
that regardless from what perspective are you coming from, the shifting
towards sustainability is a good way for ensuring survival. We are no lon-
ger trying to survive from predators and wilderness, but from the conse-
quences of our own actions, and the new order in the world.
There is evidence that organizations adopting sustainable paths in-
crease their stock value, strengthen its brand image, and save money.24
Furthermore, organizations considering sustainability implications now,
are the ones that are going to be able to stay on business for the long
haul. We fell in love with the artificial and neglected the natural, we put so
much effort on conquering and dominating the world that we forgot that
once, humans and nature, we were part of the same entity. In this docu-
ment, we have explored different alternatives to initiate change, now it is
on us to start it.
EIGHTSHIFTSTOWARDS A LIGHTECONOMY, FROM SUSTAINABLE EVERYDAY. 23
Nanograms to Megatons
Instead of chasing nanograms of harmful substances
emitted at the tail end, we have to look at the megatons of
nature put in at the front end of production. Sustainability
means making our system of wealth creation less depen-
dent on resource use.
Ecology to Justice
Ecology cannot be separated from equity, nor equity from
ecology
Linear to Cyclical Production
Managerial excellence will include the ability to design pro-
duction systems which create value with ever less input of
fossil-based resources
Hardware to Services
The focuses on ownership, impedes system-wide responsi-
bility in the company for the entire life-cycle of its products
Shifting the entrepreneurial focus from the sale of services
through leasing or renting would make the full use of goods,
including maintenance and recycling, profitable.
Taxing Labor toTaxing Resources
If natural resources are undervalued in relation to labour,
there is the tendency to substitute the cheaper element for
the more expensive one. Shifting the tax base from labour
to natural resources could begin to rectify this imbalance.
High to Slower Speeds
The assumption that higher speeds are always better than
lover ones has prevailed to the present day. However,
speed does not come without a price. The mobilization of
space and time requires the mobilization of nature.
Long to Medium Distances
It will therefore be important to recognize scale as an eco-
logical issue.The economy should be conceived as evolving
in several spaces -regional, continental, (and) international.
Well-having to Well-being
Material and non-material satisfaction cannot be maxi-
mized simultaneously. Frugality is therefore an essential
ingredient of wellbeing. Henry DThoreau spoke wisely when
he said, “A man is rich in proportion to the number of things
he can afford to let be.”
Ezio Manzini & François Jegou
Sustainable
Everyday
7
Although we have been looking at sustainability from a
design perspective, we all are designers; we all plan, choose,
and modify our environment according to our planes and
desires. We can make an impact by aligning our actions
and ideologies with a more sustainable lifestyle, by doing
appropriate shopping choices, by increasing the efficiency
in our use of energy, by managing properly the waste
we generate, and by spreading the world and promote
sustainability.
By acknowledging the leverage that we have as humans,
as citizens, and as members of organizations, we can start
micro revolutions that will initiate an unstoppable change.
source: bleubirdblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/114.jpg
SUSTAINABILITY 39
REFERENCES
1.	 http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/01/science/earth/climate.
html	
2.	 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sustainable
3.	 United Nations General Assembly (1987) Report of the World Commission
on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.
4.	 http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2012/sd_timeline_2012.pdf
5.	 http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History
6.	 http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History
7.	 http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History
8.	 http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History
9.	 http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/01/science/earth/climate.html?_r=0
10.	 http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/ipcc-says-hu-
mans-cause-global-warming/2013/09/27/aae32880-275d-11e3-b3e9-
d97fb087acd6_story.html
11.	 http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/01/science/earth/climate.html?_r=0
12.	 http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/climate-weather/photos/7-surpris-
ing-global-warming-deniers/donald-trump
13.	 http://sites.uci.edu/energyobserver/page/2/
14.	 Applied Theories in Sustainability, Lecture 2: Non-renewables and EROI.
Prof. Boylston, 2014
15.	 Expansion or Sustainability: Two Models of Development, Victor Margolin.
The Politics of the Artificial, 2002.
16.	 Applied Theories in Sustainability, Lecture 4. The natural step.
Prof. Boylston, 2014
17.	 Biomimicry, Janine M. Benyus. 2002. p. 251
18.	 http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/INDEpdfs/INDEin-
tro.pdf Natural Capitalism
19.	 Thinking in systems. A primer. Donella H. Meadows 2008. p.11
20.	 Applied Theories in Sustainability. Lecture on Movement Action Plan by
Scott Boylston based on Bill Moyer
21.	 Applied Theories in Sustainability. Lecture on Movement Action Plan by
Scott Boylston based on Bill Moyer
22.	 Lecture on Movement Action Plan by Scott Boylston based on Bill Moyer
23	 Sustainable Everyday. http://issuu.com/strategicdesignscenarios/docs/
download_sustainable_everyday_eng_xs
24.	 http://www.natcapsolutions.org/businesscasereports.pdf
SUSTAINABILITY38
-American Hustle
“The art of
survival is a story
that never ends.”
Priscila Mendoza | Applied Theories in Sustainability, SUST 704 | Prof. Boylston | Spring 2014 | SCAD

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Sustainability: a Primer

  • 2. Priscila Mendoza | Applied Theories in Sustainability, SUST 704 | Prof. Boylston | Spring 2014 | SCAD Sustainability
  • 3. SUSTAINABILITY 5 Is this the best time to be alive on earth? source: eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/ SUSTAINABILITY4 Index What do we mean by sustainability? Introduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Global challenges Two models of development Sustainable approaches Achieving Change Sustainable Everyday Design’s Role pag. 8 pag.6 pag. 12 pag. 18 pag. 20 pag. 28 pag. 32 pag. 36
  • 4. SUSTAINABILITY 7 LIVING THE ERA OF PARADOXES A zoomed out view of the Taj Mahal show us the paradoxical reality of our times Technological development is allowing us to live a comfortable and exciting life. Today, controlling the temperature and ambiance of our houses is just a click away, and our smart devices assist us in our diverse activities so we can focus on other things. We can have almost every- thing from everywhere delivered to our door, or travel to far-away places in just hours. Today, we can even go to the moon! Life expectancy has also expanded, and we are living more than ever before. Science is making exponential progress to understand and enhance human life. We are also more connected and informed of what is happening in the world and can communicate within seconds with people from all countries and cultures; this is the best time to be alive, or isn’t it? While development and progress might be seen as increasing in the world, there is a reality we are often unaware of—or refuse to believe— and that cannot longer be ignored or neglected: our natural world is on the threshold of collapse. According to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (April, 2014) the climate change is impact- ing our world, and it is going to do it even more, “…[I]ce caps are melting, sea ice in the Artic is collapsing, wa- ter supplies are coming under stress, heat waves and heavy rains are intensifying, coral reefs are dying, and fish and many other creatures are migrating towards the poles or in some cases going extinct.”1 This report also states that the world’s food supply is at an endangered po- sition, and that there is an increase in social consequences derived by the environment’s deterioration like social inequality, poverty, hunger, and political tension just to mention a few. If we consider this panorama, it might seem this is the worst time to be alive, or isn’t it? This time is not just the best and the worst time to be alive, IT IS the time in which we are living, and even if our first reaction towards this mat- ter is overwhelm and despair, there are things that we can do, as demon- strated by many initiatives, organiza- tions and people working towards a different reality. The purpose of this document is to inform and communicate the meaning and implications of sus- tainability and the different ways in which we can take action, inspire others, and create movements for change. Relative to this intention we are going to revise some of the causes that led into the current en- vironmental situation and explore alternative approaches for making positive change in the world. SUSTAINABILITY6 sources:MuhammadMahdiKarim&http://www.boredpanda.com/famous-landmarks-zoomed-out/
  • 5. SUSTAINABILITY 9 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT sources:http://wallpoper.com/images/00/44/56/61/polar-bear-and-global-warming_00445661.jpg The image of polar bears on distress have been used to show the consequences of the environmental degradation, although most of us empathize with these creatures, sometimes the reality they are showing seems too far away from our daily lives. Therefore, it is necessary to communicate the environmental situation from a perspective that all can relate. According to the Merriam-Webster Dic- tionary, sustainable refers to being used without being completely used up or destroyed.2 In a more specialized defi- nition resulting from the report of The World Commission on Environment and Development called Our Common Future, in 1987, “sustainable development is de- velopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.3 These definitions emphasize using natural resources in a way that can ensure the appropriate existence of fu- ture generations. In other words, sustain- ability is allowing our children and grand- children the opportunity to enjoy a world that is better than ours. To this point humanity has been treating the world’s natural resources as if they were infinite, but unfortunately they are finite. Furthermore, sustainability is phi- losophy and action that focuses on bal- ancing society, the environment, and the economy.This integration of domains is commonly represented in the model of the triple bottom line, where society (people), environment (planet), and economy (profit) are equally valued to provide a perspec- tive that integrates these diverse forces in life.This model is also used as a guideline to evaluate more accurately the level of welfare, health and progress in compa- nies, organizations, and governments. Achieving sustainability is an enterprise that entails quality of life and economic prosperity for people, organizations and countries; and industrial activities that are in balance with natural ecosystems. Therefore, the stakeholders for sustain- ability are found at the levels of individu- als, organizations, societies, governments and countries. Sustainability is not about setting constraints (as some might see it), but on the contrary, it is about unleashing creativity to generate innovative modes to relate with our world while prolonging its future life. Now that we have a better under- standing of sustainability’s meaning, it is important to identify the different events and actions towards a real prog- ress in sustainable development. Society People Planet Profit Environment Economy Bearable Equitable Viable Sustainable sustainability resource model triple bottom line sustainability model ResourcesUse Preservation Present needs Future needs “Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” -Our common future SUSTAINABILITY8 What do we mean by sustainability? 1 source:// www.cityofartesia.us/images/pages/N158/recycle.jpg Nowadays terms like sustainability, green, and socially responsible have become very popular among society, since products and companies make considerable efforts to promote their sustainable and socially responsible efforts, but what are we z talking about when we say sustainability? Generally, when we hear sustainability the ideas that come to our mind are associated with environmental responsibility; we might think of actions like taking care of our forests, and protecting endangered fauna, unfortunately sometimes this notion of sustainability seems too distant from our daily lives and therefore out of our reach to make an impact. Even though we all have heard about the benefits of recycling, using less water and buying organic products, in some cases it is not clear how much of an impact we are capable of having within our daily lives. The intent of this document is to provide an approach to sustainability to which we can all relate.
  • 6. SUSTAINABILITY 11 1986 – Chernobyl nuclear station accident 1987 – Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer 1987 – Our Common Future, a report by the World Commission on Environment and De- velopment, links social, economic, cultural and environmental issues and global solutions.This report popularizes the term “sustainable development” 1988 – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is established to assess research in the field 1989 – Exxon Valdez tanker runs aground, dumpling 11 million gallons f oil into Alaska’s Prince William Sound 1990 – International Institute for Sustainable Develop- ment (IISD) is established in Canada 1991 – Hundreds of oil fire burn in Kuwait after the Persian Gulf War 1992 – Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.This meeting reunited world leaders to discuss environmental and development issues and one of its results was the “Decla- ration of Environment and Development” and the document know as Agenda 21, “which sought to establish a concerted effort to educate people about the state of both environment and development, and to assist them to make deci- sions that lead to sustainability.” 8 1994 – China’s Agenda 21 1996 – ISO 14001 is formally adopted as a voluntary international standard for corpo- rate environmental management 1995 – World Summit for Social Development is held in Copenhagen 1998 – Controversy over genetically modified (GM) organism 1999 – Launch of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes 2000 – UN Millennium Development Goals 2001 – 9/11Terrorist attack the WorldTrade Center and Pentagon 2002 – World Sum- mit on Sustainable Development 2002 – Global Reporting Initiative, presents guidelines for reporting on the economic, environmental and social dimensions of business activities 2004 – HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa 2005 – Kyoto Protocol enters into force 2005 – Walmart institutes global sustainability strategy 2006 – NASA reports that the ozone layer is recovering 2006 – Stern Review, resents that the costs of inaction on climate change will be up to 20 times greater that measures applied in prevention today 2007 – Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer 2007 – An In- convenientTruth, by U.S. Vice President Al Gore and IPCC 2008 – Green econo- my ideas enter the mainstream 2008 – Oceans’ acidification correlated with increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide 2009 – G20 Pittsburgh Summit 2009 – Copenhagen climate negotiations 2009 – Scientists introduce the concept of “planetary boundaries 2010 –The rise of wind power 2010 – BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion leaks 5 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico 2011 2011 –The world population reaches 7 billion 2011 – Japan earthquake and tsunami 2011 – China begins shift to a “green economy” 2012 – One of the first of the Millennium Development Goal targets is achieved: the percentage of the world’s people without access to safe drinking water is cut in half 2012 – Rio + 20, the global community reconvenes in an effort to secure agreement on greening world economies Chernobyl Reactor NASA’s Terra Satellites Sees Spill on May 24 2010 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro http://thevelvetrocket.files.wordpress.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/http://switchboard.nrdc.org SUSTAINABILITY10 The beginning of the actions related to create awareness and understanding of the interrelationships between the environment, the economy and social welfare can be tracked down to the publication of Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring in 1962. After this event a great amount of people, organizations, and countries have been working towards a real progress in sustainable development. Heather Creech, Di- rector, Global Connectivity and associates, prepared most of the information in this time line. It covers some of the mayor events in sustainability from 1962 to 2012. 4 1962 – Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson, links the use of pesticides with damage to animals and humans 1967 – Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) is formed to pursue legal solutions to environmental damage 1968 – Biosphere. Intergovernmental Conference for Rational Use and Conservation of the Biosphere (UNESCO) 1968 –The Population Bomb, by Paul Ehrlich, presents the connection between human population and natural resources exploitation 1969 – Friends of the Earth, environmental advocacy organization 1969 –Partners in Development and IDRC. Report of the Commission on International Development; this is the first of the international commissions to consider a new approach to development. 1969 – National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).The purpose of this document was to “foster and promote the general welfare, to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony and fulfill the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations.”5 1970 – First Earth Day 1971 – Greenpeace starts in Canada 1971 – Only One Earth, by René Dubos and Barbara Ward 1972 – United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference). After this conference the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) was established with the aim to promote the idea of environmentally sound development. 6 1972 – Limits to Growth, by Club of Rome, presents forecasting on the consequences if current trends in population growth and consumption are not slowed. 1973 – OPEC oil crisis 1973 – Chipko movement is born in India, to protest for deforestation and environmental degradation 1974 – Rowland and Molina release work on chorofluorocarbons (CFCs), stating the relationship be- tween CFCs and the ozone layer depletion 1975 –The UNEP launched the International Environmental Education Program (IEEP) 1975 – World- watch Institute 1976 – Habitat, the UN Conference on Human Settlements 1978 – Amoco Cadiz oil spills, in the coast of Brittany 1979 –Three Mile Island nuclear accident, in Pennsylvania 1980 –The UNEP launched the World Con- servation Strategy 1980 – Global 2000 report, recognizes biodiversity as critical to the proper functioning of the plane- tary ecosystem 1982 – International debt crisis, threatens the world financial system, especial- ly for developing regions 1983 –The United Nations created the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), led by Prime Minister of Norway, Gro Harlem Brundtland.This Commission had the mission of “to re-examine critical environmental and development problems around the world and formulate realistic proposals to address them.” 7 1983 – Grameen Bank, provide credit to the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh, 1984 – Bhopal toxic chemical leak, in Bhopal, India 1985 – Climate Change, UNEP and the International Council of Scientific Unions reports on the buildup of carbon dioxide and other “greenhouse gases”, predicting global warming SUSTAINABILITYTIMELINE Images of the first earth day http://en.es-static.us/http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/
  • 7. SUSTAINABILITY 13 The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued on April 2014, presents an overview of the condition of earth’s health that demands action. Among the multiple issues presented in the report we can highlight the following: • Ice caps melting • Water supplies under stress • Heat waves and heavy rains intensifying • Coral reefs dying • Fish and other creatures migrating or going extinct • Oceans becoming acidic due to carbon dioxide • Greenhouse gases generating further warming.9 The causes of climate change are “almost certainly”10 attributed to human activity and the inefficiencies in the management of natural resources. “Throughout the 21st century, climate- change impacts are projected to slow down economic growth, make poverty reduction more difficult, further erode food security, and prolong existing and create new poverty traps, the latter particularly in urban areas and emerging hot spots of hunger.”11 According to scientists, the consequences of these changes are going to be felt by all countries without exception, generating risks for social instability, massive migrations, and conflicts caused by disputes of access to natural resources. This is not new information since data pointing out the environment’s degradation has been available since the decade of the 1970s with documents like Limits to Growth (1972), Our Common Future (1987) and Agenda 21 (1992); nonetheless, today, the scientific community that is reporting these issues is growing in numbers along with the evidence that supports climate change. Realizing that the environmental degradation is affecting the world at a global scale is the first step for moving into a more sustainable world. Society, corporations and governments, need to be aware that climate change is not about catastrophes happening in remote places -like the Arctic-, it is about everyone and everywhere, and that prolonging our journey on earth is going to take a global and unified effort. Effects of Climate Change Muir Glacier, Alaska, 1882 and 2005. 1882 photo taken by G.D. Hazard; 2005 photo taken by Bruce F. Molnia. 1882 2005 http://static.businessinsider.com/image/519a6d41eab8ea1a4e000003/image.jpgz “We borrow environmental capital from future generations with no intention or prospect of repaying them because we can get away with it…” -Our Common Future “The limits to growth within this planet will be reach sometime within the next 100 years” -Limits to Growth The Limits to Growth, was published in 1972 by commission of the Club of Rome. It presents a computer modeling of exponential economic and population growth with finite resource supplies. Our Common Future, a report by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987. It links social, economic, cultural and environmental issues and global solutions. INTERLOCKING CRISES http://www.abc.net.au/wikipedia.com SUSTAINABILITY12 Global challenges 2 source://b.static.trunity.net/files/154301_154400/154387/containment.jpg Natural events and recent scientific research about the world’s situation indicates that we are facing times of global challenges.This is evidenced by a series of interdependent crises like social inequality, climate change, and economic debacles. Probably the most known consequence of the lack of equilibrium between natural and human forces is the series of ecological matters known as Climate Change, although this concept has been heavily exposed in the media, the real implications of what is happening, and what could happen are not as well understood. Economic crisis Energy crisis Social crisis Environmental crisis
  • 8. SUSTAINABILITY 15 http://dailycaller.com/ http://www.greenenergydevelopment.org their extraction disrupts ecology’s equilibrium. One of the factors that have cover-up the real situation of non-renewable sources is the constant decrease in its prices. The average cost of the 86 most used metal and minerals have had a .9% annual decline from 1900 to 2010. This market trend made people believe that if resources were cheaper it was because there should be plenty of them; none- theless, this situ- ation is changing given the fact that metals and minerals are now scarce. “The drop in prices during the last century were largely the result of productivity gains that outpaced the rise in extractions costs. “But these costs have recently risen as metals and minerals have become more difficult to get to and as their quality has declined.” 14 The combination of population growth, with the increase in con- sumption habits, ineffective man- ufacture systems, and a limited source of natural elements, have caused the environmental decline that also undermines the economic development of countries. All those factors together are be- coming a source for political un- rest and tension. Beyond spe- cific actions, what determines the course of a society is the dominant ideolo- gy at the time, as follows we will analyze the ideolo- gy known as the expansion model and its implications for the current state of the world. non-renewable energy consumption “The Earth’s carrying capacity—the ability of biological systems to provide resources for human needs —is eroding.” -The Global 2000 Report limits to growth forecast It seems almost incredible that despite the scientific evidence that supports the reasons and realities of climate change, there are people that still refuse to believe that it is a real thing, for example, DonaldTrump.12 SKEPTICISM’S VOICES Although, getting public acceptance on the threats of climate change is important, that should not influence the decisions taken when making policies and planning for actions.The fact that some people do not believe on it, does not mean that it is not happening, and in the debate we should listen for facts, not just for opinions or personal perceptions. An example of this contradictory situation is cleverly portrayed by John Oliver in one of the episodes of Last WeekTonight. Watch it here “With the coldest winter ever recorded, with snow setting record levels up and down the coast, the Nobel committee should take the Nobel Prize back from Al Gore” -Donald Trump Look at the video www.unitedliberty.org/files/images/trump.jpg SUSTAINABILITY14 The current world condition is the result of a series of events and cir- cumstances that, when mixed to- gether, create the wicked problem* that we are experiencing now; among the causes for this situation are the advent of the industrial revolution, the colossal increase in human popu- lation, the use of fossil fuels as main source of energy, industrial activity interrupting natural cycles, wasteful manufacturing, and the social con- struct of a product-base wellbeing. In other words, the wickedness of our world is closely related to our frenetic expansion in the world, our modes of production, and our pat- terns of consumption. The Industrial Revolution and its assembly-line manufacturing brought cheaper products that al- lowed people to own more things. This new affordability of items, along with the association of materi- alism with wellbeing contributed to the establishment of a culture based on conspicuous consumerism and disposal. Furthermore, these features affect- ed the ecosystem because to satisfy the increasing needs of the devel- oped societies, it was necessary to extract natural resources at a ver- tiginous pace. In addition, the expo- nential growth in world population going from 3 billion in the 1960s to 7 billion in 2012 stressed the need for more and more natural resources. Energy production deserves a special attention, because of its huge implications for the environ- ment, society and the economy. In this document we will highlight the reliance in non-renewable energy sources, the decrease in prices of metals and minerals, and the eminent scarcity or non-renewable resources. Currently in the United States 92% of the energy consumed is from non-renewable sources while only the remaining 8% cor- responds to renewable energy. 13 Relaying that much in fossil fuels raise concern because fossil fuels are non- renewable resources and HOW DID WE GET HERE? www.ford.ie/AboutFord/CompanyInformation/Heritage/TheEvolutionOfMassProduction “Poverty and environmental degradation are closely related but the major cause of continual deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable patterns of consumption and production in industrialized countries.” -Agenda 21 exponential population growth resource scarcity
  • 9. SUSTAINABILITY 17 THE EXPANSION MODEL Victor Margolin in his article Expansion or Sustainability: Two Models of De- velopment, refers to Expansion Model to viewing the world as consisting of markets in which products function first and foremost as tokens of economic exchange.15 This perspective encourages the predominance of economic growth over social and environmental wellbeing, and animates countries to get in the race towards market power with the aims of acquiring more political presence. Unfortunately, in the race towards market predominance some countries are depleting their resources and los- ing part of their natural abundance. These dynamics also has created the huge divide among industrialized and developing countries, with 20% of the world population consuming 80% of the resources, and where more than 50% of GNP of developing countries comes from exporting natural resources to the industrialized world. These are the con- ditions of a doomed cycle of consumers and suppliers, and where the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. As we have seen it is not surprise that the results of this modus operandi are catastrophic, since we cannot treat the dimensions of the economy, the ecol- ogy and society as independent forces because they are all part of one system. We cannot focus only on the economy because without ecology, there is noth- ing else, and we cannot forget about the peoples of the world because we all live in the same planet. SUSTAINABILITY MODEL Contrary to the expansion model, the sustainability model is a global practice that integrates and balances social, en- vironmental, and economic forces. As we already explained, sustainability strives for restoring and maintaining the natural in our world, balancing the conditions of industrialized and developing countries, and ensuring economic prosperity for all. The sustainability model is also about so- cial justice, intergenerational justice, and respect for life. In other words, the ex- pansion model favors the artificial, while the sustainability model chooses life. The history of the world is a story of changes and evolution, what means that it is a story of adaptation. We have been in a evolutionary road that has taken us to great places, as some of the human achievements can prove, but our activity also has generated great damages. Now is the time to take a different path, a new road, it is time for change. We have to learn to live better and consume fewer environmental resources while improving the quality of our living context. Moving out from the expansion model towards sustainable models will require transfor- mations at all levels: individuals, corpo- rations, nations, and global. “We came to see that a new development path was required, one that sustained human progress not just in a few pieces for a few years, but for the entire planet into distant futures” -Our Common Future, Some of the changes required by the sustainability model: 1. Adopting life-styles within the planet ecological means 2. Harmonize population size and growth with the productive potential of the ecosystem 3. Planning for the global and long term de- velopment 4. Approach from a systems thinking to solve world poverty and inequality 5. Intergenerational justice 6. Orientation of technology 7. Institutional change The history of the world is a story of changes, evolution and creative adaptation. The Mickey Mouse model Economy SocietyEnvironment Society People Planet Profit Environment Economy Bearable Equitable Viable Sustainable expansion model sustainability model SUSTAINABILITY16 Two models of development 3 The two agendas for social development that are central to the sustainability model and the expansion model are not only in conflict, they are on collision course that has already led to considerable fallout. This is evident in the widening gaps between rich and poor in both global and local terms, the development of an information infrastructure that privileges some and excludes others, and an array of precarious environmental situations that are beginning to permanently damage the planet. -Victor Margolin source:www.unescap.org/events/apfsd/images/photo-2.jpg
  • 10. SUSTAINABILITY 19 Sustainable approaches Behavior change Production change Systems thinking approach • Understanding system dynamics, systems traps and leverage points • Adding balancing loops to restore the equilibrium of the system Redefining priorities • There is no economy and no society without an environment • Reframingmeasurements standards from GNP to GPI • Keeping nature cycle and industry cycle separated, or in a collaborative mode • Making industrial cycles closed loops • consumption towards sustainability • Acquiring awareness about world state and communicating it • Demanding governments and industry a shift in the production paradigm • Evolving from an opportunistic and exploiter specie to a regenerative specie • Giving back to nature Approaches NewParadigm Governments Consumers Manufactures • Biomimicry • Natural Capitalism • The Natural Step • Cradle to Cradle • Total Beauty • Life Cycle Analysis • Sustainability Helix • Social Return on Investment The us and them, here and there, now and tomorrow model From To The us, here, and now model NewParadigm SUSTAINABILITY MODEL PARADIGM CHANGE BEHAVIOR CHANGE PRODUCTION CHANGE CONSUMPTION CHANGE SUSTAINABILITY18 The expansion model Industrial Revolution • A global practice that encourages economic growth over social and environmental wellbeing • Taking advantage of abundant resources Wasteful production Loose ends in industrial cycles • Wasteful production • High energy requirements • Processes that generates pollution • Manufacturing cycles incompatible with nature cycles • Lack of product life-cycle management • Promoters of conspicuous consumption The race to political and market power World divide: developed & developing countries • Exploitation of natural resources • Economy over environment • Consumer countries and suppliers countries Approach Governments Consumers Manufactures Materialistic Wellbeing and wasteful lifestyles • Product-base wellbeing • Lack of awareness on current environment state • Unsustainable growth • Treating no renewable fi- nite resources like renew- able and infinite The mechanisms behind current crises An exponential population growth Materialistic wellbeing Deficiency on world development and in management of human environment ++ + + Dependency on nonrenewable sources of energy Increasing gap between rich and poor nations Resource depletion Inefficient energy management and wasteful consumption Market power equals political power Water, food, energy, & resources, needs Finite resources & infinite demand Pollution and resource depletion Developing countries exploiting their resources 2014= 7 billion 2050= 9 billion 95 % of materials flowing through the US industrial economy are nonrenewable Wellbeing related to access to products. 20% of population con- sumes 80% of resources + 50% of the developing world’s GNP is from the exporting of natural resources to the industrial world 65% of energy is wasted at the site of production Economic crisis Energy crisis Social crisis Environmental crisis Interlocking Crises = Wicked problem THE EXPANSION MODEL
  • 11. SUSTAINABILITY 21 There are many examples of people, com- panies and governments working together to make of sustainability a reality, and they are developing processes and princi- ples that can help and inspire us. In the fol- lowing pages we are going to review some philosophies, methodologies and exam- ples that testify the relevance of adopting sustainable practices and demonstrate that the benefits are more than just good ecological karma. Sustainability is good for the planet, for the people and for the pocket! As we have seen, the journey towards a sustainable word can be summarized in the following transformations: changing the processes of production and chang- ing human consumption behavior. But in order to be able to do those changes we first need to revolutionize the principles that we use to guide our practices in regard to production and consumption. That means changing the ideology or changing the paradigm. We will present approaches that promotes sustainabil- ity from different perspectives, some establishes principles and philosophies, others are focused towards new manu- facturing processes, and others provide guidance towards behavioral change; some include the three categories while others have a very specific scope. CHANGING THE PHILOSOPHY In order to accomplish the transformation towards the sustainable model we need to change our ideologies and paradigms. Among the change in paradigms that we are going to explore we can highlight the following changes. • From treating finite resources like they were infinity to a measured re- source exploitation that allows nature regeneration • From pursuing the artificial to follow principles and solutions found in nature • From a capitalism grounded exclu- sively on economics to a natural capi- talism that also contemplates nature as capital • From inefficient production to maxi- mizing resource productivity • From generating waste in manufac- ture to close cycles where everything is used (waste is also a resource) • From an uprooted relationship with earth to a close connection with our environment • From seeking expansion and repro- duction to pursuing efficiency and productivity There are several approaches to sustain- ability, but in the scope of this document we will explore with more detail two of them: The Natural Step and Biomimicry because they present a very compre- hensive perspective. Nonetheless we will briefly review other approaches like: Cradle to Cradle, Natural Capitalism, and Industrial Ecology. Approach Governments Consumers Manufactures NewParadigm In order to accomplish the transformation towards the sustainable model we need to change our ideologies and paradigms changing paradigms “In the end, it seems that mastery has less to do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly, letting go and dancing with the system.” -Donella H. Meadows SUSTAINABILITY20 Sustainable approaches 4 Adopting sustainable approaches to our everyday life, to our businesses and to our countries is going to allow us to adapt to the ongoing changes that are coming towards us, there is no way we can undo the past, but there are many ways in which we can stop the current direction and adapt positively. Sustainability is also an innovation facilitator since it teaches us to look at life differently and to find new ways to engage with the world. source:// loboyou.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/fascinating_lilypad_city__131.jpg
  • 12. SUSTAINABILITY 23 PRESERVE This company is recycling plastics #5 and creating products that are also esthetically pleasant.This is an example of a sustainable initiative because is helping to avoid the increase in substances produced by society in nature. And they are doing this not by just recycling they are bringing new value with the power of design. www.preserveproducts.com FREITAG This company is an example on recycling materials and giving them new value through design, these bags are made of the covers of trucks in Europe and transform into bags, wallets and other accessories. www.freitag.ch SUSTAINABILITY22 The natural step is a non-profit organi- zation founded by Karl-Henrik Robèrt in 1989 in Sweden. Back in the 1980s Robèrt was treating his cancer patients and have the idea of comparing the conditions required for healthy cells to the system conditions required for the continuation of human life. After several iterations with the scientific community they de- veloped a document that contained the system conditions for sustainability and the framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. Generally the ideas of the Natural Step are presented through two metaphors: the tunnel and the tree. System Conditions or Principles16 1. Substances from the Earth’s crust must not systematically increase in the biosphere. 2. Fossil fuels, metals, and other minerals must not be extracted at a faster rate than their redeposit and regeneration in the Earth’s crust. 3. Substances produced by society must not systematically increase in nature. 4. Substances must not be produced faster than they can be broken down and be reintegrated into the cycles of nature or be deposited in the Earth’s crust 5. The physical basis for the produc- tivity and diversity of nature must not systematically deteriorate. Productive surfaces of nature must not be diminished in quality or quantity, and we must not har- vest more from nature that can be recreated or renewed 6. There needs to be a fair and effi- cient use of resources with respect to meeting human needs. 7. Basic human needs must be met with the most resource efficient methods possible, including equi- table resource distribution. THE NATURAL STEP METAPHORS The tree This metaphor is used to explain the dif- ferent levels of actions towards sustain- ability using a tree as example. It starts from the leaves: Very specific actions, this refers to initiatives done by companies, organizations and even individuals; to a branches: Actions done by expertise mem- ber like scientists, teachers, leaders etc. These can also include the efforts in policy making Trunk: First order principles, this refers to a higher levels of leverage, is changing the philosophy and the paradigm. The Funnel This metaphor is used to present the case for sustainability from a business perspective. This framework positions the company into a funnel that narrows as a result of two forces: the increase in demand, and the decrease in resource availability. According to this model the company’s performance in the future will depend on the actions taken today. Only the companies that adapt and change their strategy now, will be successful in the future. This is a model that helps companies to make proper strategy for the future. This model distinguishes four types of companies: the proactive, the anticipatory, the reactive, and the inac- tive. According to this model only pro- active companies will be in a favorable position in the future. Back casting This is the technique use to set the strategy for the future. Firstly the com- pany needs to determine their vision (where do they want to be in the future) and from that, decide what needs to be done in order to achieve it. This tech- nique implies a reverse thinking to help companies establish their short-term and long-term strategies. THE NATURAL STEP Karl-Henrik Robèrt founder of The Natural Step source:www.beyondtheline.org/ the natural step funnel back casting Awareness A Creative Solutions C Decide on Priorities D Baseline B Backcasting VISIONING Does it move us in the right direction? Is it a flexible platform? Is it a good return on investment? http://www.formfollowsworldview.com/ The Natural Step, lecture by Scott Boylston
  • 13. SUSTAINABILITY 25 Mercedes-Benz concept car based on the shape of a boxfish. This fish is aerodynam- ically superb and the resulting concept car has one of the most efficient shapes for a car of its size. The swimming center for the Beijing Olympics in 2008 is based on the structure of soap bubbles.The bub- bles, trap hot air from the sun that’s then circulated to heat the pools. And also has an auto-clean feature. A team of University of Massachusetts, Am- herst, researchers has developed Geckskin, an adhesive that mimics Gecko’s grip by em- ulating the microscopic hairs on the bottom of their toes. http://www.bloomberg.com/slideshow/2013-08-18/14-smart-inventions-inspired-by-nature-biomimicry.html EXPERIMENTAL FISH CAR WATER CUBE GECKO FEET ADHESIVES Examples from bloomberg.com SUSTAINABILITY24 The Word Biomimicry comes from the Greek bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning imitation. Biomimicry is a phi- losophy that looks a nature as the source of inspiration for finding solutions to our complex problems. Janine M. Benyus in her book Biomimcry, innovation inspired by nature presents the three ways in which we can engage with nature to find better alternatives to our problems: nature as model, nature as a measure, and nature as mentor.This worldview considers that nature has already found all the answers to our problems, we just need to spend enough time observing nature to find them. Biomimicry’s principal statement is that life creates conditions conducive to life, so we should emulate that capability in our processes and activities . As a guidance Janine present these three questions to find inspiration in nature: 1. How does life make things? 2. How does life make the most of things? 3. How does life make things disappear into systems? Surviving in place The Biomimicry approach also presents an analogy of human evolution with the ecological succession and the three types of organisms presented in nature.Type 1 systems take advantage of abundant resources.They are also known as oppor- tunists and pioneers since their primary objective is to explore new territories and reproduce as fast as possible, without considering the long term. Rapid growth is a key characteristic.Type 2 systems do not dedicate all the energy in rapid re- production, instead they invest energy in developing roots to ensure a longer stay. These types of organisms develop a stron- ger connection with their place.Type 3 systems are organized for endurance, they are very effective at the use of energy and preserve the equilibrium with their sur- roundings.Type 3 possess a strong sense of belonging and loyalty to place. Accord- ing with this analogy, humans have behave in the fashion ofType 1 systems. We are taking from nature all that we need, and we have been more concerned with expansion and growth, and not that much with devel- oping loyalty to our place. However, this analogy help us to understand the next step for us, we should move towards the behavior ofType 2 systems and ultimately towards theType 3. In order to evolve from aType 1 system to aType 3, Janine Benyus presents the following strategies for surviving in place: 1. Use waste as a resource 2. Diversify and cooperate to fully use the habitat 3. Gather and use energy efficiently 4. Optimize rather that maximize 5. Use materials sparingly 6. Don’t foul their nests 7. Don’t draw down resources 8. Remain in balance with the bio- sphere 9. Run on information 10. Shop locally Biomimicry 3.8 has an extensive list of resources to look up for inspiration and also case studies where mimicking nature has result in great projects. http://biomimicry.net/ BIOMIMICRY “These days, when we’ve gone everywhere there is to go, we have to find a different kind of plenty, not by jumping off to another planet but by closing the loops here on this one.” -Janine Benyus source:http://osbsustainablefutures.files.wordpress.com/source:http://static.biomimicry.org/ biomimicry life’s principles biomimicry design lenses biomimicry design spiral source:http://valhallamovement.com/
  • 14. SUSTAINABILITY 27 1961-1979 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2010 1 27 4 3 7 12 20 5 16 2 13 23 11 15 14 18 26 10 17 19 22 8 6 29 30 21 25 24 9 28 1 4 3 7 12 20 5 16 2 13 11 15 14 18 10 17 19 8 6 9 1 4 3 7 5 2 2 11 10 8 6 9 1 4 3 5 RGS 90 Tissø DONG Energy Nickel Industry Purification Plant Fertilizer Industry Kara / Noveren Fish Farms Novo Nordisk Cement Industry Gyproc Statoil Inbicon Farms RGS 90 Tissø DONG Energy Nickel Industry Fertilizer Industry Fish Farms Novo Nordisk Cement industry Waste Water Treatment Gyproc Statoil Tissø DONG Energy Fish Farms Novo Nordisk Cement Industry Gyproc Statoil Kalundborg Forsyning Tissø DONG Energy Pig Farms Novo Nordisk Novozymes Cement Industry Gyproc Statoil 1 Surface Water 1961 2 Gas 1972 3 Surface Water 1973 4 Biomass/NovoGro 1976 5 Fly Ash 1979 6 Heat 1980/89 7 Heat 1981 8 Steam 1982 9 Steam 1982 10 Surface Water 1987 11 Cooling Water 1987 12 Yeast Slurry 1989 13 Sulfur Fertilizer 1990/2001 14 Tech. Water 1991 15 Gas 1992 16 Gypsum 1993 17 Waste Water 1995 18 Drain Water 1995 19 Sludge 1998 20 Fly Ash 1999 21 Deionized Water 2002 22 Water 2004 23 Waste 2004 24 Sea Water 2007 25 Steam 2009 26 Condensate 2009 27 Straw 2009 28 Bioethanol 2010 29 Lignin 2010 30 C5/C6 sugars 2010 Kalundborg Symbiosis Diagram 1961-2010 Pig Farms Pig Farms Pig Farms Waste Water Treatment Kalundborg Forsyning Kalundborg Forsyning Kalundborg Forsyning “Industrial ecology is the study of the physical, chemical, and biological interactions and interrelationships both within and between industrial and ecological systems”18 The first industrial ecology was implemented in Kalundborg Denmark.This Eco-industrial Park is a project that has been on going for more than 40 years. http://www.symbiosis.dk/ http://www.symbiosis.dk/sites/default/files/Symbiose_A4_cmyk_uk.pdf KALUNDBORG SYMBIOSIS SUSTAINABILITY26 Cradle to Cradle also known as C2C, or eco-effectiveness, is an approach that focuses on the efficiency of manufactur- ing processes by the elimination of waste, toxic chemicals, by implementing clean energies, and the capability for upcycling materials.The term Cradle to Cradle was coined by William McDonough and Michael Braungart.This approach is also based on biomimetic and places special emphasis on separating technological materials and cycles from natural resources and cycles; this means that human activity should not interfere with natural processes, and that technical products should be safe and durable. CRADLE TO CRADLE Industrial ecology Natural Capitalism “If everything can be made into food for some other process, then recycling can be completely rethought.” -Cradle to Cradle. Industrial ecology is an approach that looks to the integration of the energy flows, outputs and inputs on manu- facturing processes from a systems perspective. It is also concerned with the generation of waste and its further use in other activities. Industrial Ecology also highlights the importance of keep- ing closed cycles in the manufacturing process. Industrial Ecology goals are the sus- tainable use of resources, ecological and human health, and environmental equity. source:wikipedia The sustainability approach of Natural Capitalism considers a more integral view of economy encompassing four types of capital: Human capital, financial capital, manufactured capital, and nat- ural capital.This approach focuses on making efficiency a priority, since pol- lution is inefficiency at work.To behave in accordance with the integration of these four types of capital Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins and L.Hunter Lovins pres- ent the strategies showed in the right. 1. Radical resource productivity. Looking for alternatives in usage and design to obtaining the same or better results from a specific process while using less material and energy.This principle looks for efficiency.This is similar in this regard to Cradle to Cradle. 2. Biommicry. Imitating nature to im- prove productivity, eliminate waste, and hazardous ingredients from manufacturing processes. 3. Service and flow economy. Sell- ing results rather than products, therefore improving the quality and life-cycle of products and fostering recycling. 4. Investing in natural capital. Chang- ing our relationship to resources and acknowledging their finite nature to advance their usage and extraction. natural capitalism strategies
  • 15. SUSTAINABILITY 29 Once again we look at this through lev- els: the first level is about addressing social-environmental problems from a systems perspective. For that purpose we will do an overview of Donella Meadows’s bookThinking in Systems. Further, we will look up to society change by analyzing successful social changes from the past, and the different steps they encompass. For this purpose we will review Bill Moyer’s Movement Action Plan. THINKING IN SYSTEMS Donella Meadows defines a system as “an interconnected set of elements that is coherently organized in a way that achieves something19 . A system is made of three components: elements, intercon- nections, and a function or purpose. We all encounter systems in life, some of them are simple while others are complex.The concept that embodies a system is the in- terconnectedness that holds the elements together.To study these relationships we should recognize that a system is more that the sum of the parts, that the quality of the information flows will determine its quality, and that the system purpose is the most important element for understand- ing systems’ behavior. In addition, systems are influenced by the states of three concepts: Stocks, flows, and loops. Stocks are the elements of the system that you can see, fell, count or measure. Flow refers to the change in the state that stocks experience over time, and finally the balancing and reinforcing feedback loops are the mechanisms that control and influence the different flows by balancing the stocks in the system. Reinforcing feedback loops function to amplify, reinforce, and self multiply. Bal- ancing feedback loops serve as source of stability and resistance to change; a balancing loop react to new information by compensating it, since its purpose is to keep the stocks within a desire state. Intervening a system Understanding the dynamics of systems is important because they give us an en- dowment of the elements in place, but when looking to implement change, it is also very important to recognize where to apply efforts in order to succeed. The different strategic points for applying effort are known as points of leverage, or as points of power. Meadows states that to intervene a system there are twelve lever- age points. They are classified according with their effectiveness to initiate change -from lower to the higher-. The key point at studying these leverage points consists on identifying which leverage points we can pursue, and what kind of impact can we expect from our actions. “The groundwork for macro transformation and for great systemic change is laid by micro transformations and by local systemic discontinuities.” Ezio Manzini http://www.spiritedsocialchange.org/ basics of systems thinking 1. Elements + interactions + function 2. Stocks + flows 3. Balancing + reinforcing feedback loops deeper understanding 1. Traps 2. Leverage points SUSTAINABILITY28 Achieving Change 5 The previous tactics were focused on changing the way we do business, products, and also in the way we look for answers to our problems. But when talking about social, environmental, and everyday situations, how do we accomplish change at a large scale? How do we inspire others to do things differently? And how do we maintain change? The answers to those questions are not an easy undertaking, however, there are several theories that help us to understand the nature of change helping us to strategize our plan. source://donaldloch.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/030.jpg
  • 16. SUSTAINABILITY 31 MOVEMENT ACTION PLAN (MAP) Bill Moyer developed the Movement Action Plan in the late 1970’s as a result of his study about successful social movements. In his model, Moyer identifies some dynamics of social change ex- pressed in the eight stages for social movements, eight principles to guide the transformation, and the four roles that people can take.This model strives to help activist to identify their position in the process, and assist them to move forward. MAP eight Stages Moyer identifies that social movements can be constituted by eight stages.20 1. Normal times 2. Proving the failure or limitations of existing institutions 3. Ripening conditions 4. Take off 5. Perceptions of failure 6. Building majority public support 7. Success 8. Continuing the struggle Four Roles Participants in social movements can engage in different roles, each one of them bringing value in different stages.21 1. Citizen. Stands for widely accepted values. 2. Rebel. Protest injustice, often through nonviolent direct actions, and call public attention, stimulate public dialog, and confronting recalcitrant power holders 3. Social change agent. Movement organizers. Focus on pub- lic education, nurture future leaders, and organize new segments of the community. 4. Reformer. Work closely with mainstream institutions ne- gotiating for change by filing lawsuits, testifying at hear- ings, lobbying, participating in officials meetings. Provide research, training and consultation Eight Principles22 1. These principles are essential for understanding and replicating social movements. 2. Social movements have brought significant societal change, although even activists may be unaware of it. 3. The people hold ultimate power. 4. Movement goals should be framed in terms of widely held values. 5. Power holders may profess to honor widely held values, but their actions often conflict with those values. 6. Every movement needs analysis, vision, and strategy. 
 Movement strategies must seek to awaken and mobilize the public. Building coalitions across communities is crit- ically important. 7. Change emerges from empowered people in motion, and they can become virtually unstoppable. TRIGGER EVENT RE-TRIGGER EVENT RE-TRIGGER EVENT 1 :: NORMAL TIMES 2:: PROVE FAILURE of OFFICIAL INSTITUTIONS CITIZENS REBELS CHANGE AGENTS REFORMERS 3 :: RIPENING CONDITIONS 4 :: TAKE-OFF 5 :: PERCEPTION of FAILURE 6 :: MAJORITY PUBLIC OPINION 7 :: SUCCESS 8 :: CONTINUING the STRUGGLE Move on to other issues or back to their lives Long-term activists for systemic change Become part of bureaucracy or professional opposition organizations (POO) Find other wrongs to fight & protest steady state build-up of stress in the system seen as a general problem resolution… MovementActionPlan,lecturebyScottBoylston SUSTAINABILITY30 transcending paradigms paradigms goals self-organization rules information flows reinforcing feedback loops stock + flow structure balancing feedback loops delays relative to the rate of change buffers numbers LEVERAGE POINTS: PLACES TO INTERVENE IN A SYSTEM Leverage points 12. Numbers –constants and parameters such as subsidies, taxes and standards 11. Buffers –the sizes of stabilizing stocks rela- tive to their flows 10. Stocks and Flow Structure –physical systems and their nodes of intersection 09. Delays –the lengths of time relative to the rates of system changes 08. Balancing feedback loops – the strength of the feedbacks relative to the impacts they are trying to correct 07. Reinforcing feedback loops –the strength of the gain of driving loops 06. Information flows –the structure of who does and does not have access to information 05. Rules –Incentives, punishments, constraints 04. Self-organization –the power to add, change, or evolve system structure 03. Goals –the purpose or function of the system 02. Paradigms – the mind-set out of which the system- its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters- arises 01. Transcending paradigms Systems traps Meadows’s system analysis also recognizes eight traps that avoid change in systems. 1. Policy resistance 2. The tragedy of the commons 3. Drift to Low performance 4. Escalation 5. Success to the successful 6. Shifting the burden to the inventor 7. Rule Beating 8. Seeking the wrong goal SystemsThinking,lecturebyScottBoylston
  • 17. SUSTAINABILITY 33 To this point, we have explored the cur- rent conditions of the environment, and understood the relationships with social and economical issues. In addition, we have identified our wasteful patterns of production and consumption as some of the causes for world’s deterioration. However, there are plenty of opportunities for change, especially within the realms of changing the process of manufacturing and human behavior towards consumption. These two areas are closely directed with design, since designers are involved in the process of production by planning the structures, by choosing the materials, and by designing the whole cycle of products and services. In addition, designers are also in charge of persuading by generat- ing the messages that shape the cultural discourse. Consequently, there is the opportunity for designers to change the process of production by making informed and responsible choices, and to change the discourse of consumption by using the powers of communications to initiate the shift towards a sustainable lifestyle. Redefinition of design’s purpose At the beginning of the XX century design was related to shaping commodities and messages in the manufacture and com- munication fields. Under this time the purposes of design were linked to foster the consumer culture, and to promote a concept of well being that was based on product ownership. However, as society evolved design transformed its practices to a broader spectrum of competences. According to Richard Buchanan, design as a liberal art of technological culture, is a discipline that links and consolidates the- ories, methodologies, and practices from the arts and sciences with the purpose of addressing the complexity of contempo- rary problems. In addition, design delivers its value through the incorporation of four place- ments: symbolic and visual communi- cations, material objects, activities and organized services, and complex systems or environments for living, working, playing, and learning. Under this vision, design is no longer concern just with the appearance of products, messages, and built environments, but with a profound understanding of all the encompassing activities required to understand a human situation, produce an intended solution, and make this solution available to its users. In this regard, design is about plan- ning, communicating, and constructing. “Design is the activity that generates plans, projects, and products. It produces tangible results that can serve as demonstrations of or arguments for how we might live.” -Victor Margolin Sustainability InnovationDesign Social Economic Environmental Communities Individuals Industry Public Sector Design is the interface SUSTAINABILITY32 Design’s Role 6 “The understanding and application of sustainability and innovation are expanding, as is the extent of the interconnectivity between the two. In both the private and public sector, design is emerging as the interface between sustainability and innovation as a tool that can engage stakeholders and align economic, social and environmental considerations. Design can contribute to fostering a culture of sustainability and innovation in communities, industry, the public sector and policy-making using creative and user-centred processes.” -Levent Ozler / dexigner.com source: www.knittingindustry.com/uploads/2188/Nike_Flyknit_Lunar_1plus_BrandImage_Small_16669.jpg
  • 18. SUSTAINABILITY 35 source:wikipediasource:/www.nikeresponsibility.comsource:http://onwardstate.com/ Nike is an example of products designed to reduce the environmental impact. More on: www.nikeresponsibility.com Sharing services like zipcar are examples of the new dynamic of sharing instead of ownership. More on: www.zipcar.com Curitiba, Brazil is other example of the value of integrating design, sustainability in a human centered approach to development. More on: www.citiesforpeople.net/ cities/curitiba.html Sustainable materials Service Economy Multidisciplinary Collaboration SUSTAINABILITY34 Opportunity areas for design 1. Change wasteful consumption habits 2. Design new systems for healthcare 3. Environmentally safe public transportation 4. Alternatives to fossil fuels 5. Improve methods for recycling waste material 6. Designing for the whole life cycle of products 7. Collaborating with other disciplines to find better solutions 8. Shifting from designing for people to design- ing with people 9. Choosing natural, non-toxic, energy efficient materials for production 10. Looking up to nature for inspiration and solu- tions 11. Designing a new aesthetics for the sustainable 12. Reduce excessive product packaging 13. Promoting eco-tourism 14. Documenting and communicating stories of success to inspire and motivate • Promote a sustainable wellbeing • Communicate and inform on current consumption consequences • consumption, through education, awareness and advertising consequences Promote positive attitude towards sustainable • Sustainable design • Material selection, processes and packaging • Designing for close-loop products • Increase life span of products • Designing to enable people to live as they like in a sustainable way • Political mediation • Human-centered design • Systems Thinking Visual communications Material objects Activities and services Complex systems “Design, in order to redefine its purpose and participate in tackling wicked problems has to move from product design to sustaining developing and integrating human beings into broader ecological and cultural environment.” -Victor Margolin Four placements of design and Sustainability Redefining design’s role in society comes along with an ethic of responsibility for the design practice. If in the past, design was involved with fostering a wellbeing based on products and possessions, nowadays, design can help people and organizations to achieve the necessary shift towards sustainability. Co creation design is a practice that involves users in the process, instead of designing for them. This way users are empowered and can own the project. http://designpracticesandparadigms.files.wordpress.com
  • 19. SUSTAINABILITY36 SUSTAINABILITY 37 After going through this journey of understanding sustainability, we can see that it is not just about moral and ethical choices, since there are also business and productivity reasons for implementing it.That means that regardless from what perspective are you coming from, the shifting towards sustainability is a good way for ensuring survival. We are no lon- ger trying to survive from predators and wilderness, but from the conse- quences of our own actions, and the new order in the world. There is evidence that organizations adopting sustainable paths in- crease their stock value, strengthen its brand image, and save money.24 Furthermore, organizations considering sustainability implications now, are the ones that are going to be able to stay on business for the long haul. We fell in love with the artificial and neglected the natural, we put so much effort on conquering and dominating the world that we forgot that once, humans and nature, we were part of the same entity. In this docu- ment, we have explored different alternatives to initiate change, now it is on us to start it. EIGHTSHIFTSTOWARDS A LIGHTECONOMY, FROM SUSTAINABLE EVERYDAY. 23 Nanograms to Megatons Instead of chasing nanograms of harmful substances emitted at the tail end, we have to look at the megatons of nature put in at the front end of production. Sustainability means making our system of wealth creation less depen- dent on resource use. Ecology to Justice Ecology cannot be separated from equity, nor equity from ecology Linear to Cyclical Production Managerial excellence will include the ability to design pro- duction systems which create value with ever less input of fossil-based resources Hardware to Services The focuses on ownership, impedes system-wide responsi- bility in the company for the entire life-cycle of its products Shifting the entrepreneurial focus from the sale of services through leasing or renting would make the full use of goods, including maintenance and recycling, profitable. Taxing Labor toTaxing Resources If natural resources are undervalued in relation to labour, there is the tendency to substitute the cheaper element for the more expensive one. Shifting the tax base from labour to natural resources could begin to rectify this imbalance. High to Slower Speeds The assumption that higher speeds are always better than lover ones has prevailed to the present day. However, speed does not come without a price. The mobilization of space and time requires the mobilization of nature. Long to Medium Distances It will therefore be important to recognize scale as an eco- logical issue.The economy should be conceived as evolving in several spaces -regional, continental, (and) international. Well-having to Well-being Material and non-material satisfaction cannot be maxi- mized simultaneously. Frugality is therefore an essential ingredient of wellbeing. Henry DThoreau spoke wisely when he said, “A man is rich in proportion to the number of things he can afford to let be.” Ezio Manzini & François Jegou Sustainable Everyday 7 Although we have been looking at sustainability from a design perspective, we all are designers; we all plan, choose, and modify our environment according to our planes and desires. We can make an impact by aligning our actions and ideologies with a more sustainable lifestyle, by doing appropriate shopping choices, by increasing the efficiency in our use of energy, by managing properly the waste we generate, and by spreading the world and promote sustainability. By acknowledging the leverage that we have as humans, as citizens, and as members of organizations, we can start micro revolutions that will initiate an unstoppable change. source: bleubirdblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/114.jpg
  • 20. SUSTAINABILITY 39 REFERENCES 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/01/science/earth/climate. html 2. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sustainable 3. United Nations General Assembly (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. 4. http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2012/sd_timeline_2012.pdf 5. http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History 6. http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History 7. http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History 8. http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/oi.nsf/Sustainability/History 9. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/01/science/earth/climate.html?_r=0 10. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/ipcc-says-hu- mans-cause-global-warming/2013/09/27/aae32880-275d-11e3-b3e9- d97fb087acd6_story.html 11. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/01/science/earth/climate.html?_r=0 12. http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/climate-weather/photos/7-surpris- ing-global-warming-deniers/donald-trump 13. http://sites.uci.edu/energyobserver/page/2/ 14. Applied Theories in Sustainability, Lecture 2: Non-renewables and EROI. Prof. Boylston, 2014 15. Expansion or Sustainability: Two Models of Development, Victor Margolin. The Politics of the Artificial, 2002. 16. Applied Theories in Sustainability, Lecture 4. The natural step. Prof. Boylston, 2014 17. Biomimicry, Janine M. Benyus. 2002. p. 251 18. http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/INDEpdfs/INDEin- tro.pdf Natural Capitalism 19. Thinking in systems. A primer. Donella H. Meadows 2008. p.11 20. Applied Theories in Sustainability. Lecture on Movement Action Plan by Scott Boylston based on Bill Moyer 21. Applied Theories in Sustainability. Lecture on Movement Action Plan by Scott Boylston based on Bill Moyer 22. Lecture on Movement Action Plan by Scott Boylston based on Bill Moyer 23 Sustainable Everyday. http://issuu.com/strategicdesignscenarios/docs/ download_sustainable_everyday_eng_xs 24. http://www.natcapsolutions.org/businesscasereports.pdf SUSTAINABILITY38 -American Hustle “The art of survival is a story that never ends.”
  • 21. Priscila Mendoza | Applied Theories in Sustainability, SUST 704 | Prof. Boylston | Spring 2014 | SCAD