An gorta mór. The Great Famine.

4,575 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,575
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
419
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
44
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

An gorta mór. The Great Famine.

  1. 1. AN GORTA MÓR THE GREAT FAMINE LA GRAN HAMBRUNA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>THE GREAT FAMINE IS A VERY IMPORTANT PERIOD IN IRISH HISTORY. </li></ul><ul><li>IT BEGAN IN 1845 AND ENDED IN 1851. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FAMINE CAUSED THE DEATH OF ONE MILLION IRISH PEOPLE THROUGH STARVATION. </li></ul><ul><li>IT ALSO CAUSED THE LOSS OF ANOTHER MILLION OF THE POPULATION THROUGH EMIGRATION. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>IN THE MID 1800’S IRELAND WAS AN AGRICULTURAL COUNTRY. </li></ul><ul><li>IT WAS ONE OF THE POOREST COUNTRIES IN WESTERN EUROPE. </li></ul><ul><li>AT THIS TIME THE IRISH POPULATION = AROUND 8 MILLION PEOPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY A QUARTER OF THE POPULATION COULD READ AND WRITE. </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE EXPECTANCY WAS SHORT – USUALLY 40 YEARS. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>THE MAJORITY OF THE LAND WAS OWNED BY THE ENGLISH AND ANGLO-IRISH UPPER CLASS – 95%. </li></ul><ul><li>THE BEST FARMLAND IN IRELAND WAS IN THE NORTH AND THE EAST. </li></ul><ul><li>THE MAJORITY OF THE IRISH POPULATION LIVED IN THE SOUTH AND THE WEST. </li></ul><ul><li>THE SOUTH AND WEST WAS MORE DIFFICULT TO CULTIVATE FOOD BECAUSE IT WAS BOGLAND (MARISMA) AND ROCKY OR MOUNTANOUS TERRAIN. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>THE ONLY VEGETABLE THAT GREW WELL WAS THE POTATO. </li></ul><ul><li>MORE THAN 3 MILLION PEOPLE SURVIVED EATING ONLY POTATOES. </li></ul><ul><li>IRISH PEASANTS (CAMPESINOS) WERE SOME OF THE HEALTHIEST IN EUROPE BECAUSE OF THE POTATO. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS RICH IN VITAMIN C, CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEIN. </li></ul><ul><li>TODAY, IT IS STILL THE MAIN FOOD IN IRELAND. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE FAMINE <ul><li>IN SEPTEMBER 1845, THE POTATO BLIGHT (PLAGA) BEGAN SUDDENLY. </li></ul><ul><li>THE LEAVES OF THE POTATO MYSTERIOUSLY TURNED BLACK. </li></ul><ul><li>IT WAS A FUNGUS WHICH TRAVELLED BY AIR. </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN 1800 AND 1845 THERE WERE 16 FOOD SHORTAGES (NOT ENOUGH FOOD) IN IRELAND. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>BECAUSE OF THIS BRITISH OFFICIALS BELIEVED THE POTATO BLIGHT WOULD NOT LAST FOR MORE THAN A YEAR. </li></ul><ul><li>LAISSEZ- FAIRE (DÉJALO ESTAR) WAS THE POPULAR ECONOMIC THEORY AT THE TIME. </li></ul><ul><li>A COUNTRY SHOULD NOT INTERVENE IN THE PRIVATE MARKET. </li></ul><ul><li>IF THE ECONOMY IS STRONG IT WILL FIX (ARREGLAR) ITSELF. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>BECAUSE OF THIS THEORY BRITAIN DID NOT HELP DURING THE IRISH FAMINE. </li></ul><ul><li>THIS CAUSED HUGE TENSION BETWEEN THE POOR IRISH FARMERS AND THE ENGLISH LANDOWNERS IN IRELAND. </li></ul><ul><li>LANDOWNERS CONTINUED TO EXPORT IRISH AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE. </li></ul><ul><li>THERE WAS NO FOOD FOR THE IRISH BUT THERE WAS FOOD TO EXPORT. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>IN 1845, 3,697.5 TONNES OF CORN WERE EXPORTED FROM IRELAND TO BRITAIN. </li></ul><ul><li>257,257 SHEEP WERE EXPORTED TO BRITAIN. </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1846 , 480,827 PIGS, AND 186,483 COWS WERE EXPORTED TO BRITAIN. </li></ul><ul><li>ON AVERAGE, FOOD EXPORTS FROM IRELAND =100,000 POUNDS DURING THE FAMINE. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>IN TOTAL, OVER 3 MILLION ANIMALS WERE SENT FROM IRELAND TO ENGLAND BETWEEN 1846 AND 1850. </li></ul><ul><li>THIS MADE THE BAD RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IRELAND AND ENGLAND EVEN WORSE. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>THE IRISH BEGAN TO GO TO THE PORTS WHERE FOOD WAS BEING SENT TO OTHER COUNTRIES IN ORDER TO STEAL SOME FOOD. </li></ul><ul><li>THE BRITISH HAD TO SEND TROOPS TO IRELAND TO PROTECT BOAT WORKERS. </li></ul><ul><li>A FAMOUS FAMINE SAYING WAS = </li></ul><ul><li>“ IF ONLY THE BRITISH WOULD SEND US FOOD INSTEAD OF SOLDIERS” </li></ul><ul><li>“ OJALÁ, EL GOBIERNO BRITANICO NOS MANDARA COMIDA EN VEZ DE SOLDADOS” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>MANY BRITISH OFFICIALS SENT AID TO THE IRISH BUT THEY HAD TO DO IT SECRETLY. </li></ul><ul><li>AND IF THE GOVERNMENT REALISED, THE PEOPLE WHO HAD SENT HELP TO THE IRISH WOULD HAVE A LOT OF PROBLEMS. </li></ul><ul><li>ANOTHER PROBLEM FOR THE IRISH WAS PAYING RENT (ALQUILER). </li></ul><ul><li>THE IRISH HAD TO SELL THEIR FOOD, IF THERE WAS FOOD, IN ORDER TO AVOID EVICTION (DESHAUCIO). </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>LOTS OF PEOPLE LOST THEIR HOMES. </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD PRICES BECAME HIGHER AND HIGHER, SO PEOPLE ATE ANYTHING THEY COULD FIND, EVEN GRASS (CESPED). </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE COULDN’T FISH BECAUSE THE ATLANTIC WAS TOO DANGEROUS FOR THEIR SMALL BOATS. </li></ul>
  14. 18. THE WORKHOUSES / POORHOUSES <ul><li>AS THE FAMINE BECAME WORSE, THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT CREATED THE WORKHOUSES. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE WERE INSTITUTIONS WHERE FAMILIES WHO HAD ABSOLUTELY NOTHING WENT. </li></ul><ul><li>THERE WAS A VERY DIFFICULT INTERVIEW IN ORDER TO GET IN TO THE WORKHOUSE. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>THE WORKHOUSE WAS THE LAST RESORT (EL ÚLTIMO RECURSO). </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILIES WERE SEPARATED AND COULD NOT REUNITE. </li></ul><ul><li>CONDITIONS WERE VERY BAD. </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE WORKHOUSE YOU HAD TO WORK IN ORDER TO GET FOOD. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT PEOPLE DIDN’T HAVE THE PHYSICAL ENERGY TO WORK. </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN AND GIRLS MADE CLOTHES </li></ul><ul><li>MEN AND BOYS BROKE ROCKS. </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>THE ROAD TO THE WORKHOUSE WAS KNOWN AS ‘THE PATH OF THE DEAD’ (LA RUTA DE LOS MUERTOS). </li></ul><ul><li>OVER 25% OF THE PEOPLE WHO ENTERED DIED. </li></ul><ul><li>AN EXAMPLE OF A WORKHOUSE IS – OLIVER TWIST. </li></ul>
  17. 21. THE FAMINE ROADS <ul><li>THE ROCKS BROKEN BY THE MEN IN THE WORKHOUSES WERE TO BUILD ROADS. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE ROADS HAD NO PURPOSE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT DIDN´T WANT TO GIVE FOOD TO PEOPLE IF THEY DIDN´T WORK. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY BELIEVED THEY WERE HELPING SOCIETY BY STOPPING LAZINESS. </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>YOU CAN SEE THESE ROADS IN IRELAND TODAY. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ZIGZAG OVER THE ENTIRE COUNTRY. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ARE FAMOUS BECUASE THEY DON´T GO ANYWHERE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE ROADS ARE PERHAPS ¾ KILOMETRES LONG AND THEN STOP ALL OF A SUDDEN IN THE MIDDLE OF NOWHERE. </li></ul>
  19. 26. COFFIN SHIPS – BARCOS ATAUDES <ul><li>DURING THE FAMINE, THERE WERE OVER 2,740 TRIPS MADE BETWEEN IRELAND, CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES. </li></ul><ul><li>ON AVERAGE 300 IRISH PEOPLE ARRIVED IN THE U.S. EVERY DAY. </li></ul><ul><li>THE SHIPS WERE OVERCROWDED AND IN BAD CONDITION. </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>BECAUSE THERE WERE SO MANY PEOPLE AND SO LITTLE SPACE ON THESE SHIPS, DISEASE AND FEVER SPREAD RAPIDLY. </li></ul><ul><li>66.6% OF THE PEOPLE WHO ENTERED A COFFIN SHIP DIED. </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN YOU ENTERED A COFFIN SHIP THE PROBABILITY THAT YOU WOULD SURVIVE WAS VERY LOW. </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS WHY THEY ARE CALLED COFFIN SHIPS. </li></ul>
  21. 32. HELP FOR THE IRISH <ul><li>ALL THE HELP RECEIVED DURING THE FAMINE WAS PRIVATE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE QUAKERS – IN 1846 SENT FOOD, MOSTLY AMERICAN RICE, FLOUR AND CLOTHING. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ALSO ESTABLISHED SOUP KITCHENS (A PLACE WHICH GIVES FOOD TO PEOPLE FOR FREE). </li></ul>
  22. 35. <ul><li>THEY BOUGHT PRODUCE FROM THE POOR FARMERS AND INVESTED MONEY IN LOCAL EMPLOYMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1847 THE BRITISH RELIEF ASSOCIATION COLLECTED MONEY IN ENGLAND, AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY RAISED AN IMPRESSIVE 470,000 POUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1847, THE ASSOCIATION WANTED TO SEND 200,000 POUNDS FOR CHIDLREN´S EDUCATION IN THE WEST OF IRELAND. </li></ul>
  23. 36. <ul><li>THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT REFUSED TO ALLOW THEM TO SEND ALL THE MONEY. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT THE ASSOCIATION FOUGHT AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT AND EVENTUALLY SENT A SMALLER AMOUNT OF MONEY. </li></ul><ul><li>HELP FOR IRELAND CAME FROM DISTANT AND STRANGE PLACES. </li></ul><ul><li>CALCUTTA, INDIA SENT 16,500 POUNDS. </li></ul><ul><li>BOMBAY SENT 3,000. </li></ul>
  24. 37. <ul><li>A NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBE SENT 720$. </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICAN AND BRITISH JEWS (JUDÍOS) SENT A LOT OF MONEY. </li></ul><ul><li>ITALY, ANTIGUA, BARBADOS, JAMAICA AND FRANCE SENT MONEY ALSO. </li></ul>
  25. 40. RESULTS OF THE FAMINE <ul><li>THE POPULATION IN IRELAND DROPPED DRAMATICALLY. </li></ul><ul><li>MANY PEOPLE WERE EVICTED FROM THEIR HOMES (ECHADO DE SU CASA) BECAUSE THEY COULD NOT PAY THEIR RENT. </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONS BETWEEN IRELAND AND BRITAIN WENT FROM BAD TO WORSE. </li></ul>
  26. 41. <ul><li>THE BRITISH THOUGHT THE IRISH WERE SELFISH, LAZY AND BARBARIC. </li></ul><ul><li>THE IRISH THOUGHT THE BRITISH WERE COLD, TYRANNICAL AND GREEDY. </li></ul><ul><li>THE MAIN PROBLEMS WERE : </li></ul><ul><li>IRISH PEOPLE DIDN’T UNDERSTAND MONEY. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY DIDN’T USE MONEY. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY EXCHANGED ONE OBJECT FOR ANOTHER. </li></ul>
  27. 42. <ul><li>THE MAIN BELIEF IN EUROPE AT THAT TIME WAS THAT THE FAMINE WAS AN ACT OF GOD. </li></ul><ul><li>THE BRITISH BELIEVED THE FAMINE WAS AN ACT OF GOD. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY BELIEVED THAT THE DEATH OF SO MANY PEOPLE WAS GOING TO MAKE THE COUNTRY BETTER. </li></ul><ul><li>LESS PEOPLE = FEWER MOUTHS TO FEED. </li></ul>
  28. 43. <ul><li>ALSO, LAISSEZ-FAIRE (DÉJALO ESTAR) WAS PRACTICED ALL OVER EUROPE AND DID NOT AGREE WITH HELPING A WEAK ECONOMY. </li></ul><ul><li>SELF SUFFICIENCY WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT THING FOR AN ECONOMY. </li></ul><ul><li>ANOTHER EFFECT OF THE FAMINE IS THE HUGE IRISH POPULATION IN THE U.K., THE U.S. AND AUSTRALIA. </li></ul>

×