EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 · 66% were US citizens ( Nisei ) · 33% were Japanese-born ( Issei ), who could not be US citizens · US justification: "military necessity unsupported allegations of disloyalty
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 Signed by FDR February 19, 1942 forced 120,000 Japanese-ancestry persons into 10 internment camps
PATRIOTISM and RESISTENCE 1944, 1,500 Japanese-American men from the camps volunteered for military service (The 442 Japanese Regiment) 6,000 young people renounced their US citizenship 5,000-8,000 returned to Japan after the war
KOREMATSU vs. THE U.S. (1944) FACTS: Executive Order #9066 (1942) required all Japanese Americans living in restricted area to go to inland relocations Does Executive Order #9066 violate Korematsu’s 14 th Amendment right to equal protection of the law ISSUE: Supreme Court ruled that an entire race could be labeled a “suspect classification” meaning that the government was permitted to deny the Japanese their Constitutional rights DECISION:
World War I Homefront World War II Homefront Selective Service Act 1917 10 million men registered; 3 million served War Industries Board (WIB) encourage mass production and efficiency; increased production 20% Fuel Administration – monitored coal supplies, rationed gasoline and heating oil Committee on Public Information (CPI) propaganda agency that sells the war to the American people – paintings, posters, cartoons, and “four Minute Men” Office of Price Administration (OPA) – set up rationing of essential goods for the military War Production Board (WPB) converted companies to war time production; organized collection of scrap metals, irons, tin, paper, etc Selective Service System 5 million volunteer; 10 million drafted Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) - enlisted scientists in the war effort.. A-Bomb, radar, sonar Propaganda - Hollywood movies, musicals, plays, and Magazines ( Life, Look, and Time ) inform Americans about the war
A FAMILIAR THEME? Henry Johnson and the NY’s 369th Infantry; “Harlem Hellfighters” The 54 th Massachusetts inspiration for the film “GLORY” The Civil War 1860-1865 World War I 1914-1919 World War II 1941-45 332nd Fighter Pilot Squadron; the "Tuskegee Airmen"
A FAMILIAR THEME? Treatment of Asians Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 closed the door to Chinese Immigrants Chinese Exclusion, 1882 Japanese Internment, 1942 Executive Order #9066 establishes relocation centers for
The U.S. Government can suppress some civil rights during wartime… Lincoln and the Civil War (1861-1865)– suspending writ of habeas corpus Schenck vs. US WWI (1914-1917) Free speech issue -Clear and present danger Japanese Internment during WW II (1941-1945)