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PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된
라이브러리 OS 소개
Special application on top of general OS (Linux)
Problem
2
Linux
PostgreSQL
Hardware
General purpose: Web server, office, ...
AppOS
Solution
Linux
PostgreSQL
Hardware
Specialized for DB performance
Special need: ACID, high concurrency, fast data ac...
Solution
V1
Special application on top of special OS (AppOS)
Modified
Linux
PostgreSQL
Hardware
V2
Linux
PostgreSQL
Hardwa...
Merits
5
Portable Performant Extensible
AppOS provides
system call APIs
PostgreSQL is built
on top of Linux system calls
libhook
libapp
libcore
syscall
PostgreSQL...
Technology: Portability
AppOS is highly portable because it is built on top of Linux ABIs
LinuxLinux Linux
LinuxLinux
7
Ap...
Technology: Performance
Virtual File System
libcore
libapp
libhook
AppOS
Page Cache
Physical File Mapping
mongodbpostgresq...
Technology: Performance
9
Linux doesn’t know DB-internal semantics
Technology: Performance
AppOS infers semantics by observing system call patterns
10
AppOS understands DB-internal semantics
Technology: Performance
write() write()
T2
Linux File System
MetadataFile Journal
Linux Page Cache
T1
Page
T3
T4
rename()
...
Technology: Performance
write() write()
T2
Linux File System
AppOS Page Cache
T1
Page
T4
rename()
T5
write()
Multiple thre...
Technology: Performance
13
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
14
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
15
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
16
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Application
Storage Device
Caching Layer
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
17
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
18
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
19
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
20
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
21
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
22
Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os
Storage Device
Caching Layer
Application
File Sys...
Technology: Performance
AppOS libapp
Storage
(I/O class, share)(latency, 1000) (throughput, 500)(latency, 1000)
AppOS I/O ...
Technology: Performance
Linux
Cache
PostgreSQL
Cache
Block 1
Data block
Block 2
Storage
1. Crash
happens
Block 1 Block 2
T...
Technology: Performance
AppOS manages file mapping for eliminating write amplification
25
AppOS supports atomic write
Technology: Performance
26
Benchmarks show better performance for OLTP
* Host
- AWS ec2
- c4.8xlarge
- 36 cores, 60GB mem
...
Technology: Performance
27
Benchmarks show better performance for OLTP
* Host
- AWS ec2
- c4.8xlarge
- 36 cores, 60GB mem
...
Technology: Extensibility
PostgreSQLMongoDB
: 70 syscalls : 74 syscalls
Common
: 50 syscalls
28
Used system calls are simi...
Technology: Extensibility
PostgreSQL
9.5
PostgreSQL
9.6
PostgreSQL
10.0
poll() -> epoll()
semop() -> futex()
29
Used syste...
Technology: Extensibility
libcore
libapp
libhook
AppOS
postgresql
PostgreSQL
libcore
libapp
libhook
AppOS
mongodb
MongoDB
...
Roadmap
31
Efficient cache management
Linux
Cache
PostgreSQL
Cache
Block 1 Block 2
Storage
read
Block 1 Block N
Duplicated...
Roadmap
32
Parallel query optimization
Roadmap
33
Parallel query optimization
Roadmap
34
Parallel query optimization
Roadmap
35
Cooperative CPU scheduling
Vision
36
Support diverse types of applications
https://apposha.io
sangwook@apposha.io
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[Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 1 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 2 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 3 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 4 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 5 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 6 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 7 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 8 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 9 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 10 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 11 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 12 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 13 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 14 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 15 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 16 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 17 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 18 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 19 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 20 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 21 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 22 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 23 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 24 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 25 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 26 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 27 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 28 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 29 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 30 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 31 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 32 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 33 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 34 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 35 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 36 [Pgday.Seoul 2018]  PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha Slide 37
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[Pgday.Seoul 2018] PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha

  1. 1. PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개
  2. 2. Special application on top of general OS (Linux) Problem 2 Linux PostgreSQL Hardware General purpose: Web server, office, game, … Bottleneck for DB performance Special need: ACID, high concurrency, fast data access…
  3. 3. AppOS Solution Linux PostgreSQL Hardware Specialized for DB performance Special need: ACID, high concurrency, fast data access… Special application on top of special OS (AppOS) 3
  4. 4. Solution V1 Special application on top of special OS (AppOS) Modified Linux PostgreSQL Hardware V2 Linux PostgreSQL Hardware Module Module V3 Linux PostgreSQL Hardware AppOS 4
  5. 5. Merits 5 Portable Performant Extensible
  6. 6. AppOS provides system call APIs PostgreSQL is built on top of Linux system calls libhook libapp libcore syscall PostgreSQL AppOS AppOS seamlessly runs by hooking system calls open() read()... libhook libapp libcore PostgreSQL AppOS open() read()... 6 AppOS doesn’t require modifications Technology: Portability
  7. 7. Technology: Portability AppOS is highly portable because it is built on top of Linux ABIs LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux 7 AppOS runs in diverse environments
  8. 8. Technology: Performance Virtual File System libcore libapp libhook AppOS Page Cache Physical File Mapping mongodbpostgresql Memory Mgmt Utility … I/O Engine • libapp • Per-DB optimizations • libcore • DB-common optimizations 8 AppOS consists of user-level libraries
  9. 9. Technology: Performance 9 Linux doesn’t know DB-internal semantics
  10. 10. Technology: Performance AppOS infers semantics by observing system call patterns 10 AppOS understands DB-internal semantics
  11. 11. Technology: Performance write() write() T2 Linux File System MetadataFile Journal Linux Page Cache T1 Page T3 T4 rename() T5 write() write() Only one thread can write to a file Complex locking behaviors for file system consistency 11 Linux imposes unnecessary overheads for file accesses
  12. 12. Technology: Performance write() write() T2 Linux File System AppOS Page Cache T1 Page T4 rename() T5 write() Multiple threads can concurrently write to different positions of a file Simple locking based on data consistency guarantees provided by DB Page Asynchronous direct I/Os by I/O workers 12 AppOS decouples page cache from file system
  13. 13. Technology: Performance 13 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer Abstraction
  14. 14. Technology: Performance 14 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer Abstraction Buffer Cache read() write() admission control
  15. 15. Technology: Performance 15 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer Abstraction Buffer Cache read() write() admission control Block-level Q
  16. 16. Technology: Performance 16 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Application Storage Device Caching Layer File System Layer Block Layer Abstraction Buffer Cache reorder FG FG BGBG read() write()
  17. 17. Technology: Performance 17 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer Abstraction Buffer Cache read() write() FG FGBG Device-internal Q admission control
  18. 18. Technology: Performance 18 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer Abstraction Buffer Cache read() write() FG FGBG BG FG BGBG reorder
  19. 19. Technology: Performance 19 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer Locks Condition variables
  20. 20. Technology: Performance 20 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer Condition variables I/OFG lock BG wait
  21. 21. Technology: Performance 21 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer I/OFG lock BG wait FG wait wait BGvar wake
  22. 22. Technology: Performance 22 Linux I/O path delays high-priority disk I/Os Storage Device Caching Layer Application File System Layer Block Layer I/O FG wait wait BGuser var wake FG wait
  23. 23. Technology: Performance AppOS libapp Storage (I/O class, share)(latency, 1000) (throughput, 500)(latency, 1000) AppOS I/O Engine WAL write Foreground data read Background read/write (e.g., checkpoint, compaction) Dispatch I/Os based on priority only if there is no storage congestion 23 AppOS schedules I/Os based on DB-internal priority
  24. 24. Technology: Performance Linux Cache PostgreSQL Cache Block 1 Data block Block 2 Storage 1. Crash happens Block 1 Block 2 Torn page problem Block 1 Data block Block 2 2. Crash happens Block 1 Block 2 WAL Full page write 1. Write block to WAL file 3. Recover upon reboot 2. Data block is corrupted 24 Linux doesn’t support atomic write 2X Write
  25. 25. Technology: Performance AppOS manages file mapping for eliminating write amplification 25 AppOS supports atomic write
  26. 26. Technology: Performance 26 Benchmarks show better performance for OLTP * Host - AWS ec2 - c4.8xlarge - 36 cores, 60GB mem - 1000GB SSD-backed EBS - PostgreSQL 10.3 - 24GB shared buffers - 10GB max wal * Client - AWS ec2 - c4.xlarge - 4 cores, 7.5GB mem - OLTP-Bench - TPC-C with 200 scale factor (전자상거래 트랜잭션 처리)
  27. 27. Technology: Performance 27 Benchmarks show better performance for OLTP * Host - AWS ec2 - c4.8xlarge - 36 cores, 60GB mem - 1000GB SSD-backed EBS - PostgreSQL 10.3 - 24GB shared buffers - 10GB max wal * Client - AWS ec2 - c4.xlarge - 4 cores, 7.5GB mem - OLTP-Bench - TPC-C with 200 scale factor (전자상거래 트랜잭션 처리)
  28. 28. Technology: Extensibility PostgreSQLMongoDB : 70 syscalls : 74 syscalls Common : 50 syscalls 28 Used system calls are similar from DB to DB
  29. 29. Technology: Extensibility PostgreSQL 9.5 PostgreSQL 9.6 PostgreSQL 10.0 poll() -> epoll() semop() -> futex() 29 Used system calls are not changed a lot
  30. 30. Technology: Extensibility libcore libapp libhook AppOS postgresql PostgreSQL libcore libapp libhook AppOS mongodb MongoDB libcore libapp libhook AppOS mysql MySQL libcore libapp libhook AppOS redis Redis ... 30 AppOS can easily support various databases
  31. 31. Roadmap 31 Efficient cache management Linux Cache PostgreSQL Cache Block 1 Block 2 Storage read Block 1 Block N Duplicated LRU Block 1 Block 2 Block 1 Block N DB cache-aware Block 1 next victim read Block 3 Block 1 Block 3 next victimread read
  32. 32. Roadmap 32 Parallel query optimization
  33. 33. Roadmap 33 Parallel query optimization
  34. 34. Roadmap 34 Parallel query optimization
  35. 35. Roadmap 35 Cooperative CPU scheduling
  36. 36. Vision 36 Support diverse types of applications
  37. 37. https://apposha.io sangwook@apposha.io
  • hyungjunji

    Nov. 5, 2019
  • IanYoon

    Oct. 8, 2019
  • ttlqudan

    Mar. 22, 2019

[Pgday.Seoul 2018] PostgreSQL 성능을 위해 개발된 라이브러리 OS 소개 apposha - 김상욱

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