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Intensif afr

  1. 1. Conference AbstractsChallenges and Opportunities forAgricultural Intensification of theHumid Highland Systems of sub- Saharan Africa Fertility Soil Biology banana 2008
  2. 2. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 2
  4. 4. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 4
  5. 5. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa INTRODUCTORY KEYNOTES 5
  6. 6. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 6
  7. 7. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa1. Sustainable intensification and the food security challenge Brian Keating1 and Peter Carberry1 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 1 Canberra, Australia.AbstractGlobal food demand is estimated to increase between 50 and 80 percent between2010 and 2050 – with the range driven by variation in the key drivers such aspopulation growth, per capita consumption trends, diversion to biofuels and foodwastage rates. Pathways by which this challenge can be met include; reducingthe demand trajectory, filling the production gap and avoiding losses of currentproductive capacity. This paper focuses on the opportunity to expand food supplyto fill this projected increase in demand. Challenges of this scale have been metin the past – between 1961 and 2008, agricultural output increased by 179 percentglobally. In many parts of the world, these production increases were achievedby intensification of agricultural practices, in particular via combining inorganicfertiliser and agri-chemical inputs with intensive tillage and improved varieties. Thelonger term sustainability of such intensive systems remains a concern, but thereis little doubt that without the higher yields now being achieved in much of thedeveloping world, the numbers of undernourished would be much higher than thecurrent (still unacceptable) levels. While yields were rising in response to agriculturalintensification in other parts of the world, sub Saharan Africa maintained (just) foodproduction per capita by expanding the land footprint and productivity levels perunit land remain low. While there is still scope for further expansion of agriculturalland, particularly in sub Saharan Africa and in parts of South America, the clearingof forests and woodlands and cultivation of grasslands is going to generate asignificant load of greenhouse gases on an already overloaded atmosphere – withconsequences for climate change and potential for negative feedback on agriculturalproductivity. Given the food demand pressures and the environmental constraints(carbon, water, biodiversity), there seems little alternative to an intensificationpathway for agriculture – but it needs to be a sustainable one (i.e. eco-efficient) interms of nutrient and water cycles and agro-ecological functions. This conclusionapplies generally, but the potential upside is greatest in Africa where inputs arevery low and productivity is coming off a low baseline. In this paper we argue for astrong evidence base to help guide interventions towards sustainable intensification.We present a diagnostic framework applicable at the field and farm scale, but alsoargue that progress in productivity growth will be slow without concerted effortsto embed agricultural R&D in a wider innovation effort. Such an effort needs tosupport the evolution of a system of enabling institutions (input and output markets,public policy settings, private sector activity, trade and regulation) that are a precondition for any transformation in the African farm sector. 7
  8. 8. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa2. Paradigm Change for African Agriculture: why and how to make the transition Hans R Herren Millennium Institute, Washington DC, USAAbstractAgriculture needs to transition from being a major problem for climate change, to thesolution, while at the same time it also needs to become the true engine of sustainabledevelopment. The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science andTechnology for Development (IAASTD) is a unique and comprehensive assessment ofAgricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology, which outlined the path for such atransition. It started with requests from the private sector and NGOs to the World Bank,to look at new ways for agriculture and food systems to assure sufficient and qualityfood, fiber and feed production for the long term under the challenges of increased andchanging demand, shrinking natural resources and climate change, while also dealingwith the more immediate perennial hunger and poverty nexus. The IAASTD waslaunched by the major UN agencies at the Johannesburg World Summit on SustainableDevelopment in 2002, and subsequently officially endorsed by the OECD and othercountries at a Plenary meeting in Nairobi in 2004. A Bureau made up of representativesfrom government, multilateral agencies and civil society groups, including the privatesector, guided all the steps of the assessment and endorsed over 400 authors, fromdeveloped and developing nations covering agricultural and related disciplines. Ina first step, some 800 stakeholders framed the key questions to be addressed by thereport’s authors at workshops held in the five regions covered by the assessment (NorthAmerica and Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa, Centraland West Asia and North Africa and South Asia and the Pacific). Of main interestwas how the AKSTs of the past 50 years influenced where we are today in terms ofagricultural production and food systems and how to reshape these for reducing hungerand poverty; improving rural livelihoods; improving nutrition and human health;and facilitating environmentally, socially, equitable and economically sustainabledevelopment. In the report series “Agriculture at a Crossroads”, the IAASTD authorsemphasized the need for a new paradigm in AKST that will lead to food systems,that are in harmony with the environment, i.e., agroecology, organic agriculture, thatmitigates rather than contribute to climate change, that has reduced external energyinputs in terms of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, that is high in genetic and systemdiversity, that targets the small and family farms and one that assures food security andsovereignty at national level. It also emphasized the multi-functionality of agriculture,and in particular its social, environmental and economic aspects, which are all linkedand key in moving to a socially, environmentally and economically sustainable andproductive agriculture in the medium and long term. It suggest among others thatecosystem services be remunerated for all farmers instead of providing market distortingproduction and export support to the industrialized country farmers. The feasibilityof a green agriculture to meet the sustainability and millennium development goalsis presented, based on modeling results from the Millennium Institute, utilizing theoptions for action from the IAASTD report. 8
  9. 9. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa THEMATIC ORAL SESSIONS 9
  10. 10. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 10
  11. 11. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa THEME 1: SYSTEM COMPONENTS 11
  12. 12. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 12
  13. 13. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa3. Below- and aboveground organic inputs and the sustainability of agriculture: productivity and supply of ecosystem services Meine van Noordwijk1, Kurniatun Hairiah2, Bernard Vanlauwe3, Sileshi Weldesemayat4, Edmundo Barrios5, Bob Boddey6 and Georg Cadisch7 1 Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA), Scotland, UK; 2Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia; 3Tropical Soil and Biology Institute of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT-TSBF), Nairobi, Kenya; 4 World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya; 5Centre for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 6Embrapa-Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 7University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, GermanyAbstractOrganic inputs to the soil can derive within the field from aboveground plantresidue left at harvest time, from belowground inputs (roots, rhizosphere foodwebsand mycorrhizal hyphae) and externally, from recycled waste products (includingmanure and compost). Organic inputs serve functions at the surface, includingprotection of the soil from erosion, reduction of soil evaporation and regulation oftopsoil microclimate, as well as after incorporation to the soil, including maintenanceof soil structure, buffering of nutrients and supply of nutrients by mineralization.The tradeoff between these above and belowground functions is modulated bysoil tillage and presence of soil fauna. We review the literature on a number ofhypotheses: I. In the absence of soil tillage or active worm fauna, aboveground littercontributes little to soil organic matter, most of which derives from root turnover,II. Nutrients mineralized from aboveground litter decomposition are available toplants , as superficial roots develop where surface litter is (semi)permanent and/or nutrients leach into the root zone. III. In the presence of permanent surface litter,the dependence of soil function on soil organic matter for soil physical properties isreduced as well as the rate of soil organic matter decomposition, IV. ’Low-quality’litter, with e.g. high polyphenol contents, is to be preferred over material with higherrates of decomposition where agricultural sustainability on slopes is an issue. 13
  14. 14. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa4. CIALCA interventions for productivity increase of cropping system components in the African Great Lakes zone. P. Pypers1, W. Bimponda2, E. Birachi3, K. Bishikwabo4, G. Blomme5, S. Carpentier6, A. Gahigi7, S. Gaidashova7, J. Jefwa1, S. Kantengwa4, J.P. Kanyaruguru8, P. Lepoint9, J.P. Lodi-Lama4, M. Manzekele2, S. Mapatano10, R. Merckx6, T. Ndabamenye7, T. Ngoga7, J.J. Nitumfuidi2, C. Niyuhire11, J. Ntamwira2, E. Ouma12, J.M. Sanginga4, C. Sivirihauma13, R. Swennen6, P. van Asten14, B. Vanlauwe1, N. Vigheri15, and J.M. Walangululu16 1 TSBF-CIAT (Kenya), 2 INERA (DR Congo), 3 CIAT (DR Congo), 4 TSBF-CIAT (DR Congo), 5 Bioversity (Uganda), 6 KULeuven (Belgium), 7 ISAR (Rwanda), 8 CIALCA (Burundi), 9 Biover- sity (Burundi), 10 DIOBASS (DR Congo), 11 ISABU (Burundi), 12 IITA (Burundi), 13 Bioversity (DR Congo), 14 IITA (Uganda), 15 UCG (DR Congo), 16 UCB (DR Congo).Abstract: In the African Great Lakes zone, farmers are confronted by declining soil fertility, low crop yieldsand food insecurity. The local crop cultivation practice entails the use of local varieties in mixedsystems with often high crop densities, and little or no application of inputs. To improve pro-ductivity, the Consortium for Improving Agricultural Livelihoods in Central Africa (CIALCA)implements a strategy with improved banana and grain legume germplasm as the entry pointand key component of natural resource and disease management options. Successful introductionrequires that new varieties perform superiorly in terms of yield and resistance to biotic and abi-otic stresses in comparison with local varieties, but also match farmer expectations for traits suchas e.g., duration, taste and tradability. In addition, CIALCA sought to introduce varieties withtraits favourable for soil fertility and human nutrition. Large germplasm evaluation trials wereconducted on-station with research partners in the region, and selected varieties were evaluatedin on-farm demonstration trials to assess genotype x environment interactions and obtain farmerfeedback. Examples are given of the performance of the performance of newly introduced variet-ies. Preferred varieties were then made available to farmers through investments in community-led macropropation of banana germplasm, and legume seed multiplication schemes. Durableproductivity improvements however require further investment. CIALCA is promoting technol-ogy packages that combine improved germplasm with fertilizer use, organic matter managementand/or agronomic measures. Although farmers correctly recognize low soil fertility and droughtas the major abiotic crop constraints, they rarely make use of technologies to overcome these. Fer-tilizer is little used because of its cost and limited availability. The price of fertilizer is characteristi-cally high due to a poorly developed agro-input sector and infrastructural constraints, but pricesof crop produce are likewise high, resulting in favourable benefit-cost ratios. This has been dem-onstrated in all countries, in grain legumes as well as in cassava and maize intercrops, and createdinterest and opportunities for fertilizer use. CIALCA further advocates appropriate organic mat-ter management in conjunction with fertilizer use. Examples are given how quality and methodof application affect fertilizer use efficiency in climbing beans. In banana systems, mulching andzero-tillage have positive effects on moisture retention, nutrient recycling and weed suppression,which results in increased bunch yield even without application of external nutrients. In cassavasystems, combined application of fertilizer and green manure results in greater profitability thanthe sole application of either resource. Agronomic measures can further improve yields. Optimiz-ing the plant density and plantation management can increase banana bunch weights, but mayprolong the cropping cycle and conflict with other farmer objectives. An evaluation of water-harvesting options suggested that benefits can be obtained from tied ridging in drought-proneregions, but poor soil fertility is a more important constraint in maize-based systems. CIALCAhas a substantial evidence base on how the productivity of individual crop components can beimproved, but challenges remain to integrate these at system and farm level, and adjust these tothe diverse agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions of smallholder farmers. Also, the avail-ability and affordability of fertilizer, the economic durability of community-led seed multiplica-tion schemes, as well as the knowledge intensity of technology packages remain limitations forlarge-scale dissemination and adoption. 14
  15. 15. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa5. Mitigating the impact of biotic constraints to build resilient banana systems in Central and Eastern Africa Rony Swennen1, Guy Blomme2, Piet van Asten3, Pascale Lepoint4, Eldad Karamura2, Emmanuel Njukwe3 and Jim Lorenzen3 1 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Bioversity International, Uganda office, Kampala, Uganda; 3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Uganda office, Kampala, Uganda; 4Bioversity International, Bujumbura, BurundiAbstractBanana and plantain are a major food staple and source of income for food-insecuresmallholders across Central and Eastern Africa. Banana diseases and pests continueto threaten the region’s banana production. Xanthomonas and Fusarium wilt arewidely spread across the region. Banana bunchy top disease, spread by an aphidvector with a preference for warmer temperatures, is currently mainly presentin the Congo basin and the Rusizi valley. However, the movement of plantingmaterials and climate change may speed up the spread of this disease to highlandbanana producing regions. Black leaf streak, nematodes and weevils, so far onlyimportant in regions below 1,500 masl,could also potentially move to higherelevations with climate change. Population movements during years of war/socialunrest or resettlement of refugees have often been associated with banana plantingmaterial movement and possible disease and pest introduction. A wide range ofintegrated pest and disease management (IPM) technologies has been developedover the past years, including the introduction of resistant Musa germplasm, pesttrapping, male bud removal, disinfection of garden tools and improved canopyand soil management. Significant progress has been achieved through research onpest and disease epidemiology. High yielding exotic and improved varieties wereintroduced via the International Transit Centre (ITC), Leuven, Belgium and the firsthighland banana hybrids originating from IITA/NARO Uganda were tested acrossthe region. These varieties combine higher resistance with higher yields. Rapidand healthy multiplication of banana planting material is key to a vigorous andhealthy banana sector. Farmers mostlyuse suckers, from their own or a neighbor’sfield, which are often infected by pests and diseases.Technologies for clean seedproduction have been developed and disseminated, including paring of corms,boiling water treatment, the use of macro-propagation units, and to a lesser extenttissue culture plants. Improved linkages between research, extension, the privatesector, and policy makers from farm to regional level is required to improve theproductivity and resilience of banana systems; a critical contribution to sustainablefood systems in the region. 15
  16. 16. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa6. Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions? Jefwa, J.M.1, Asrat, A.2, Hermann, L.1, Jemo, M.3, Kavoo, A.1, Lesueur, D.4, Majengo, C.5, Mucheru, M.6, Mukhongo1, R., Mulet6, F., Munyahali1, W., Mutegi1, E., Mwangi1, E., Ncho3, C., Nwoke, O.C.7, Okalebo, R.5, Pypers, P.1, Were, B.5, and Yusuf, A.8 1 Tropical Soil and Biology Institute of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT-TSBF), Nairobi, Kenya; 2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Ethiopia; 3 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; 4Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), Indonesia; 5Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya; 6Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; 7Department of Agronomy, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria; 8Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, NigeriaAbstractSmallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are confronted by low crop yields due to poor soilfertility, and only have a limited capacity to invest in inputs. During recent decennia, newcommercial products have appeared on the market as alternatives to common fertilizers. Whilesome of these products are based on well-established technologies, such as e.g., Rhizobiuminoculation, others have not been subjected to scientific scrutiny. During 3 years, we evaluatedover 80 of these new products, including microbial inoculants and chemical products on majorlegume, cereal and banana crops across diverse agro-ecological conditions in Ethiopia, Nigeriaand Kenya. Amongst the Rhizobium inoculants, several products from different companies werefound very effective, but generally only on soybean. In Ethiopia, for example, over 30% increasein soybean yield was found as a result of increased nodulation and N fixation. In the Nigeriansavannah zone, a similar improvement in productivity was found with three commercial strains,which was relatively independent of soybean variety and soil type, if the soil had a low indigenousRhizobium population. In groundnut, contrarily, the commercial Rhizobium inoculants testedwere not only ineffective but appeared to be inferior to the indigenous soil population, independentof the rate and source of P applied. In Kenya, inoculation increased average soybean grain yieldup to 30%, with a benefit-cost ratio up to 5.0. Responses were largest when control yields rangedbetween 0.5-1.0 t ha-1, and when the soil N content varied between 0.05 and 0.15 % N. The effectof arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculants (AMF) was less evident. No effect was observed in wheatin Ethiopia, or on maize or soybean in Kenya. In tissue culture (TC) banana, in contrast, positivebut soil-dependent effects were found of several AMF inoculants on growth at the plantlets andthe potting stage, a crucial stage in the production process of planting material. Other productscontaining Trichoderma or Bacillus spp. also had positive effects on growth. When transplantedto the field, soil-dependent growth improvements of over 40% were observed, demonstratingthat TC bananas can indeed benefit from commercial biological products. On-going work iselucidating the interactions with pathogenic rhizosphere organisms, particularly Fusarium, onwhich the inoculants have variable and soil-dependent effects. Amongst the chemical productsevaluated, special attention was given to alternative P fertilizers such as leaf sprays, seed coatingsand conditioners with humic acids. The effect on cereals depended on the crop, the soil andaccompanying agronomic measures. In Ethiopia, positive effects in wheat were only found withthe humic acid conditioner. In Nigeria, both humic acid conditioners and leaf sprays increasedmaize grain yield, but the effect of the leaf sprays was highly site-dependent and the cost of thehumic acid conditioner was not compensated by the benefits on yield. In Kenya, positive effectswere found only if products were combined with fertilizer at a sub-optimal rate, and only in themost P-deficient soils. Benefit-cost ratios were only favourable for seed P coating because this is afairly inexpensive treatment (3 USD ha-1). In conclusion, results demonstrate that there is potentialfor biological and chemical commercial products, but there is need for continued evaluation.Smallholders may benefit from some of these products, on the condition that a good-qualityproduct is correctly applied to the appropriate crop with appropriate soil and crop management. 16
  17. 17. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa7. Enhanced utilization of biotechnology research and development innovations in eastern and central Africa Masiga, C. W.1, Ketema S.1 and Mugoya C.1 1 Associationfor Strengthening Agricultural Research in East and Central Africa (ASARECA), Entebbe, UgandaAbstractThe association for strengthening agricultural research in east and central Africa(ASARECA) through its Agrobiodiversity and biotechnology programme isenhancing utilization of biotechnology research and development innovations inECA. This is achieved through support to national agricultural research systems.The programme supports generation and uptake of biotechnology innovations,capacity strengthening, and availability of information. The successes so far areimpressive. Cassava transformation platforms in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania havebeen established to Biosafety level II status and have become regional research andtraining epicentres in biotechnology. Low cost tissue culture protocols for cassavaand sweetpotato have been developed for banana, sweetpotatoes and cassava.Virus indexing tools have been developed for screening banana, cassava andsweetpotatoe planting materials against the common diseases and pests. Productionand dissemination of clean banana tissue culture has been strengthened. A regionalgenebank utilizing conservation biotechnology for conservation of cassava andsweetpotatoes is being rehabilitated and refurbished at the National Gene bankof Kenya. A parallel research activity involving development of a genetic linkagemap to map the location of the genes that confer resistance to cassava brown streakdisease (CBSD) is underway. Drought tolerant transgenic maize has been developedfor seven farmer preferred maize lines for Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania and Ethiopia.Marker assisted selection has been used to generate 51 sorghum lines resistant tostriga. Fine mapping of sorghum for striga resistance is almost completed. A pen-side diagnostic kit for detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis has been developedin ECA and the vaccine is under going trial. A number of post graduate trainingshave been supported. Information on these technological breakthroughs is beingdeveloped and will be published through books, journals and workshops. 17
  18. 18. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa8. Production of virus free sweetpotato planting materials using horticultural fleece Schulte-Geldermann, E. 1, Omuse, O.P.2, Agili, S. 1 and Low, J.1 International Potato Center (CIP), Nairobi, Kenya; 2Moi University, School of 1 Agricultural sciences, Eldoret, KenyaAbstractSweetpotato (Ipomea batatas) is one of the most important staple crops in denselypopulated parts of Eastern Africa and is quickly becoming an importantsupplementary staple in the southern part of the continent. It is vital to small scalefarmers with limited land, labor and capital. One of the major yield limiting factorsin sweetpotato production are lack of clean planting material owing to infection ofSweetpotato virus diseases (SPVD). Therefore there is a need to provide farmerswith better technologies for rapidly multiplying clean planting materials andmaintaining a clean stock for a long period on-farm without compromising on thequality. An experiment was set at Kakamega agriculture research station, in Kenyafrom June 2009 to March 2011. Three varieties of sweet potato free from virus butsusceptible to SPVD have been evaluated in three methods of vine multiplication a)control -exposed, b) Fleece-cover and c) Fleece-tunnel. In an interval of 5 monthscuttings have been taken and tested for virus incidence. Furthermore, cuttings werereplanted to measure the effect on field performance. Results indicate significantreduction in aphid, white fly population and virus levels, and a significant higherproduction of vine cuttings from the second cutting onwards. However, direct fleececover led to heat damage on vines which couldn’t be observed in the tunnel. Yieldsfrom vines obtained from both covering treatments have been significantly higherthan from vines out of the exposed treatment with all varieties. Preliminary datareveal that the use of horticulture fleece could act as a cheap measure to maintainvirus free foundation seed. 18
  19. 19. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa9. Lessons from Upstream Soil Conservation Measures to Mitigate Soil Erosion and Improve Land Productivity in the Humid Highlands of Northwestern Ethiopia Mengesha, Y.G.S.1 and Tadele, A.2 Department of Natural Resources Management, College of Agriculture and Environ- 1 mental Science Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2 Department of Natural Resources Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Debremarkos University, Debremarkos, EthiopiaAbstractA study was conducted in Absela site, Banja Shikudad district, Awi administrativeZone of the Amhara National Regional State (ANRS), Northwestern Ethiopia locatedin the Blue Nile Basin to evaluate the effects of soil bunds stabilized with vetiver grass(V. zizanioides) and tree lucerne (C. palmensis) on selected soil physical and chemicalproperties, bund height, inter-terrace slope and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield. Theexperiment had five treatments that included non-conserved land (control), a 9-yearold soil bund stabilized with tree lucerne, a 9-year old soil bund stabilized with vetivergrass, a 9-year old sole soil bund, and a 6-year old soil bund stabilized with tree lucerne.Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean valuesfor the treatments were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results of theexperiment indicated that OC, total N, bulk density, infiltration rate, bund height, andinter-terrace slope are significantly (p≤0.05) affected by soil conservation measures.The non-conserved fields had significantly lower OC, total N, infiltration rate; whereashigher bulk density as compared to the conserved fields with different conservationmeasures. However, no significant differences in bulk density were observed among theconservation methods. The field treated with 9-year old soil bund stabilized with treelucerne or sole soil bund had significantly higher OC content than all other treatments.Fields having 6-year old soil bunds had lower OM and total N when compared to fieldshaving 9-year old soil bunds irrespective of their method of stabilization. Fields with soilbunds stabilized with vetiver grass had the highest bund height and the lowest inter-terrace slope than fields with the remaining conservation measures. Barley grain andstraw yields were significantly (P<0.05) greater in both the soil accumulation and losszones of the conserved fields than the non-conserved (control) ones. In the accumulationzone, fields with the 9-year old soilbund stabilized with tree lucerne and with the9-year old sole soil bund gave higher grain yields (1878.5 kg ha-1 and 1712.5 kg ha-1,respectively) than fields having 9-year old soil bund stabilized with vetiver grass (1187kg ha-1) and 6-year old soil bund stabilized with tree lucerne (1284.25 kg ha-1). Whenwe compare the accumulation and the loss zones, the average grain yield obtained fromthe accumulation zones (averaged over all the treatments) was by 29.8% higher than theaverage grain yield obtained from the loss zones. The causes of soil erosion in the regioncould be rugged nature of the topography, high and erratic rainfall pattern, extensivedeforestation, continues cultivation and complete removal of crop residues from thefield, over and free grazing, improper farming practices and development efforts, overpopulation and poverty, socio- economic problems, lack of awareness on the effect oferosion and poor land use policy enforcement. 19
  20. 20. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 20
  21. 21. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa THEME 2: SYSTEM COMPONENTS 21
  22. 22. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 22
  23. 23. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa10. Tradeoffs analysis in the design of integrated resource management strategies for smallholder farming systems in the African highlands Pablo Tittonell Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), Montpellier, FranceAbstractSmallholder farming systems are diverse, spatially heterogeneous and dynamic. Theyoperate in uncertain and changing environments to which they need to adapt constantly.Resources and investments are often limited, and their strategic allocation in space andtime impacts on system attributes such as efficiency, vulnerability and resilience in theshort and long terms. Any technological strategy aiming to improve system performanceand sustainability should be designed considering the integrated nature of smallholderfarming systems, particularly in the case of mixed crop-livestock farming. Relativelyhigh agroecological potential and moderate tropical climate attracted preferential humansettling in the African highlands, often resulting in mixed smallholdings in which thecrop subsystem may be annual, perennial or both, and the livestock subsystem mayrange from communal grazing to cut-and-carry practices. Dense human population,coupled with lack of resources and sometimes inadequate agricultural practices oftenresulted in resource degradation at farm and landscape levels, and conflict over thecontrol and utilization of communally owned resources. The design of managementstrategies should consider resource interactions at different scales, from farms, tolandscapes or territories. Yet, interactions at the scale of field plots or livestock unitsare central, as biophysical responses and affordability and are key determinants oftechnology adoption. Beyond their impact on the system as a whole, technologies mustbe effective, exhibit a positive impact on the subsystem they target, and fit within localsocio-economic contexts and livelihood systems (self-subsistence, market-orientation,off-farm employment, etc.). Decisions on the allocation of scarce resources within thefarming system entail tradeoffs of different nature, which must be quantified to betterinform the design of integrated resource management strategies. While smallholderfarmers are system managers by nature, system integration remains a major challengein the field of agricultural research. Disciplinary standpoints, institutional interests anddifferent scales of analysis may often lead to competing research efforts, disaggregatedresults, replication of old experiences and/or impractical recommendations. Althoughintegrative approaches have been proposed in the field of agronomy over the last twodecades: Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), or CropManagement (ICM), their acronym has been frequently misused. Taking ISFM as anexample, we may find a long list of examples in which the term is used to describedisciplinary research that ignores the integrated nature of smallholder farming systems.This presentation will discuss examples of system integration in agricultural researchthrough tradeoffs analysis at different scales, with the aid of participatory field researchand bio-economic simulation modeling, placing emphasis on ISFM technologies.Whole-system properties of interest that emerge in integrated analyses (e.g., systemorganisation, complexity and throughflows) will also be examined. 23
  24. 24. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa11. CIALCA’s efforts on integrating farming system components and exploring related trade-offs P. van Asten1, B. Vanlauwe2, E. Ouma1, P. Pypers2, J. Van Damme3, G. Blomme4, P. Lepoint5, J. Ntamwira6, H. Bouwmeester7, E. Birachi8, L. Jassogne3, T. Muliele9, S. Bi- zimana10, A. Nibasumba10, S. Delstanche3, P. Baret3, J. Sanginga11, F. Bafunyembaka11, M. Manzekele6 1 IITA, Kampala, Uganda; 2TSBF-CIAT, Nairobi, Kenya; 3Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-neuve; 4Bioversity International, Kampala, Uganda; 5Bioversity International, Bujumbura, Burundi; 6INERA/CIALCA, Mulungu, DR Congo; 7IITA, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 8CIAT, Kigali, Rwanda; 9INERA/CIALCA/UCL, Mulungu, DR Congo; 10ISABU/CIALCA/UCL, Bujumbura, Burundi Belgium; 11TSBF-CIAT, Bukavu, DR CongoAbstractThe densely populated humid East African highlands of East DRC, Rwanda, andBurundi are characterized by small farms (<1ha), large families (7 people), few livestock(0.4 TLU), high illiteracy, and a large dependence on a few staple food crops such ascassava, bananas, and beans. Farmers wish to improve their food security and income,but have limited resources to achieve this. Farming system components interact,especially in environments where resources (e.g land, labour, capital, nutrient inputs)are in short supply. To better understand constraints and opportunities to improvethe farming systems, farmers can be clustered in farm typologies with similar traits.In the CIALCA area, few farmers belong to the “resource-rich entrepreneurs” andmost farmers are “resource-constrained”, particularly in East DRC and Burundi. The“natural-resource rich” farmers have relatively large land holdings and livestock unitsbut are often remotely located and subsistence oriented. CIALCA has made an effortto improve the resource use efficiency at farm level, by exploring and improving theinteractions between some of the dominant farming system crop components. The aim isto achieve triple-wins of improved food production, income, and natural resource base.For the annual crops, new planting arrangements have been developed for cassava-legume and maize-legume systems. When combined with judicious applications ofmineral fertilizers and organic matter inputs, production and income is often doubled.However, the ‘best’ combination depends on the agro-ecological region and within farmsoil fertility gradients. For the perennial-based systems, we improved legume intercropproduction by reducing the banana leaf numbers. This is particularly needed for themore light-demanding legumes such as climbing beans and soybean in the high rainfall,better soil fertility areas near the Albertine rift. Our studies on intercropping banana andcoffee suggest large agronomic benefits at farm level and the technology is appealing forfarmers who wish to combine food and cash crops to cover their needs. In general, theintegrated technologies proposed are knowledge intensive and the applicability showsstrong spatial variation. In addition, investments related to soil and water conservationand use of perennials do often not offer much short-term benefit, which makes adoptiondifficult for the resource-poor and risk-averse farmers. As a result, achieving impactthrough the proposed integration packages requires a favorable policy, extension, andmarket environment. Constraints in these environments are often a constraint for thescaling out of improvements at the farm level 24
  25. 25. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa12. Trade Costs reduction in the Congo Basin: Impact on crop land expansion and agricultural productivity growth Mosnier, A. 1, 2, Havlik, P.1,3, Obersteiner, M.1, Aoki, K.1, Schmid, E. 2 1 International Institure for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria; 2 University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria; 3 International Livestock research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, KenyaAbstractIf most of the Congo basin benefits from very suitable conditions for agriculture, yields aremuch lower than in other tropical regions as Brazil or Indonesia and subsistence farming isstill dominant. One major bottleneck of agriculture development is the poor availability andquality of infrastructure. Many studies suggest that the importance of subsistence agricultureis partly due to high transaction costs which make the sales out of the farm not profitableand limit the possibilities to get food from other sources (A. Ruijs et al., 2003; P. Buys et al.,2006). Furthermore, better transportation infrastructure can facilitate access to inputs andcapital and improve labor productivity through a better access to social infrastructures asschools and health centers (Thirtle et al., 2003; Oshikoya and Hussain, 2002). But at thesame time, the strong impact of road expansion on deforestation has been highlighted (Geistand Lambin, 2002; Freitas et al., 2009; Pfaff, 1999). Forest covers approximately 80 % of thebasin (GLC2000) with more than half classified as dense forest. In a context of fast growingpopulation – population of Congo basin could reach 170 million inhabitants in 2030 (IIASA-SRES) – and high international commodity prices, agricultural sector faces strong incentivesto grow. For the next decades food security, economic development and forests protectionare high in the agenda and the increase in agricultural productivity is often viewed as theonly way to reconcile these objectives. We use GLOBIOM, a global partial equilibrium modelwhich integrates the main land based sectors i.e. agriculture, forestry and bioenergies (Havlíket al., 2010) to simulate the impact of future investments in transportation infrastructureson the development of the agricultural sector in the Congo Basin. Land use modeling isbased on land characteristics with a very detailed representation -more than 6000 simulationunits- in the Congo basin. This allows us to spatially differentiate the impact of infrastructuredevelopment on agriculture and land use change through two channels of transmission: theprice of the fertilizers and the price of the farm products. Moreover, GLOBIOM is a globalmodel where Congo Basin region is connected to the other regions through internationaltrade. Then, the reduction of the price of locally produced goods change the tradeoff betweenimports and local goods for domestic consumption and the competitiveness of Congo Basinexports on international markets. Simulations are made by 2030. We include in our databasethe transportation infrastructure projects in the Congo Basin for which a funding is alreadyplanned and recompute the internal transportation costs on this new basis. We run the modelfor two variants: 1) there is no limit on deforestation; 2) a limit on GHG emissions fromdeforestation is introduced. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is made on the transportation costsreduction due to the uncertainty related to the effective transmission of the reduction ofthe costs to the customer price. Infrastructure improvement is especially beneficial for cropswith high yields in areas which were very remote before. This is especially true in the case ofcassava and sugarcane in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The preliminary results -withoutthe transmission of reduced transportation costs on fertilizers- show that agricultural sectoris fostered but that productivity increase is very limited. Most of the increase in agriculturalproduction is achieved through cropland expansion: the total deforested area is multipliedby three. The introduction of limits on deforestation considerably reduces the positive impactof infrastructure improvement on agriculture and leads to higher food imports and food prices. Theseresults imply that costs associated with more productive systems are currently very high inthe Congo Basin and that the only market forces will lead to higher deforestation and limitedproductivity increase. 25
  26. 26. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa13. Using the ‘livestock ladder’ to exit poverty for poor crop-livestock farmers in South Kivu, eastern DR Congo Brigitte L. Maass1, Wanjiku L. Chiuri2, Rachel Zozo3, Dieudonné Katunga-Musale3 and Eliud Birachi2 CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical), Nairobi, Kenya; 2CIAT/CIALCA, 1 Kigali, Rwanda; 3 CIAT/CIALCA, Kasongo, Commune d’Ibanda, Bukavu, DR Congo;AbstractSmall animals dominate in South Kivu, DR Congo after decades of war and unrest.We applied different survey instruments to assess the current situation of livestockproduction in the region such as a diagnostic survey, participatory rural appraisal(PRA) and value chain (VC) analysis along a North-South and Southwestern axisaround the provincial capital Bukavu. Mean livestock was only 1.84 TLU per livestockholder. Monogastric animals in smallholder farms are produced in very flexiblebackyard systems. They are characterized by small numbers of chicken and/or caviesor pigs. Monogastric animals are traditionally fed by household wastes and other feedssourced by scavenging around the homestead (e.g., seeds, insects, worms); only 10% ofthe chicken and even less of pigs received small complements of maize. Monogastricanimals are usually underfed under these conditions. Thus, productivity is low butthe system provides a steady source of high quality animal protein in the form of eggsand meat for household consumption and, consequently, helps to enhance nutritionsecurity. The majority of peasants does not produce sufficient livestock throughout theyear to have surplus for regular sales, thus, local production is even too low to satisfysubsistence. Farmers only sell when needs arise. Sales take place on local or regionalmarkets, but rarely reach Bukavu, at a distance of 20-80 km. However, the current roadinfrastructure is not conducive to gain access to this urban population of more than500,000 inhabitants. Recently, trans-border provision of products has become significantin South Kivu; the urban meat market is supplied by producers from nearby Rwanda oreven Uganda and Kenya. Humanitarian assistance during the past decades of war andunrest seems to have discouraged peasants from taking own initiatives; they are ratherreceptive to any kind of donation. The challenge under these conditions is to start toenhance production. We suggest to invest and investigate into the lowest rung of the‘livestock ladder’ by improving the small animal systems emphasizing the provisionof dry season feed, which was raised as a major issue. Applying participatory varietyselection (PVS) on small plots in four locations, farmers chose forages with visible dryseason-tolerance, but also those palatable for their small animals, like the herbaceouslegume Canavalia brasiliensis. By including leguminous forages in farming systems, soilfertility will improve. Soil fertility management was traditionally based on manure.Increasing livestock stocking rates will also help to improve crop productivity. Thepotential role of forages needs to be assessed in a systems context by identifying spatialand temporal niches in addition to their potential acceptability by local farmers. Wesuggest to use a participatory scenario modelling approach focusing on small animalsand feed systems to re-connect South Kivu farmers to the market. The final outcome will,hence, be better nutrition of family members, provision of cash income and, eventually,support for the acquisition of larger animals. 26
  27. 27. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa14. N2Africa: Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa Giller Ken1, Vanlauwe B2, Baijukya F2, Franke L1 and Bala A3 Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The 1 Netherlands; 2Tropical Soil and Biology Institute of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT-TSBF), Nairobi, Kenya; 3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, NigeriaAbstractMaximal rates of N2-fixation recorded in the tropics reach an astonishing 5 kg Nha-1 day-1. We have measured more than 250 kg N ha-1 of fixed N2 in soyabeanin southern Africa with associated grain yields of more than 4 t ha-1. But often lessthan 5 kg N ha-1 year-1 is fixed by legumes at farm scale in African smallholdersystems. Increase of inputs from nitrogen fixation is required to achieve theincreases in productivity required as part of the African green revolution that isgaining momentum. Successful N2-fixation by legumes in the field depends on theinteraction: (GL × GR) × E × M that is (legume genotype × rhizobium genotype)× environment × management. Environment encompasses climate (temperature,rainfall, daylength etc) and soil stresses (acidity, aluminium toxicity, limitingnutrients etc). Management includes aspects of agronomic management (use ofmineral fertilizers, sowing dates, plant density, weeding). Although much researchis focused on identifying best combinations of GL and GR, the E and M factorsoften override the potential of the legume/rhizobium symbiosis for N2-fixation.Attention will be focused on identifying new socioecological niches for fitting grain,forage and tree legumes into existing farming systems, and the conditions necessaryto achieve successful N2-fixation. The N2Africa project aims to increase inputsfrom N2-fixation on more than 225,000 smallholder farms across eight Africancountries within four years through: a) Increasing the area of land cropped withlegumes; b) Increasing legume productivity through better agronomy and basal(P, K etc) fertilizer; c) Selecting and disseminating legume varieties with increasedN2-fixation; d) Selecting better rhizobium strains and promoting high qualityinoculants; e) Linking farmers to markets and creating new enterprises to increasedemand for legumes. N2Africa has already reached more than 25,000 farmers andthe latest learnings will be discussed. 27
  28. 28. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa15. The 4R Nutrient Stewardship in the context of smallholder agriculture in Africa Zingore Shamie1 and Johnston Adrian2 1 International Plant Nutrition Institute, Africa Program, Nairobi, Kenya; 2 International Plant Nutrition Institute, CanadaAbstractIn the face declining crop productivity and a growing food insecurity, there arerenewed efforts to support smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)intensify crop production, in particular by increased fertilizer use. Successfulagricultural intensification will depend to a large extent on proper managementof plant nutrients to increase fertilizer use efficiency (agronomic N use efficiencyvalue are often less than 15 kg grain /kg N for maize in farmers’ fields). The 4RNutrient Stewardship Framework developed by the fertilizer industry worldwideaims to provide the context for efficient on‐farm nutrient management practiceswith irreducible simplicity focused on four central components: applying the rightfertilizer source at the right rate, at the right time in the growing season, and inthe right place. Smallholder farms in SSA exhibit substantial heterogeneity in soilfertility within short distances, and the 4R Nutrient Stewardship should address thisvariability to increase nutrient use efficiencies. Although fertilizer recommendationsin SSA mostly cover N and P only, analysis of nutrient deficiencies show an increaseof constraints to crop production with decreasing soil fertility status. Depleted soilsthat cover wide areas are associated with multiple nutrient deficiencies and additionof the ‘right’ fertilizer sources that provide base cations (K and Ca) and micronutrients(Zn and B) in addition to N and P is required to significantly increase yields. The‘right rate’ of fertilizer application has also been found to have profound effectson nutrient use efficiency, with on farm experiments showing that agronomic andeconomic returns diminish rapidly on most poor soils when nutrient applicationsrates exceed 60 kg N/ha and 10 kg P/ha. In addition to the standard timing of basaland top dressing fertilizer application, ‘right time’ of fertilizer application in SSAshould be flexible and adjustable to the highly variable inter- and intra-seasonalrainfall as a risk mitigation strategy. The ‘right place’ is often critical when lowrates of fertilizer are used, with spot-application more effective at placing nutrientswhere crops can use them effectively. Each of the four “rights” is directly related tothe other three in at least one way, interconnected into a unified, effective system.When viewed holistically, 4R Nutrient Stewardship can have far-reaching effects onthe sustainability of agricultural systems in SSA beyond the immediate benefits interms of crop productivity. 28
  29. 29. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa16. Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems Henk van Rikxoort1,2, Laurence Jassogne3, Peter Laderach1 and Piet van Asten3 1 Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR), Development and Rural In- novation, The Netherlands; 2International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), De- cision and Policy Analysis Program (DAPA), Nicaragua; 3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kampala, UgandaCoffee is a major cash crop in the tropical humid highlands of East Africa and is mostlycultivated by smallholder farmers. Here, it contributes significantly to their income se-curity but also to the national economies of the region. Coffee can be found cultivatedin different agricultural systems ranging from monocultures to polycultures with shadetrees and additional food crops. Global Circulation Models (GCM) generally predict anincrease in temperature and more rainfall in the region. Rainfall is predicted to becomemore erratic and as a consequence, short periods of drought will be more common, pos-sibly with less distinct dry seasons. These predictions can have drastic consequenceson coffee production and coffee quality because coffee relies on very distinct dry andwet seasons for flowering and cherry maturation. Therefore, climate change will havea direct impact on the productivity of the coffee system and therefore on the farmerslivelihoods. For smallholder coffee farmers, polyculture systems often are more resilientthan monocrop systems, this is through a reduction of income and food risks, whileadapting at the same time to extreme climate events such as drought and high tempera-tures. A carbon footprint analysis also shows that besides coffee suffering from a chang-ing climate it also contributes to climate change itself. Carbon footprint standards haveemerged as new market requirements for producers of agri-food products to retailers indeveloped countries and are likely to become a comparative advantage. Based on thesetwo dynamics we compared both the adaptive capacity and the carbon footprint of sev-eral East African coffee production systems. First, coffee systems in East Africa are de-scribed and characterized by comparing them with coffee systems in Central America.Following this, the productivity, resilience and adaptation potential to climate changeof these systems are analyzed. Finally, the carbon footprint of the various systems basedon data from East Africa and Latin America is estimated and discussed. The resultshighlight the importance of sound adaptation strategies along the coffee value chain inorder to come to a sustainable coffee production in East Africa in short, medium andlong term. 29
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  31. 31. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa THEME 3: DRIVERS FOR ADOPTION 31
  32. 32. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 32
  33. 33. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa17. Drivers of productivity growth in Africa: implications for enhancing adoption of improved technologies Langyintuo Augustine, Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Nairobi, KenyaAbstractThe contribution of technological change to agricultural productivity and ruraltransformation in many developing countries sometimes by-passes many ruralpopulations in Africa due to institutional and technical constraints. Consequently,the dream of improving the livelihoods of rural farm households in Africa dependenton agriculture would remain an illusion if the adoption rates of proven technologiesremain low. While highlighting the main causes of the poor performance ofagricultural productivity in Africa to be a combination of low use of improvedtechnologies (mainly seeds and fertilizers), historical factors such as structuraladjustment, poorly developed markets, lack of political support, among others, thispaper argues for strong private-public partnership to drive productivity growth,transform rural economies and improve household livelihood and incomes. 33
  34. 34. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa18. Drivers of technology adoption in the banana-legume systems in the East and Central Africa region E. Ouma1, E. Birachi2, V. Kasereka3, H. Garming4, I. Macharia5, P. Van Asten6, A.Chifizi7, M. Nyagaya8, B. Ekesa9, J. Van Damme10, B. Vanlauwe11, G. Blomme9, M.C. Niyuhire12, L. Ndimurirwo12, J. Ochieng1, T. Dubois6, P.Pypers11, L. Wairegi6, C. Ruraduma12, A. Bizoza7, and M. Maertens13 1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Bujumbura, Burundi; 2TSBF-CIAT, Kigali, Rwanda; 3CIALCA, Bukavu; 4Bioversity International, Costa Rica; 5Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; 6International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kampala, Uganda; 7Rwanda Agricultural Board, Rwanda; 8TSBF-CIAT, Kampala Uganda; 9Bioversity In- ternational, Kampala, Uganda; 10Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 11TSBF- CIAT, Nairobi, Kenya; 12Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi (ISABU), Burundi; 13 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven)AbstractMany interventions to improve productivity of agricultural systems have been promotedin the Great Lakes Region of Africa through technological change. The expected benefitsof such technologies however remain limited and in some cases do not reach theintended beneficiaries due to technical and institutional constraints. The Consortium forImproving Agricultural Livelihoods in Central Africa (CIALCA) promotes productivityenhancing technologies in the region with components of improved banana and legumegermplasm coupled with natural resource and disease management strategies basedon participatory approaches. CIALCA has applied the Production-Consumptioncontinuum to link system value chain actors, from inputs required for production todelivery to the consumers, while addressing key drivers that affect the process. Themarket linkage approach has been used to drive the uptake of banana and legumetechnologies through collective efforts among smallholder farmers. The result hasbeen a marked increase in potential productivity of the production systems based ondemonstration and control field trials. The interventions if adopted have positive effecton the overall goals of alleviating poverty and improving nutritional health among thepopulation. CIALCA has conducted a comprehensive study to map out the pathwaysfor technology uptake and dissemination as well as factors that are likely to drive orenhance the uptake of technologies in the region. Results show that in order to achieve acritical mass in agricultural technology adoption, social factors, policy and institutionalenvironment need to be favorable. Local institutions, grassroot level collective actionand agricultural development partners play a critical role in technology dissemination.Accessibility by farmers to appropriate inputs for production has also been assessed inthe region and results indicate that input prices, tax levies and level of development ofdistribution networks influence input use. The need for government support throughappropriate policies is thus emphasized. Results further reveal that market access andsupport services in the form of extension services and credit access through functionalfinancial markets influences technology adoption. This shows that certain institutionalfactors as well as transaction cost factors need to be addressed to motivate uptake oftechnologies. Potentials of large scale private sector linkages that can fill identified gapsto enhance technology adoption is highlighted. 34
  35. 35. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa19. The agro-ecological solution!? Food security and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa, with an emphasis on the East African Highlands Henk Breman International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC), CATALIST project, BurundiAbstractIn a recent report, Olivier de Schutter, “Special UN Reporter on the Right to Food”,insists that the adoption of the agro-ecological approach can double food productionby smallholders in poor and vulnerable regions of our world. He considers themsuperior to conventional agriculture based on chemicals and proposes measures forGovernments leading to the development and adoption of such approaches. Thebasis for this opinion is weak. The average relative production increase is misleadingwhen the effect is far the highest for original yields between 0 - 0.5 t/ha, seriouserrors are made in key background papers, and the contribution to agriculturalsustainability will be undermined by increasingly negative soil nutrient balances.The risk exists that the UN report will become co-responsible for increasing famineand poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. If, however, a recommendation is added,promoting the adoption of agro-ecological approaches for improving the efficiencyand the accessibility of inorganic fertilizers, instead of suggesting replacing the latter,an entirely different perspective is created. The chance of seeing a rapid adoptionof more productive, more remunerative and more sustainable production systemsin sub-Saharan Africa increases considerable. In particular when the inherentagronomic recommendations become part of value chain development efforts, foodsecurity can be rapidly obtained in the region. Even for Somalia there is hope. Tosubstantiate the above statement, the analyses of the De Schutter report and some ofthe background studies, will be combined with results of the promotion of integratedsoil fertility management in a value chain development context in Central Africa’sGreat Lakes region. A rapid diffusion of agriculture intensification technologies isobserved, and those applying inorganic fertilizers in combination with organic andother soil amendments produce even in dry years. 35
  36. 36. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa20. Exploring the scope of fertilizer use in the East African region Wairegi, L.W.1, van Asten, P.J.A.2 Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI), Africa Regional Centre, 1 Nairobi, Kenya; 2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kampala, UgandaAbstractNutrient removal exceeds nutrient replenishment in much of sub-Saharan Africa’s ag-riculture. Furthermore, use of mineral fertilizers is low as fertilizers are often consid-ered expensive and not accessible to smallholder farmers. The diversity of the crops andcropping systems in sub-Saharan Africa further complicate farmer decisions on inputuse. Decision support tools for use by farmers in deciding types of crops to grow andamount and type of soil inputs required are in most cases not available to farmers. Thispaper explores the expected benefits of fertilizer by relating value of yield to the valueof fertilizer equivalent of nutrients removed for selected crops (maize, beans, bananas,cassava and coffee), in the East African region. It further explores how changes in farm-gate prices and fertilizer costs can affect the expected benefits. Between mid 2010 to mid2011, fertilizer was least expensive in Rwanda (e.g. Urea 540 USD/t), Kenya (e.g. Urea541 USD/t) and Tanzania (e.g. Urea 558 USD/t) compared with other countries in theregion (Urea ≥712 USD/t). Farm-gate prices varied up to 80% among regions withincountries. Assuming nutrient recovery efficiencies of 50%, 15% and 60% for N, P andK, respectively, the amount of single-nutrient fertilizers (Urea, Triple Super Phoshate,Muriate of Potash) required to increase yield by one ton edible dry matter is estimatedto range between 214kg (for rice) and 900 kg (for banana). The ratio between averageprice of one ton of yield and average cost of fertilizer required to increase yield by onetonne ranged between 1.1 (banana) and 5.0 (rice) in Burundi, 0.8 (cassava) to 8.1 (coffee)in Kenya, 1.0 (maize) to 6.7 (rice) in Rwanda, 0.7 (cassava) to 7.6 (coffee) in Tanzania, 0.6(cassava) to 4.3 (rice) in Uganda, 1.1 (banana) to 4.7 (rice) in the Democratic Republic ofCongo. These ratios increased by between 100% and 896 when calculations were basedon nutrients removed in edible yield and not on total above ground biomass. The ratiosfor beans ranged between 2.9 (Rwanda) and 4.0 (Burundi and Tanzania ) and increasedto between 3.9 (Rwanda) to 5.5 (Burundi) when 50% of the N requirements were as-sumed to be met through biological nitrogen fixation. We conclude there is need andscope for fertilizer use in the East African region, but choice of crop for intensification,and decision on amount and type of fertilizer should depend on input/output prices,residue management, and crop response. We also conclude that in cropping systemswhere more than one crop is grown, intensification in one crop can be beneficial to othercrops in the system. 36
  37. 37. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa21. Supply and demand drivers of grain legumes in highlands of central and southern Africa: Implications for targeting agricultural research investments Rusike Joseph1, Boahen Steve K.2, Dashiell Kenton3, Kantengwa Speciose4 and Ongoma Josephine5 1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nampula, Mozambique; 3Tropical Soil and Biology Institute of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT-TSBF), Nairobi, Kenya; 4CIALCA, Kigali, Rwanda; 5Kleen Homes and Gardens, Migori, KenyaAbstractThe highland areas of central and southern Africa are endowed with favorableagro-ecological conditions for production of grain legumes. There is increasingevidence that rapid population growth is increasing population densities and theseare resulting in Boserupian changes. These include soil fertility mining, soil erosion,land degradation, deforestation and poverty traps. Smallholders are failing toexploit the opportunities. There is a growing interest in expanding the share acreageannually planted to legumes for sustainable intensification and diversification whilemaintaining soil health. This study uses rapid assessment value chain surveys toanalyze the supply and demand drivers driving changes, identify opportunities andconstraints for expanding production and draw implications for targeting researchinvestments. We find that significant opportunities lie in supplying grain legumes todomestic urban markets and export to regional and international markets. Differentcountries are at different stages of development. The major constraints on expandingproduction and marketing of the grains include low yields, production and qualityof products; uncompetitive farm gate prices; poor market coordination; the lack ofagro-processing, storage, and microfinance; and poor government policies. Theincidence and severity of constraints and priority research interventions to resolvethem vary with the stage of development of the value chains of grain legumes in thecountry. 37
  38. 38. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa22. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in Africa Remans Roseline1, Flynn Dan3, DeClerck Fabrice3, Nziguheba Generose1 and Palm Cheryl4 1 Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, USA; 2Leuven Sustainable Earth, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; 3Department of Ecology, Evolution, and En- vironmental Biology, Columbia University, New York, USAAbstractBackground: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age arechronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize actionon African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics thatmonitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and addressnutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate howan ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need andprovide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa.Methods and findings: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and dietdiversity were collected for 170 farms in three Millennium Villages in Sub-SaharanAfrica. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated for macronutrients, vitamins, andminerals, based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition.Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined PalmNutritional FD metricssummarized the diversity of nutrients provided by farms and gives unique insightsin nutrient differences across farms and villages. Regression of FD against speciesrichness and expected FD allowed identification of key species adding nutrientdiversity to the system and assessment of the degree of redundancy for nutritionaltraits across farms and villages. Nutrition FD metrics further showed that dependingon the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing anindividual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity.Analysis of the relationship between nutrition FD metrics and household nutritionindicators proposes new hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, foodsecurity and human nutrition as well as strategies for future research that emphasizelandscape-scale interdisciplinary approaches. This study delivers a novel metric toaddress nutritional diversity in agricultural systems and provides a set of examplesthat can help guide agricultural interventions towards more balanced and diversenutritional outputs. New questions are raised that call for integration of agriculture,ecology, nutrition, and socio-economic studies, particularly at the landscape scale. 38
  39. 39. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa23. Disseminating Agro forestry Innovations in Cameroon: Are Relay Organizations Effective? Degrande Ann1, Yeptiet Siohdjie Yannick2, Tsobeng Alain1, Asaah Ebenezer1 and Takoutsing Bertin1 1 World Agroforestry Centre, ICRAF-West and Central Africa, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2 University of Dschang, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, CameroonAbstractIneffective dissemination methods have been partially responsible for low adoptionof agricultural innovations in Africa and consequently have failed to improve farmers’livelihoods. Therefore, innovative and low cost ways of disseminating agriculturalinnovations, especially farmer to farmer dissemination, are now gaining interest.However, there is limited or conflicting evidence as to their effect on productivityand poverty, as well as on financial sustainability. The present paper evaluates theperformance of relay organisations (community-based organisations that make thebridge between research and farmers) in disseminating agroforestry innovationsin Cameroon and identifies factors that affect this performance. Overall, the 8 relayorganisations studied were successfully diffusing agroforestry innovations tofarmer groups. Though differences were not statistically significant, results suggestthat relay organisations which operate under favourable internal and externalfactors perform best for most of the performance indicators. Also, the study putsforward that external factors such as existing opportunities for agroforestry, strongfarmer associations and good road and communication networks, might affect theeffectiveness of relay organisations more than their internal capacity, reflected bytheir human, material and financial resources. Further research involving morerelay organisations should focus on evaluating the sustainability and financialviability of the approach and look at appropriate support mechanisms to enhancerelay organisations’ capacities to disseminate agroforestry innovations. 39
  40. 40. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 40
  41. 41. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa THEME 4: COMMUNICATING COMPLEX KNOWLEDGE 41
  42. 42. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 42
  43. 43. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa24. Knowledge and technology transfer within an Evolving R4D Framework in East Africa Lynam, J Independent Consultant, Nairobi KenyaAbstractThe evolution of research themes and methods with the focus on sustainableintensification of smallholder farming systems in the East African highlands aremoving well head of the state of the art in technology transfer methodologies and thesuccessful adoption of more knowledge intensive techniques by farmers.  The paperbriefly reviews the methods inherent in research on production systems, particularlywithin the context of the heterogeneity characterizing farming systems in the EastAfrican highlands.   The paper locates these with alternative trajectories for landuse intensification in the region.  The current state of extension methods are thenreviewed in relation to the shift to more knowledge intensive techniques deployedwithin a production systems framework. Given a increasing disparity betweenresearch and extension approaches, the paper reviews more innovative approachesto closing that gap.  Finally, the paper analyzes our lack of understanding in thesteps from knowledge transfer to farmer learning to farmer change in managementpractices with suggestions on how research on production systems must encompassunderstanding how farmers change and adapt their farming system. 43
  44. 44. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa25. Walking the Impact Pathway: The CIALCA Experience in Mobilising Agricultural Knowledge for the African Great Lakes Region Van Schagen Boudy1, Njukwe Emmanuel2, Katharina Paul Birthe3, Sengele Ndani4, Mazibo Foma5, Blomme Guy6, Vanlauwe Bernard7, Van Asten Piet8. 1 Bioversity International, Bujumbura, Burundi; 2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Bujumbura, Kampala; 3Wageningen University, Netherlands; 4Institut de Recherche Agronomique et Zootechnique, Gitega, Burundi; 5Institut de Recherche Agronomique et Zootechnique, Gitega, Burundi; 6Bioversity International, Kampala, Uganda; 7Tropical Soil and Biology Institute of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya; 8International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Uganda, Kampala.AbstractAn impact-oriented AR4D approach requires considerable investments in extensionand information capacity to ensure new agricultural technologies are adopted forlivelihood benefits. The Consortium for Improving Agriculture-based Livelihoodsin Central Africa (CIALCA) espouses a partner-oriented outreach strategy toactivate impact pathways for the scaling out of validated, science-based agriculturalinformation in ‘mandate areas’ in Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republicof Congo. The decentralized, geographically dispersed and multi-partner natureof the Consortium poses unique challenges for effective knowledge flow and theability to deliver ‘knowledge into use’. The challenge is compounded by difficultiesin communicating complex technical solutions to farming communities with limitedadaptive capacity. Experience shows there is a strong need for extended facilitationand follow-up by CIALCA extension specialists and trained partners to ensureadequate understanding and adoption. Cascade training of partners can be effectivelysupported through the provision of adequate resource materials such as factsheets,video, and rural radio programming adapted for context, language and locality.This paper will discuss the CIALCA knowledge-into-use praxis and elucidate someof the challenges to and opportunities for agricultural science communication in thiscontext. We address the vital role of strong outreach partnerships, and how improvedpartnership arrangements in a well-coordinated policy environment can reducethe apparent trade-off between knowledge-intensive technologies and the abilityto reach scale. We further explore how the CIALCA Knowledge Resource Centreoperates as a knowledge broker and platform for the production and disseminationof audience-specific resource materials. The current and potential role of ICT toolsfor extension support, such as the CIALCA website, is discussed. Finally, thispaper reflects upon emerging opportunities for new, innovative approaches for therepackaging and dissemination of scientific information, and options for ensuringthe long-term sustainability of CIALCA-generated knowledge. 44
  45. 45. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa26. Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) an Approach to Enhance Small-holder Farmers’ Livelihood: Experiences from Lake Kivu Region. Buruchara, R.1, M. Tenywa2, J.G.M. Majaliwa2, W. Chiuri3, J. Mugabo4, S.O. Nyamwaro5, Adewale A.6 1 CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical)-AFRICA, Kampala, Uganda; 2 Makerere University, Faculty of Agriculture, Kampala, Uganda; 3CIAT (Centro In- ternacional de Agricultura Tropical)/CIALCA, Kigali, Rwanda; 4Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB), Rwanda; 5Trypanosomiasis Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Re- search Institute, Kikuyu, Kenya; 6Merck Research Laboratories, North Wales, Pennsyl- vania, United StatesAbstractDespite the resource endowment in the Lake Kivu region and research successesregistered in several projects implemented so far to improve food security,income, and nutrition, poverty is yet to be significantly reduced. It is hypothesizedthat the sectoral nature of conventional linear research approach in addressingthe interlinked productivity, natural resource management, market and policychallenges / constraints in isolation is one of the most critical causes underlyingthe agricultural under-performance. A new paradigm in agricultural research,technology, innovation and knowledge system is required to break the paradox,steer and accelerate the targeted development. Integrated Agricultural Research forDevelopment Approach (IAR4D) is a new approach that holds promise to reversethe trend and enhance smallholder livelihood. The approach builds on previousapproaches such as Integrated Natural Resource Management; and addressesproductivity, market, natural resource management and policy and their interfaceissues. This paper highlights key results in the “Proof of the IAR4D concept” andits contribution to the small-holder farmers’ livelihood enhancement based onInnovation Platforms (IPs) in the Lake Kivu Pilot Learning Site (LKPLS); one ofthe three sites selected across Africa, to test this concept under the Sub-SaharanAfrica Challenge Programme. Strategic partnerships and 12 IPs were formedand operationalised in the LK PLS. Farmers’ challenges and solutions to priorityissues were identified through facilitation and research. Linkages with researchinstitutions, NGOs and private sectors were established for value addition andcapacity building; while warrantee, credit and market links were done primarily tosustain production and income. The operationalisation of the four elements of IAR4Drequires establishment of functional and strong linkages where farmers’ interests,needs and/or opportunities are core to the participating stakeholders’ forum [aninnovation platform (IP)]. Farmers were motivated to produce, were involved incrop diversification and value addition. It was observed that in situations whereproductivity, market and NRM issues were addressed together, better IAR4Dresults on small farmers’ livelihood were registered. Facilitation of IAR4D requires,however, functional and efficient linkage and monitoring mechanism(s) akin to acentral processing unit to address emerging dynamic facilitation and research issues. 45
  46. 46. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa27. Communication channels used in dissemination of soil fertility management practices in the Central Highlands of Kenya Kimaru-Muchai S.W1, Mucheru-MunaM.W1, Mugwe J.M1, Mugendi D.N.1 and Mairura F.S.2 1 Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Tropical Soil and Biology Institute of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT-TSBF), Nairobi, KenyaAbstractIncreased recognition of soil fertility depletion as the main biophysical factorlimiting crop production in many African small holder farms has renewed interestin the dissemination of soil fertility management practices. Despite soil technologydevelopment and research outputs, few of the recommendations from soil fertilitymanagement research have been put into use by the target end users. The biggestchallenge to the accessibility and utilization of the existing knowledge lies withthe inadequacies in the communication methods and tools used in disseminationand up scaling of soil fertility management practices. The objective of the studywas to investigate communication channels used in dissemination of soil fertilitymanagement (SFM) practices inthe Central highlands of Kenya. Interview scheduleswere used to collect information from 240 randomly selected farmers. Data wasanalyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) programme. Resultsshowed that, other farmers were perceived as the most available and reliable sourceof information. Demonstration and farmer to farmer extension methods were themost preferred methods in dissemination of most of the SFM practices. Significantpositive relationship was found to exist between education and individual contactapproach (r=0.154, P=0.01, while farm size and gender positively correlated withpreference of group approach at (r=0.123, P=0.05) and (r=0.124, P=0.05), respectively.Gender, education, farm size and number of times a farmer had been visited by anextension agent were significant predictors in preference of field days in training ofanimal manure. It was recommended that agricultural stakeholders should considerfarmers’ socio-economic factors in designing extension intervention strategies. 46
  47. 47. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa28. A global information and knowledge sharing approach to facilitate the use of Musa genetic resources Roux, N.1, Van den Bergh, I.1, Ruas, M.2 and Vezina, A.3 1 Bioversity International, Montpellier, France ; 2Department of Pharmacology, Univer- sity of Oxford,  Oxford, UK; 3Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS, CanadaAbstractIntraspecific crop diversification is a crucial component of any strategy to makeagricultural production systems more sustainable, and bananas/plantains areno exception. Growing a mix of cultivars can contribute to safeguarding the cropagainst pests and diseases, and make it more resilient in adverse environmentalconditions. In addition, different cultivars can bring different nutritional benefitsto poor populations, and offer a broader range of processing and marketingopportunities. A comprehensive understanding of the existing Musa diversity, andits potential uses, is therefore crucial, not only to genebank curators, molecularbiologists, breeders, phytopathologists and other Musa researchers, but also tothe rural households most dependent on the crop for their food and income.Bioversity International is coordinating the implementation of the global Musagenetic resources conservation and use strategy, and has recently launched theglobal Musa genetic resources network, MusaNet. The network not only strivesto improve the conservation and safe dissemination of Musa genetic resources,but it also seeks to fill the gaps in our knowledge of the Musa genepool throughincreased characterization and multilocational evaluation efforts. The network willinvest further in the documentation of accessions held in genebanks and link theMusa Germplasm Information System (MGIS) with global multi-crops systemslike Genesys. It will also soon be possible to order, through the MusaNet website,clean in vitro Musa germplasm from the International Transit Centre (ITC), Belgium.MusaNet will facilitate access to Musa genetic resources held at the regional leveland information about their characteristics through strong links with the Bioversity-coordinated four regional Musa R4D networks. It is through these partnershipsthat demonstration trials at the farm level, like those already existing in certainAsian countries within the framework of National Repository, Multiplication andDissemination Centres (NRMDCs), will be set up. A recent study of the impactof the ITC showed that strengthening germplasm evaluation will allow a greaterfocus on users’ needs. Farmers’ experiences on traits of popular cultivars, and othercultivar-level information, will be summarized in the online banana compendiumon the ProMusa website. This paper discusses these global partnerships and thisnetworking approach for reaching farmers with information about Musa geneticresources. 47
  48. 48. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa29. Targeting farmer’s priorities for effective agricultural intensification in the humid highlands of eastern Africa Mowo Jeremias1, Tanui Joseph1, Masuki Kenneth2 and Mukuralinda Athanase3 1 World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya; 2Mlingano Agricultural Re- search Institute, Tanga, Tanzania; 3World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), RwandaAbstractExperience by the African Highlands Initiative in Eastern Africa has shown thatfailure to attract farmer’s interest in most proven natural resource managementtechnologies is mainly due to lack of approaches that tackles the interrelated factorsresponsible for poor resource management and most importantly failure to considerthe priorities of the farmers hence leading to loss of interest in the introducedtechnologies. Ranking of farmers constraints in agricultural production has oftencome up with priorities that are contrary to the aims of the agricultural researchand development organizations. Constraints like poor soil fertility and soil erosionare mainly ranked low compared to issues like water, financial capital, and energy.The later are not necessarily under the mandate of research and developmentorganizations yet, without addressing them it is difficult to attract farmer’s interestin the introduced technologies. Using integrated approaches, it was a hypothesizedthat that addressing a high-priority constraint such as domestic water availability orenergy as part of an integrated catchment management approach leads to multiplesystem benefits and greater local commitment to natural resource management. Thishypothesis was tested in the humid highlands of Tanzania, Ethiopia and Ugandausing action research. Results showed that when farmers’ priorities are given dueconsideration, their interest in managing land and water resources increase leadingto multiple benefits including improvement in soil conservation, and increasedwater recharge and agricultural productivity. 48
  49. 49. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa30. Reintroducing Vicia faba beans in resource-poor farming systems – adoption of a participatory farmer-led initiative Karltun Erik1, Gichamo Tesfanesh2, Chiwona-Karltun Linley3, Lemenih Mulugeta4 and Tolera Motuma4 1 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Soils, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Ru- ral Department, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Division for International Health Care Research, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4 Wondo Genet College Forestry and Natural Resources, Shashamane, EthiopiaAbstractThe theft of fresh bean pods from the field has been identified as one of the majorreason for farmers abandoning the cultivation of beans in the Beseku-Ilala peasantassociation, Ethiopia. To avoid conflicts over theft accusations, and to preservehuman security and community integrity farmers simply stopped cultivating beans.The abandonment led to (i) a negative impact on household nutrition and health,(ii) deterioration in household economy, (iii) conflicts in households between wivesand husbands and (iv) negative consequences on soil fertility since the beans was theonly nitrogen fixing legume in the crop rotation. Iterative discussions with farmerscame up with the suggestion that one of the traditional institutions in the village,Idir, could formulate local by-laws to control bean theft. Within a space of one yearwe observed farmers growing bean in some of the villages and not in some. Twoof the villages Shibeshi Gasha 1 and Shibeshi Gasha 2 had not reintroduced beancultivation while the third village, Boye had successfully reintroduced beans. This ledus to ask; Why had two of the villages adjacent to the one that had reintroduced beancultivation not done so? The results revealed that where the village Idirs comprisedof men bean cultivation was reintroduced. Farming households that could afford torent farmland away from their village were also starting to grow beans. Householdsheaded by women and households where the man was the one who attended thevillage meeting did not grow beans. Upon closer investigation and probing, it wasrevealed that the men in those households did not share the information with theirwomen or wives, for fear of continued theft despite the formulation of by-laws.Information from focus group discussions on attitudes towards and perceptionsof theft identified a range of feelings and interpretations. The over-riding feelingwas that it was difficult to control bean theft because security and legal means todo so were very rudimentary. In addition, the mix of different socio-cultural andsocio-economic conditions provided an environment that was rife with conflict.Further research is required to acquire a deeper understanding of these issues andthe challenges of scaling-up bean cultivation in rural Ethiopia. 49
  50. 50. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 50
  51. 51. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa POSTER SESSIONS 51
  52. 52. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa 52
  53. 53. Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of sub-Saharan Africa THEME 1: SYSTEM COMPONENTS 53