Building Smallholder Farmer Resilienceto Climate Change in Africa: BuildingEffective Policy EnvironmentsByJoan C. Kagwanja...
LAND RESOURCES are central to Livelihoods andAfrica’s DevelopmentLANDPOLICIESLANDAMINISTRATIONGOVERNANCEPARTNERSUPPORTPove...
Economics 101: Sustainable Production Depends onLand, Capital, Labor, Technology Key determinants to sustainable agricult...
Consensus on Expected Long-Term ClimateChange… Climate change is occurring and will continue even ifglobal carbon emissio...
Considerations for a Strategy to buildresilience… Short-term-- inter-annual variability > impact than climatechange; crop...
Magnitude of Predicted Climate ChangeMaps Depicting Predicted Climate ChangeSource: “How Will Climate Change Shift Agro-Ec...
Magnitude of Predicted Climate ChangeMagnitude of Predicted Climate Change by CountryPercentage Decrease in Agricultural G...
Assess and Address System Vulnerability (1)Vulnerability Parameters: Economy – Access to CapitalIn countries where it is p...
Road Network Density, 2004Source: “IRF World Road Statistics”, International Road Federation; Monitor AnalysisAssess and A...
Examine and Address System Vulnerability (3)Summarised ResultsGDP per capitaAgriculturalproductionpercentage of GDPMost Vu...
The extension program is the conduit through which all other initiatives mustbe funneled to effectively reach the farmer a...
What types of interventions build resilience (1) Technological interventions– Seed (agro-ecologically adapted over time w...
What types of interventions build resilience (1 Policies– Farm input policies (seed, soil health)– Market policies– Land ...
Harnessing Carbon Markets for Smallholders Land use /ecosystem mapping and identification ofecosystem services; Improve ...
ConfidentialInstitutional Arrangements/Capacity forPolicy Development andImplementation
Research/Analysis of PolicyOptionsPolicy reviewand/ordevelopmentPolicyImplementationAssessment/Monitoring andEvaluationIde...
•MOA•Seeds certificationUnit•NARS/Research•NGOs: Agro-dealertraining•NGOs: Extension•Research•Farmers•NGOs: Agro-dealertra...
How? Enhancing Institutional Arrangements/Linkages…Policy decision makers / implementers / fundersPolicy HubSeeds Policy A...
Policy Analysis & Advocacy PathwayResearch/ Analysisof Policy OptionsPolicy review and/ordevelopmentPolicyImplementationMo...
PolicyProgramAWEPAProgramsCore ProgramsAGRAAWEPAAWEPAmembers (MPs. FormerMPS)Grantees andpartnersPolicy Hubs„Global‟APSA T...
ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (1)Institutions: MOA, CA, UG, CSIR, EPA, CARE, STEPRI,NCRCIdentified Issue...
ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (2)22National Dev Plans:Vision 2020 (1995 to 2015)Ghana Poverty Reduction ...
ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (3)Goal Building resilience of smallholder farmers to climate change and ...
ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (3)Activities: Examine recommendations and raise awareness of safety ande...
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Building Smallholder Farmer Resilience to Climate Change in Africa: Building Effective Policy Environments

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There is a renewed interest in the role of agriculture at the climate change negotiations, as evidenced by a number of interesting side-events during COP 16 in Cancun. The reason is simple: Agriculture and related activities account for a third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, most of which can be mitigated, an opportunity that policy makers simply cannot afford to miss. What’s more, some of the techniques that sequester carbon have the added advantage of building the water-retention capacity and nutrient content of soils, hence contributing to a triple-win situation where mitigation, adaptation and yield increases are all addressed.
In response to this, SIANI and Sida arranged a one-day workshop on the theme From Source to Sink: How to make Agriculture part of the Solution to Climate Change while contributing to Poverty Alleviation? The main purpose of the workshop was to link the multiple potentials of agriculture to other development goals such as over-all poverty alleviation and food security, with particular reference to the needs of smallholder farmers who make up 70% of the world’s poorest people.

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Building Smallholder Farmer Resilience to Climate Change in Africa: Building Effective Policy Environments

  1. 1. Building Smallholder Farmer Resilienceto Climate Change in Africa: BuildingEffective Policy EnvironmentsByJoan C. KagwanjaAlliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)SIANI SEMINARFrom Source to Sink: How to make Agriculture part of the Solution to Climate Change whilecontributing to Poverty Alleviation?Cancun Caribe Park Royal Grand Hotel, Cancun, Mexico6 December 2010
  2. 2. LAND RESOURCES are central to Livelihoods andAfrica’s DevelopmentLANDPOLICIESLANDAMINISTRATIONGOVERNANCEPARTNERSUPPORTPoverty ReductionAgric. and Econ.DevelopmentSustainable NRMPeace and Security2
  3. 3. Economics 101: Sustainable Production Depends onLand, Capital, Labor, Technology Key determinants to sustainable agriculturalintensification Climate change is a shock to the system affectsability to mobilize the factors effectively/sustainably Land control and access impacts ability to accesscapital, technology, and labor A conducive policy environment is key to addressingproperty rights constraints and addressing CCmitigation and adaptation3
  4. 4. Consensus on Expected Long-Term ClimateChange… Climate change is occurring and will continue even ifglobal carbon emissions are drastically reduced There is variation in nature and extent of climatechange in the future, but warming will take place forat least, the next 50–100 years Results in an increase in the number of hot days andnights, an increase in heavy precipitation events anda rise in sea levels Key question: at what rate will change occur; whatimpact on smallholder farmers
  5. 5. Considerations for a Strategy to buildresilience… Short-term-- inter-annual variability > impact than climatechange; crop suitability will not change much Extreme weather events will occur with possibly higherfrequency More localized climate models needed to accuratelypredict variability and impact of weather at local levels More accurate weather data and increased weatherstations and regularly reporting data in Africa needed Lacking adequate prediction on long-term climate change--adapting to current variability and impact critical comparedto planning for long-term climate change scenarios
  6. 6. Magnitude of Predicted Climate ChangeMaps Depicting Predicted Climate ChangeSource: “How Will Climate Change Shift Agro-Ecological Zones and Impact African Agriculture?” , P.Kurukulasuriya & R. MendelsohnThe agro-ecological landscape is forecasted to exhibit significant changes over the course ofthe century; this results in shifts in the profitability per hectare of croplandPredicted Change in Distribution of Agro-ecological Zones with (CCC Scenario), 2003 – 2100eOBSERVED CCC 2100DesertHigh elevation dry savannahHigh elevation humid forestHigh elevation moist savannahLowland dry savannahLowland humid forestLowland moist savannahLowland semi-aridLowland sub-humidMid-elevation dry savannahMid-elevation humid forestsMid-elevation moist savannahMid-elevation sub-humidLegend
  7. 7. Magnitude of Predicted Climate ChangeMagnitude of Predicted Climate Change by CountryPercentage Decrease in Agricultural GDP due to Climate Impacts in 2100ePercentage-1.50.90.91.51.92.43.55.36.88.19.315.016.1-30369121518KenyaEthiopiaGhanaMozambiqueZambiaNigeriaMaliBurkinaFasoNigerMalawiUgandaTanzaniaRwandaDecrease inBillion Dollars0.66 0.66 0.50 3.64 0.15 0.21 0.49 0.31 0.26 0.04 0.15 0.09 -0.06Note: For the climate change prediction numbers, an average of average of 14 climate change models is usedSource: "Climate Change Impacts on Africa Agriculture“, Mendelsohn et al (2000); Monitor AnalysisWhilst the majority of countries will experience a decrease in agricultural productivity,Rwanda has an opportunity to capitalize on positive climate change effects
  8. 8. Assess and Address System Vulnerability (1)Vulnerability Parameters: Economy – Access to CapitalIn countries where it is particularly difficult to obtain credit, farmers’ access tointerventions for adapting to climate change is impededGetting Credit Index, 2008Note: The Getting Credit Index is a component of the Ease of Doing Business IndicatorSource: World Bank; Monitor Analysis2.02.32.32.32.83.34.44.44.65.05.05.05.66.57.90.01.53.04.56.07.59.0RwandaNigerMaliBurkina FasoEthiopia Mozam-biqueUgandaGhanaKenyaTanzaniaNigeriaMalawiZambiaIndiaUKAccessing credit isextremely difficult in thesecountries
  9. 9. Road Network Density, 2004Source: “IRF World Road Statistics”, International Road Federation; Monitor AnalysisAssess and Address System Vulnerability (2)Vulnerability Parameters: Economy – InfrastructureIn countries where road infrastructure is sparse, the cost of transporting food to urban areasis high and accessing the agro-dealer network is difficultRwanda’s high score islikely to be due to itsparticularly small land area.0.010.010.030.040.060.090.110.120.160.170.200.210.571.031.600.00.20.40.60.81.01.21.41.61.8NigerMaliEthiopiaMozam-biqueBurkinaFasoTanzaniaKenyaZambiaMalawiUgandaGhanaNigeriaRwandaIndiaUKKmofroads/km2oflandarea
  10. 10. Examine and Address System Vulnerability (3)Summarised ResultsGDP per capitaAgriculturalproductionpercentage of GDPMost Vulnerable Five Countries by IndicatorIrrigated land aspercentage ofarable land1. Niger2. Malawi3. Mozambique4. Ethiopia5. Rwanda1. Zambia2. Mozambique3. Ethiopia4. Mali5. Tanzania1. Uganda2. Niger3. Burkina Faso4. Ghana5. RwandaEthiopia (8)Mozambique (7)Mali (7)Niger (10)Most vulnerable countries based on numberof top five appearances on each indicatorBurkina Faso (6)Global HungerIndex1. Niger2. Ethiopia3. Zambia4. Mali5. MozambiqueInfant mortality1. Niger2. Mozambique3. Mali4. Zambia5. Nigeria
  11. 11. The extension program is the conduit through which all other initiatives mustbe funneled to effectively reach the farmer and catalyse an African GreenRevolutionStrengthening Agricultural Resilience to climate changeSoil Health InitiativesSeed InitiativesMarket Access InitiativesClimate ExpertiseLivestock DevelopmentAgro-Forestry…Extension Activities“A food secure and prosperousAfrica achieved through auniquely African GreenRevolution”On-goingFocus IssuesRecommended Through Linkages
  12. 12. What types of interventions build resilience (1) Technological interventions– Seed (agro-ecologically adapted over time whileconserving biodiversity– Soil, Land and Water Management—soil fertility,conservation; sustainable irrigation and watermanagement Institutions– Education– Extension– Farmer Based Organizations-Farmer’s Associations– Storage and Markets– Credit, finance, insurance
  13. 13. What types of interventions build resilience (1 Policies– Farm input policies (seed, soil health)– Market policies– Land policies and management– Environment and climate change policies Data, information and knowledge management– Climate Information Gender and climate change adaptation– Women contribute immensely to agriculture and food security– Adapt all interventions to the particular needs of women
  14. 14. Harnessing Carbon Markets for Smallholders Land use /ecosystem mapping and identification ofecosystem services; Improve and refine tools to measure carbon sequestration inagriculture Farmer aggregation to overcome scale constraints Pilot sequestration activities and demonstration to farmers Knowledge generation and sharing among researchers andpractitioners in carbon market activities among Africansmallholder Financial instruments and distributive mechanisms forbenecifiaries
  15. 15. ConfidentialInstitutional Arrangements/Capacity forPolicy Development andImplementation
  16. 16. Research/Analysis of PolicyOptionsPolicy reviewand/ordevelopmentPolicyImplementationAssessment/Monitoring andEvaluationIdentificationof Policy Issues/Constraint/PrioritizePolicycommunicationDialogue/AdvocacyIMPROVEPOLICYENVIRONMENTWhat?: Supporting Activities Along PolicyAdvocacy Pathway
  17. 17. •MOA•Seeds certificationUnit•NARS/Research•NGOs: Agro-dealertraining•NGOs: Extension•Research•Farmers•NGOs: Agro-dealertraining•NGOs: Extension•Research•Farmers•MOA• Fertilizerprocurement agency•NARS/Research•MOA•Ministry of commerce•Regional traderepresentative•NARS/Research•NGOs: output marketdevelopment•Research•Farmers•NGOs: land reform•Community groups•NGOs:Environment/cc•Research•FarmersNon-GovernmentGovernment•MOA•Ministry of Lands•Environmentprotection agencies•ResearchSeeds Soil Health MarketsLand &EnvironmentPrivatesector•Seed companies•Seed growersassociations•Agro-dealerassociations•Research•Fertilizer importers,blenders, wholesalers•Phosphate miners•Research•Grain tradersassociation•Agriculturalcommodity exchange•Research•Plantations/ estates•Managers of carbonsinks•Producers of CPPs•ResearchWho? Local Institutions
  18. 18. How? Enhancing Institutional Arrangements/Linkages…Policy decision makers / implementers / fundersPolicy HubSeeds Policy Action NodeSoil Health Policy ActionNodeMarkets Policy ActionNodeLand & Environment PolicyAction NodePolicy HubCoordinationParliamentsMinistriesDevelopmentPartners(funders of policy)President/ PrimeMinisterPolicy engagement,communications, advocacy
  19. 19. Policy Analysis & Advocacy PathwayResearch/ Analysisof Policy OptionsPolicy review and/ordevelopmentPolicyImplementationMonitoring andEvaluationIdentificationof Policy Issue/ConstraintPolicy stakeholders(farmersorganizations, NGOs,business associations,private sectorPolicy Node/Hub(includingsenior/policy fellows,policy analysts)PolicyImplementers(executive branch,Minsitires/deptstakeholders)AGRA , Government and Development partners (Financial andTechnical Support)POLICYCHANGEPolicy Makers(Parliament,Stakeholders)Policy Dialogue/AdvocacyHow? Supporting Effective Dialogue withPolicymakers and Parliamentarians
  20. 20. PolicyProgramAWEPAProgramsCore ProgramsAGRAAWEPAAWEPAmembers (MPs. FormerMPS)Grantees andpartnersPolicy Hubs„Global‟APSA Think Tank• Political Economy• Development• Agriculture„National‟APSA Think Tank• Political Economy• Development• AgriculturePARLIAMENTAgriculturalParliamentarycommitteeOthercommittees• Finance andbudget• Land/environment,Natural resourcesParliamentary(technical) staffCAADPNPCAAPSAsecretariatAfrican ParliamentarySupport for Agriculture (APSA)
  21. 21. ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (1)Institutions: MOA, CA, UG, CSIR, EPA, CARE, STEPRI,NCRCIdentified Issues of Concern: Unsustainable farm management practices; Loss of crop biodiversity, including drought-resistant crops; Farmers do not benefit from global and regional initiatives,including carbon market Farmers’ face risk weather and climate related risks Lack of recognition and support of women farmers inagriculture and food security
  22. 22. ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (2)22National Dev Plans:Vision 2020 (1995 to 2015)Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (2003-2005)Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (2006-2009);National Long-Term Development PlanAgricultural StrategiesAccelerated Agricultural Growth and Development Strategy (1990-2000)Food and Agriculture Sector Development policyFood and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP) & FASDEPII
  23. 23. ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (3)Goal Building resilience of smallholder farmers to climate change and variability; &address adverse impacts of agriculture on biodiversityObjectives Revise National Climate Change Strategy to enhance smallholder farmeradaptation capacity. Integrate climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation intoMedium Term Agricultural Sector Implementation Programme (METASIP)and strategic plans of MoFA. Examine and promote viable options for crop insurance Promote biodiversity conservation and eco-system services in thebreadbasket area Promote agroforestry farming systems and tree ownership amongsmallholder farmers in bread basket region of Ghana.
  24. 24. ConfidentialGHANA Policy Action Node Activities (3)Activities: Examine recommendations and raise awareness of safety andenvironmentally friendly use of seed, fertilizer, agro-chemicals, pesticides forsmallholder farmers; Research to collate best agricultural practices that promote smallholderfarmers adaptation to climate change Advocacy to incorporate climate change adaptation strategy into METASIPand strategic plans of MoFA. Capacity building of agricultural extension staff in relation to the delivery ofclimate change and biodiversity interventions; Establish viability of crop insurance working closely with farmers, insurersand banks, government etc Identify international best practices on Carbon markets for smallholderfarmers
  25. 25. Thank you!!

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