Timber Volume by Species in VA (ft3)Rank Name Total % 1 yellow-poplar 4,628,662,842 14.7% 2 loblolly pine 3,717,977,305 11.8% 3 chestnut oak 2,985,045,571 9.5% 4 white oak 2,819,621,174 8.9% 5 red maple 2,222,352,795 7.0% 6 northern red oak 1,690,241,731 5.4% 7 Virginia pine 1,533,633,995 4.9% 10 black oak 965,711,553 3.1% 11 eastern white pine 713,167,672 2.3% 29 eastern redcedar 159,196,748 0.5% 46 ailanthus 48,241,041 0.2% 75 other 4,372,982 0.0% 92 paulownia 1,245,776 0.0%
Tree of Heaven – History and Use • Original Range - Eastern China • Origin of Introduction – Europe • Year of Introduction – 1784 • Purpose of Introduction – Urban tree • Desirable qualities – Pollution and drought tolerance • Undesirable qualities – fast growing, prolific seeder, sprouts aggressively after disturbance, smelly, allelopathic
Tree of Heaven – Biological Highlights• 2 to 3 yr old plants can produce viable seed• Up to 300,000 seeds / yr for mature tree• Seeds disperse up to 330 ft from parent• Sprouts can grow 10 to 14 ft tall in first year and maintain this growth rate for up to 4 yrs
Tree of Heaven - Management Options• Cutting and pulling should not be used without herbicides due to vigorous resprouting• Burning not believed to be effective• Target seed-producing trees first
Tree of Heaven – Management Options• Effective Herbicides – Large trees – Garlon 3A, 4 Pathway, Arsenal AC, Ortho Brush-B-Gon, Enforcer Brush Killer, Vine-X – Seedlings, Saplings – Garlon 3A, Garlon 4, Stalker, Arsenal AP, Arsenal Powerline, Krenite S, Escort XP – Timing: Mid-summer best, but many products effective year-round• Biological Control – New possibilities on the horizon
Why Utilize Invasive Species?•Finding uses can help control their spread.•Can help offset control costs by developingmarkets for its use.•Increases awareness of invasive speciesand the impacts they can have on nativeforests.•Promoting utilization of invasive species ispart of a program to control and reducetheir impact, not encourage their planting!
Biological Control Efforts for TOH at Penn State and Virginia Tech• Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke & Berthold (Phyllachorales) – Soil-borne, vascular wilt fungus – Long range dissemination is limited: – Wind-blown leaflets, seeds and insects – Rarely has been reported in forest settings – Very limited host rangePegg GF, Brady BL. 2002. Verticillium Wilts. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Ailanthus Wilt Photo GuideCourtesy of Dr. Donald Davis, Department of Plant Pathology, Penn State University Wilting Initial Severe
Biocontrol of TOH at VA Tech Dept. of Entomology – Dr. Scott Salom and Amy Snyder• Imported Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Harold from China to the VA Tech quarantine lab in 2004• Biology, rearing optimization, risk assessment, and impact have been studied by Herrick et al.
5 days33days E. brandti Life Cycle 110 164 days at days 25oC Most damaging stage to TOH 16 days
Could these two agents work together in the field?• Amy Snyder’s M.S. – Assessing E. brandti as a potential carrier for V. albo-atrum ?
• E. brandti can carry the pathogen:• internally via feces• externally by overwintering• were able to begin new infections on TOH seedlings by transmission from tarsal contact• reproduce healthy generations on infected TOH billets E. brandti has potential for aiding in the spread of V. albo-atrum from tree to tree because they can carry propagules both externally and internally
11,000 miles surveyed (ArcGIS 10 and ArcMap 10 software from ESRI 2011)
85 symptomatic sites sampled (ArcGIS 10 and ArcMap 10 software from ESRI 2011)
Six V. albo-atrum sites found (ArcGIS 10 and ArcMap 10 software from ESRI 2011)
(ArcGIS 10 and ArcMap 10 software from ESRI 2011)
Initial counts of all sites in VA• As of September 2011: 4,825 TOH are dead or dying from Verticillium albo-atrum in Virginia.
Next steps… (pending EPA approval of E. brandit release)• Increase rearing of E. brandti• Release E. brandti at V. albo-atrum sites and non-infected sites• Assess E. brandti dispersal and establishment potential• Restoration of sites to prevent TOH re- intrusion