Logical Levels and
                                               Statistical Games
                                      ...
About the Speakers

     Luiz Parzianello                                         Rafael Prikladnicki
            Master’s...
About the Speakers




           Porto Alegre, RS                                                        • Brian Marick
 ...
Games and Meta Language




Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI   Slide 4 of 41
Games and Meta Language

            Have you ever participated in a game
            that simulates software development ...
Games and Meta Language


                Now, could you please remember
                games that have changed your
    ...
Games and Meta Language

                 Games and simulations are not self explanatory.

                 Games can be w...
What are Logical Levels?




Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI   Slide 8 of 41
Introduction to Logical Level

                                              The concept of logical levels of learning and...
Introduction to Logical Level

              “The function of a certain level is to synthesize, organize
              and...
Logical Levels Hierarchy
                                                                                                 ...
Logical Levels for Software
      Logical Level                                     Traditional                           ...
Investigating Logical Levels
     If you …                                                            Please, investigate ...
Mathematics as a Language

                          Mathematics is a language
                       understood and respe...
Examples




Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI     Slide 15 of 41
Game #1: Production Lots




                                       Producing in Large Lots
                              ...
Game #1: Production Lots

     Team Setup




                  Analyst                     Designer   Programmer         ...
Game #1: Production Lots
   Procedure:
   1.         Each software requirement is
              represented by a record ca...
Game #1: Production Lots

 1st Experiment:
 LARGE LOTS
 Each member has to
 sign 10 requirements                          ...
Game #1: Production Lots

 2nd Experiment:
 SMALL LOTS
 Each member has to
 sign 1 requirement and                        ...
Game #1: Production Lots

 Analysis:


                                                                    200            ...
Game #1: Production Lots

    Results:
    1.          Velocity Gain =                     Time to deliver the whole proje...
Game #1: Production Lots

                                 (“challenges”
       Questions to be discussed (“challenges”):
...
Game #1: Production Lots




                                                  In fact, you've been a
                    ...
Game #2: Dependent Events




                                              Dependent Events
                             ...
Game #2: Dependent Events
     Team Setup




                 Analyst                      Designer   Programmer        T...
Game #2: Dependent Events
   Procedure:
   1.         Each software requirement is
              represented by a label;
 ...
Game #2: Dependent Events

     Notes:
                                                                                 Te...
Game #2: Dependent Events




Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI   Slide 29 of 41
Game #2: Dependent Events


    Results:


   “Statistical fluctuations
   from dependent events
   lead to the performanc...
Game #2: Dependent Events

                                 (“challenges”
       Questions to be discussed (“challenges”):...
Game #2: Dependent Events




                                                  In fact, you’ve been an
                  ...
Game #3: Team Velocity




                                              Product Backlog
                                 ...
Game #3: Team Velocity


     Game Goal
                Deliver a list of 10 improvement suggestions for your work
       ...
Game #3: Team Velocity

    Procedure:
    1.          The work will be done in 5 iterations of 2 minutes each;
    2.    ...
Game #3: Team Velocity




Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI   Slide 36 of 41
Game #3: Team Velocity

                                 (“challenges”
       Questions to be discussed (“challenges”):
  ...
Game #3: Team Velocity


                                                           In fact, we are a TEAM and our
       ...
Conclusions




Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI       Slide 39 of 41
Conclusions

     1.          Metaphorical games are useful to promote cultural changes but
                 cannot be eff...
Thank you very much!
                                        For more information, contact us.

                         C...
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Logical Levels and Statistical Games - A Powerful Strategy for Agile Adoption

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Workshop presented at Agile 2009 (Chicago, USA) in Aug 27. Authors: Luiz C Parzianello and Rafael Prikladnicki.

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  • Este primeiro encontro com os Analistas de Sistemas tem como objetivo principal provocar nos participantes uma reflexão sobre os seus papéis e suas responsabilidades nas dificuldades que eles encontram no dia-a-dia. Ou seja, é fato que os Analistas de Sistemas encontram dificuldades em suas atividades devido à estrutura e demais recursos que eles tanto necessitam para tornarem mais eficazes suas tarefas. Por outro lado, também é fato, que as maiores dificuldades e limitações se encontram nos processos de comunicação e nos relacionamentos entre colegas, gerências, programadores e demais atores no processo de desenvolvimento de sistemas da informação.
  • Logical Levels and Statistical Games - A Powerful Strategy for Agile Adoption

    1. 1. Logical Levels and Statistical Games A Powerful Strategy for Agile Adoption Luiz Cláudio Parzianello Clá Rafael Prikladnicki parzianello@suryatec.com.br rafael.prikladnicki@pucrs.br Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 1 of 41
    2. 2. About the Speakers Luiz Parzianello Rafael Prikladnicki Master’s Degree in Systems PhD in Computer Science (Sept) Engineering Master’s Degree in Computer Science Bachelor’s Degree in Electronics Bachelor’s Degree in CS Engineering + 8 years as a consultant in SwEng + 25 years of experience in + 4 years working with Agile informatics (programming, analysis, management and coaching) Professor and researcher at PUCRS since 2004 + 11 years as consultant and instructor in Software Engineering Adjunct Coordination of Agile Methods Users Group at SUCESU-RS + 6 years working with Agile Coordination of SPIN-POA CEO at Surya Digital Management Specialties: Global Software Adjunct Coordination of Agile Engineering, Agile Methods, Methods Users Group at SUCESU-RS Experimental Software Engineering, Specialties: Requirements Software Project Management Engineering, Lean, Scrum, NLP Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 2 of 41
    3. 3. About the Speakers Porto Alegre, RS • Brian Marick Brazil • Diana Larsen Florianó Florian ópolis, SC • Matt Gelbwaks Brazil • Naresh Jain • Dave Nicolette • 60 speakers • Joshua Keriwvsky • 55 sessions • David Hussman • 800 people Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 3 of 41
    4. 4. Games and Meta Language Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 4 of 41
    5. 5. Games and Meta Language Have you ever participated in a game that simulates software development or good and bad behaviors in a software development environment? Do you remember that you have enjoyed the activity and spent great moments with your folks … ? Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 5 of 41
    6. 6. Games and Meta Language Now, could you please remember games that have changed your beliefs or have challenged values related to your professional behavior … ? What about the language and meta language used by the facilitators on these games … ? Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 6 of 41
    7. 7. Games and Meta Language Games and simulations are not self explanatory. Games can be weak if the whole idea behind them are lost during their execution. We often face games that don’t sell their message properly because most of the facilitators usually expect that participants should understand the metaphor or analogy related to the real world. Facilitators that change people’s mind with games and simulations have an adequate meta language (conscious or unconscious) for communicating with people. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 7 of 41
    8. 8. What are Logical Levels? Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 8 of 41
    9. 9. Introduction to Logical Level The concept of logical levels of learning and change was initially formulated as a mechanism in the behavioral sciences by Gregory Bateson (an anthropologist), based on the work of Bertrand Russel in logic and mathematics. The term logical levels, as it is used in Neuro- Linguistic Programming (NLP), was adapted from Bateson’s work by Robert Dilts in the mid 1980’s, and refers to a hierarchy of levels of processes within an individual or group. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 9 of 41
    10. 10. Introduction to Logical Level “The function of a certain level is to synthesize, organize and direct the interactions on the level below it. Changing something on an upper level would necessarily radiate downward, precipitating change to the lower level. Changing something on a lower level could, but would not necessarily, affect the upper levels.”. Dilts & DeLozier, Encyclopedia of Systemic NLP (2000) “Logical Levels can be aameta language used “Logical Levels can be meta language used by facilitators when promoting aacultural by facilitators when promoting cultural change based on games and simulations” change based on games and simulations” Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 10 of 41
    11. 11. Logical Levels Hierarchy Who are you? IDEAL Who are you? Logical Levels of Learning and Change PURPOSE Robert Dilts based on Gregory Bateson Why do Why do … we can solve itit at you do that? … we can solve at you do that? the next upper level! the next upper level! Identity and Mission How do When we find aaproblem at How do When we find problem at you do? you do? aaparticular level … particular level … Are unconscious Beliefs responses based on and Values What do What do you do? you do? are semiconscious actions Capabilities based on personal and Strategies Who? Where? When? Who? Where? When? is a conscious action “Bad behaviour can generate “Bad behaviour can generate Behaviour supported by bad results … Good behaviour bad results … Good behaviour can generate goodresults!” can generate good results!”” results!” results! Environment is perceived by my senses triggering a Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 11 of 41
    12. 12. Logical Levels for Software Logical Level Traditional Agile Factory, Manager, Analyst, Team, Team Member, Developer, Identity & Designer, Programmer, Tester, … Scrum Master, Scrum PO, Coach … Mission artifacts” “To deliver software artifacts” customers” “ To deliver value to customers” By Experience, Agile Manifesto, Beliefs & By the Book, Prescriptive Models, Simplicity, Communication, Values Deterministic Approach, Fear Feedback and Courage Capabilities & Process Oriented, Specialization, People Oriented, Generalization, Strategies Command-Control, Win-Loose Self Management, Win-Win Mass Production, Large Lots, Lean Production, Small Lots, Behavior Few deliveries, Reactive Frequent deliveries, Proactive Regulated, Complex Flexible, Simple Environment Small to Large Small to Large Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 12 of 41
    13. 13. Investigating Logical Levels If you … Please, investigate your … Need more information about your current situation … Environment Have enough information about your current Behavior situation but you don’t know what to do with that … Know what you have to do but you don’t have a capacity or a strategy needed to do that … Capabilities & Strategies Know that you have the capability or strategy but you Beliefs & Values don’t think this is an important thing or it’s wrong … Think that it’s an important thing or it’s the right thing to do Identity & Mission but you feel that it doesn’t belong to your mission … Believe that it belongs to your mission but you Purpose & Ideal don’t feel yourself as a part of the whole … Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 13 of 41
    14. 14. Mathematics as a Language Mathematics is a language understood and respected by every computer professional. Mathematical facts are strong evidences that can be used to challenge unsustainable beliefs. A strategy for aachange using games and simulations: A strategy for change using games and simulations: “Run simulations and associate bad results (from inadequate “Run simulations and associate bad results (from inadequate behavior --traditional with bad identities, and good results behavior traditional) with bad identities, and good results traditional) traditional (from adequate behavior --agile with good identities. (from adequate behavior agile) with good identities. agile) agile Challenge traditional beliefs using the bad results.” Challenge traditional beliefs using the bad results.” Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 14 of 41
    15. 15. Examples Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 15 of 41
    16. 16. Game #1: Production Lots Producing in Large Lots x Producing in Small Lots Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 16 of 41
    17. 17. Game #1: Production Lots Team Setup Analyst Designer Programmer Tester Customer Game Goal Deliver to the Customer 10 software requirements analyzed, designed, coded and tested in the shortest possible period of time. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 17 of 41
    18. 18. Game #1: Production Lots Procedure: 1. Each software requirement is represented by a record card; 2. A complete requirement € æ ‡ implementation is represented by four initials written by the team; ξ 3. Identify your group. 2 Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 18 of 41
    19. 19. Game #1: Production Lots 1st Experiment: LARGE LOTS Each member has to sign 10 requirements 150 before deliver them to 2 150 the next team member. Customer records time spent. Note: “When doing Large Lots, the time to deliver the first requirement project.” is equal to the time necessary to deliver the whole project.” Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 19 of 41
    20. 20. Game #1: Production Lots 2nd Experiment: SMALL LOTS Each member has to sign 1 requirement and 150 100 deliver it to the next 2 150 150 team member (unitary flow). Customer records time spent. Note: don’ “When doing Small Lots, don’t push any requirement to the next team member if he has a requirement waiting to be worked; i.e., you worked.” have to wait for him to send another requirement to be worked.” Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 20 of 41
    21. 21. Game #1: Production Lots Analysis: 200 20 2 200 100 A B 2 0 C D 10 Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 21 of 41
    22. 22. Game #1: Production Lots Results: 1. Velocity Gain = Time to deliver the whole project in Large Lots Time to deliver the whole project in Small Lots 2. Risk Factor = Time to deliver the first requirement in Small Lots Time to deliver the first requirement in Large Lots Analysis Design Programming Testing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Analysis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Design 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Velocity Gain = 40 / 13 = 3,0 Risk Factor = 4 / 40 = 10% Programming 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Testing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 22 of 41
    23. 23. Game #1: Production Lots (“challenges” Questions to be discussed (“challenges”): 1. Who have decided to keep your team too slow? 2. Why has your team agreed with that? 3. What is that stops your team to change this situation? 4. Do delivery and time really matter to your managers? 5. Are your customers really worried about risks? 6. Why do you keep a high risk behavior? 7. How do you call a person that doesn’t matter with the things of the others? Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 23 of 41
    24. 24. Game #1: Production Lots In fact, you've been a In fact, you've been a WASTER that almost WASTER that almost never took into account never took into account customer schedules and customer schedules and risks!!!! risks!!!! Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 24 of 41
    25. 25. Game #2: Dependent Events Dependent Events x Productivity Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 25 of 41
    26. 26. Game #2: Dependent Events Team Setup Analyst Designer Programmer Tester Customer Game Goal Deliver to the Customer 40 software requirements in 10 iterations affected by an unbalanced production (real life simulation). Comment: This game is based on Eliyahu M. Goldratt´s book “The Goal The Goal”. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 26 of 41
    27. 27. Game #2: Dependent Events Procedure: 1. Each software requirement is represented by a label; 2. Each team member can produce 1 to 6 requirements per iteration; 2 3. A die will be used to determine each 3 2 4 1 member capacity through the iterations; 4 2 5 4 1 5 4 6 4. Each member will deliver to the next 5 2 4 1 team member the amount of 6 3 2 3 requirements his or her capacity (die) 3 1 3 1 and inventory permit during the 2 2 4 1 iteration; 5 1 6 5 5 6 4 1 5. Customer records individual capacities 1 2 2 4 (die values) for each iteration. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 27 of 41
    28. 28. Game #2: Dependent Events Notes: Team Goal Probability Distribution To deliver 35 requirements for Individual Capacities in 10 iterations!!! 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 Individual Bonus 1 2 3 4 5 6 Productivity – 3,5 Mean = 3,5 Profit Distribution Minimum Capacity: 1 Only for people with Maximum Capacity: 6 positive total bonuses!!! Mean Capacity: 3,5 Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 28 of 41
    29. 29. Game #2: Dependent Events Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 29 of 41
    30. 30. Game #2: Dependent Events Results: “Statistical fluctuations from dependent events lead to the performance of the system becoming worse than the average capacity of the constraint.” Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 30 of 41
    31. 31. Game #2: Dependent Events (“challenges” Questions to be discussed (“challenges”): 1. Do your managers use mean capacity to make their plans? 2. Why doesn’t your team deliver at least the mean? 3. Where is the bottleneck of your team? 4. What is that stops your team to balance the whole process? 5. Have you ever thought about being faster going slow? 6. How can you deliver 40 requirements in 10 iterations? 7. How can you justify keeping specialized jobs? 8. How do you call a person that doesn’t matter with the others? Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 31 of 41
    32. 32. Game #2: Dependent Events In fact, you’ve been an In fact, you’ve been an INDIVIDUALIST that INDIVIDUALIST that almost never took into almost never took into account your team or account your team or company results!!!! company results!!!! Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 32 of 41
    33. 33. Game #3: Team Velocity Product Backlog x Team Velocity Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 33 of 41
    34. 34. Game #3: Team Velocity Game Goal Deliver a list of 10 improvement suggestions for your work environment or personal life using an User Story template. Testing tools I can guarantee the quality Write and run automated Developer of things I produce unit and integration tests 1 To give more attention I will make her happy At least 8 hours a week in Husband to my wife activities with her Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 34 of 41
    35. 35. Game #3: Team Velocity Procedure: 1. The work will be done in 5 iterations of 2 minutes each; 2. The facilitator will conduct the activity controlling the starting time and the finishing time; 3. When you hear STOP! don’t try to finish any job; STOP!, 4. A representative of each group will register the team 1 1 1 0 production results; 2 1 5. Tell your team results 1 0 2 0 to the facilitator and 0 1 analyze the data at the 6 3 end of the game. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 35 of 41
    36. 36. Game #3: Team Velocity Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 36 of 41
    37. 37. Game #3: Team Velocity (“challenges” Questions to be discussed (“challenges”): 1. Has every team member showed the same productivity? 2. Why the whole team was unproductive in the beginning? 3. Do you think the cadence has contributed with something? 4. Do your managers really know their teams capacity? 5. Can you better negotiate time and scope with statistical information? 6. What is that stops your team to measure its capacity? 7. How do you call a group of well known people that work together to achieve a common goal for their lives? Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 37 of 41
    38. 38. Game #3: Team Velocity In fact, we are a TEAM and our In fact, we are a TEAM and our global results are more predictable global results are more predictable than our individual results!!!! than our individual results!!!! The Brazilian men's national volleyball team. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 38 of 41
    39. 39. Conclusions Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 39 of 41
    40. 40. Conclusions 1. Metaphorical games are useful to promote cultural changes but cannot be effective if their facilitators don’t understand the meaning of a meta language when running those games; 2. NLP Logical Levels can be an effective model to guide coaches during the transformation process and game execution, mainly when associated with mathematical language; 3. Statistical analysis is a must to challenge logical and pragmatic minds, typical of IT professionals; 4. Challenging beliefs, values, mission and identity is the most difficult part of changing a team or an organizational culture, but it is the most effective way to promote a change in a behavior and an environment. Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 40 of 41
    41. 41. Thank you very much! For more information, contact us. Clá Luiz Cláudio Parzianello Rafael Prikladnicki parzianello@suryatec.com.br rafael.prikladnicki@pucrs.br Copyright © 2009 PARZIANELLO & PRIKLADNICKI Slide 41 of 41

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