Successfully reported this slideshow.
Unified Service Theory and Perspectives on Services Study Circle in Service Systems
What is a Service? <ul><li>“ A service is an abstract resource that represents a capability of performing tasks that repre...
What is a Service? <ul><li>“ A service is an abstract resource that represents a capability of performing tasks that repre...
Unified Service Theory ” Services are production processes wherein each customer supplies one or more input components for...
A Non-service Process Actor Process Input Output
A Service Process Provider Customer Service process Input Output
Sources of Heterogeneity Provider Customer Service process Input Output Variability in provider input Variability in custo...
Perishability Provider Customer Service process Input Output ? ?
Management Applications Service development:  handling variability in customer input, robust processes Service innovation:...
Are Services Processes? Sometimes we talk of services as resources: ” Our company offers car washing services”
Strengths of Services A service consumer does not own a service. She does not need to take on typical ownership responsibi...
A Motivating Problem You have bought a snow ploughing service for the winter, saying that whenever more than five cm snow ...
A Motivating Problem You have bought a snow ploughing service for the winter, saying that whenever more than five cm snow ...
Value Modelling and REA REA Ontology:  modelling exchanges and conversions of resources Resource – an object viewed as val...
Exchanging Resources Agent Agent Resource Resource
Exchanging Resources Agent Agent Resource Resource Events exchanging resources
Converting Resources Resource Resource
Converting Resources Resource Resource Resource Events converting resources
REA Conceptual Model
REA Conceptual Model The stockflow tells how an economic event affects a resource
REA Conceptual Model The stockflow tells how an economic event affects a resource A process is a set of economic events
What is Transferred? What do you get when <ul><li>you buy a book at a bookstore?  </li></ul><ul><li>a book  </li></ul>
What is Transferred? What do you get when <ul><li>a book  </li></ul><ul><li>you buy a book at a bookstore?  </li></ul><ul>...
What is Transferred? What do you get when <ul><li>a book  </li></ul><ul><li>the right to read, sell, or even destroy a boo...
Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in...
Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in...
Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in...
Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in...
Three Perspectives on Services Abstraction – focus on the use of resources Restricted access – accessing resources without...
Service for Abstraction Goods are concrete resources having properties like weight, volume, and colour Service resources a...
Service for Abstraction A laundry service is defined in terms of the effects it has on clothes – making them clean A laund...
Service for Abstraction
Service for Abstraction A service resource is defined through the process in which it can be used
Service for Abstraction A  capability is like a service resource but can be used in many processes
Service for Abstraction Restrictions are used to constrain the resources a capability is based on
Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them....
Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them....
Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them....
Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them....
Service for Restricted Access
From Offering to Commitment When an offering is accepted, a commitment is created
From Offering to Commitment How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? An ownership/loan commitment is fulfille...
From Offering to Commitment How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? A service commitment is fulfilled by a s...
From Offering to Commitment How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? Triggers are used to specify any type of...
The Snow Ploughing Case How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? There is never any service delivery
The Snow Ploughing Case How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? There is never any service delivery But the ...
Service for Co-creation of Value Goods are produced internally at a provider who later on sells the goods to a customer  w...
Service for Co-creation of Value
Concluding Remarks Three aspects on services Abstraction Restricted access Co-creation of value Captures the basics of sev...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Unified Service Theory and Perspectives on Services

2,479 views

Published on

A presentation in the study circle on service systems

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Unified Service Theory and Perspectives on Services

  1. 1. Unified Service Theory and Perspectives on Services Study Circle in Service Systems
  2. 2. What is a Service? <ul><li>“ A service is an abstract resource that represents a capability of performing tasks that represents a coherent functionality from the point of view of provider entities and requester entities. ” (W3C) </li></ul><ul><li>” S ervices are heterogeneous outputs produced to order and typically consist of changes in the conditions of the consuming units realized by the activities of producers at the demand of the consumers.“ (United Nations) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A service is the provision of something of value, in the context of some domain of application, by one party to another.” (Chris Preist) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Service? <ul><li>“ A service is an abstract resource that represents a capability of performing tasks that represents a coherent functionality from the point of view of provider entities and requester entities. ” (W3C) </li></ul><ul><li>” S ervices are heterogeneous outputs produced to order and typically consist of changes in the conditions of the consuming units realized by the activities of producers at the demand of the consumers.“ (United Nations) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A service is the provision of something of value, in the context of some domain of application, by one party to another.” (Chris Preist) </li></ul><ul><li>Service properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intangibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inseparability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perishability </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Unified Service Theory ” Services are production processes wherein each customer supplies one or more input components for that customer’s unit of production. With non-service processes, groups of customers may contribute ideas to the design of the prodct, but individual customers’ only participation is to select, pay for, and consume the output.” Scott E. Sampson, ”The Unified Service Theory” in Handbook of Service Science , ed. P. Maglio et al., Springer, 2010
  5. 5. A Non-service Process Actor Process Input Output
  6. 6. A Service Process Provider Customer Service process Input Output
  7. 7. Sources of Heterogeneity Provider Customer Service process Input Output Variability in provider input Variability in customer input
  8. 8. Perishability Provider Customer Service process Input Output ? ?
  9. 9. Management Applications Service development: handling variability in customer input, robust processes Service innovation: finding new roles for customers in service processes
  10. 10. Are Services Processes? Sometimes we talk of services as resources: ” Our company offers car washing services”
  11. 11. Strengths of Services A service consumer does not own a service. She does not need to take on typical ownership responsibilities, like infrastructure management, integration, and maintenance. She can focus on how to make use of the service for her specific business. Taxi Service Customer Encapsulated resources
  12. 12. A Motivating Problem You have bought a snow ploughing service for the winter, saying that whenever more than five cm snow has fallen, your street will be ploughed
  13. 13. A Motivating Problem You have bought a snow ploughing service for the winter, saying that whenever more than five cm snow has fallen, your street will be ploughed However, it never snows this winter Has the service been delivered?
  14. 14. Value Modelling and REA REA Ontology: modelling exchanges and conversions of resources Resource – an object viewed as valuable by some agent Event – exchange of resources or conversion of resources Agent – a legal entity that controls resources and performs events
  15. 15. Exchanging Resources Agent Agent Resource Resource
  16. 16. Exchanging Resources Agent Agent Resource Resource Events exchanging resources
  17. 17. Converting Resources Resource Resource
  18. 18. Converting Resources Resource Resource Resource Events converting resources
  19. 19. REA Conceptual Model
  20. 20. REA Conceptual Model The stockflow tells how an economic event affects a resource
  21. 21. REA Conceptual Model The stockflow tells how an economic event affects a resource A process is a set of economic events
  22. 22. What is Transferred? What do you get when <ul><li>you buy a book at a bookstore? </li></ul><ul><li>a book </li></ul>
  23. 23. What is Transferred? What do you get when <ul><li>a book </li></ul><ul><li>you buy a book at a bookstore? </li></ul><ul><li>you borrow a book at a library? </li></ul><ul><li>a book </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is Transferred? What do you get when <ul><li>a book </li></ul><ul><li>the right to read, sell, or even destroy a book </li></ul><ul><li>you buy a book at a bookstore? </li></ul>X X <ul><li>you borrow a book at a library? </li></ul><ul><li>a book </li></ul><ul><li>the right to read a book for a period of time </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in a certain way for the benefit of the first actor
  26. 26. Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in a certain way for the benefit of the first actor Privilege An actor has a privilege on an action if she is free to carry out that action without any interference from the environment
  27. 27. Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in a certain way for the benefit of the first actor Privilege An actor has a privilege on an action if she is free to carry out that action without any interference from the environment Power A power is the ability of an actor to create or modify social or legal relationships
  28. 28. Hohfeldt’s Classification of Rights Claim One actor has a claim on another actor if the second actor is required to act in a certain way for the benefit of the first actor Privilege An actor has a privilege on an action if she is free to carry out that action without any interference from the environment Power A power is the ability of an actor to create or modify social or legal relationships Immunity An immunity refers to the restriction of power of one actor in terms of creating relationships on behalf of another actor
  29. 29. Three Perspectives on Services Abstraction – focus on the use of resources Restricted access – accessing resources without owning them Co-creation – supplier and customer create value together
  30. 30. Service for Abstraction Goods are concrete resources having properties like weight, volume, and colour Service resources are abstract in the sense that they are defined only through the benefits they can bring A service resource is defined through the process in which it can be used
  31. 31. Service for Abstraction A laundry service is defined in terms of the effects it has on clothes – making them clean A laundry service may be based on different resource sets: {washing machines, synthetic detergent} {water tank, soap, labour}
  32. 32. Service for Abstraction
  33. 33. Service for Abstraction A service resource is defined through the process in which it can be used
  34. 34. Service for Abstraction A capability is like a service resource but can be used in many processes
  35. 35. Service for Abstraction Restrictions are used to constrain the resources a capability is based on
  36. 36. Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them. The customer will own the resources. </li></ul><ul><li>By lending them. The customer will be allowed to use the resources for a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>By offering a service. The customer will get access to the resources only through the provider. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them. The customer will own the resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them. The customer will own the resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By lending them. The customer will be allowed to use the resources for a period of time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some privileges </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Service for Restricted Access <ul><li>How can a provider offer access to his resources? </li></ul><ul><li>By selling them. The customer will own the resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By loaning them. The customer will be allowed to use the resources for a period of time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By offering a service. The customer will get access to the resources only through the provider. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Service for Restricted Access
  41. 41. From Offering to Commitment When an offering is accepted, a commitment is created
  42. 42. From Offering to Commitment How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? An ownership/loan commitment is fulfilled by giving rights
  43. 43. From Offering to Commitment How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? A service commitment is fulfilled by a service delivery that consumes a service resource
  44. 44. From Offering to Commitment How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? Triggers are used to specify any type of condition under which a Service Commitment becomes active
  45. 45. The Snow Ploughing Case How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? There is never any service delivery
  46. 46. The Snow Ploughing Case How are the different kinds of commitments fulfilled? There is never any service delivery But the service commitment is honoured because the trigger never fires
  47. 47. Service for Co-creation of Value Goods are produced internally at a provider who later on sells the goods to a customer who uses them without the involvement of the provider Service deliveries are usually parts of processes where value is co-created in an interaction between provider and recipient The recipient provides some of his resources as input to the process
  48. 48. Service for Co-creation of Value
  49. 49. Concluding Remarks Three aspects on services Abstraction Restricted access Co-creation of value Captures the basics of several service analyses in the literature A basis for service descriptions

×